Phonetics: language in nature Articulatory phonetics: the study of the production of speech sounds by the articulatory and vocal tract by the speaker; the study of the position, shape and movement of speech organs (articulators) such as the lips, tongue, and vocal folds. Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener; the study of the spectro-temporal properties of the sound waves produced by speech, such as their frequency, amplitude, and harmonic structure. Auditory Phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener; the study of the perception, categorization, and recognition of speech sounds and the role of the auditory system and the brain. 4
Text: language in society 5 In its social mode of existence, language appears as a text (or discourse). Therefore, text (in oral, written or any other form) is the object of study of sociolinguistics. Like phonetics, it is a multiperspectival field of study. But, unlike phonetics, its concern is not the natural realization of language but its social content and context. We will not go into an account of this complex area of study.