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New design tools for teachers as innovators in e-learning Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education.

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Presentation on theme: "New design tools for teachers as innovators in e-learning Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 New design tools for teachers as innovators in e-learning Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education

2 Outline The policy context New expectations of learning A pedagogical framework New expectations of teaching Learning design tools for teachers Modelling costs/benefits of moving to online learning

3 International polices relating to e-learning Headings common to most policy documents Vision, or aims for e-learning Agencies involved in development and delivery of the policy; Government-driven initiatives deployed to promote change; The approach to technology in the curriculum; Digital tools, resources and services made available to education; Teacher development for using ICT for teaching and learning Developing the digital infrastructure Vision, or aims for e-learning Agencies involved in development and delivery of the policy; Government-driven initiatives deployed to promote change; The approach to technology in the curriculum; Digital tools, resources and services made available to education; Teacher development for using ICT for teaching and learning Developing the digital infrastructure

4 E-assessment methods and assessment policy Investment models for innovation in customisable courseware Roles and responsibilities for implementation Integration across education sectors, workplace and home Timeline for implementation and growth Plans for evaluation of impact. E-assessment methods and assessment policy Investment models for innovation in customisable courseware Roles and responsibilities for implementation Integration across education sectors, workplace and home Timeline for implementation and growth Plans for evaluation of impact. International polices relating to e-learning Headings lacking in most policy documents

5 Promote professional learning communities between policy, practice and research (UNESCO Global Policy Forum on Learning 2011) Professional educators connected by technology to empower, and inspire effective teaching (US National Technology Plan 2010) Achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness, with online access to shared ideas and lesson plans (UK E-Learning Strategy, 2005) Teachers to have the capacity to plan and deliver ICT-enriched learning experiences for students to become self-directed and collaborative learners… encouraged to widen their repertoire of ICT-mediated pedagogies, such as the use of reflection tools and knowledge-building tools... (Singapore ICT Masterplan, 2008) The policy context on teacher development

6 Singapore evaluation “The teachers tended to equate SDL with independent (unsupervised) learning using ICT. Common strategies include assigning learning or practice activities through the learning management system and resources provided by e-learning service providers, and searching for information on the Internet. Other aspects of SDL, like helping students to set goals and developing strategies to monitor their own progress, were not frequently observed or reported… It was not common to observe teachers providing explicit instructions to students on how they should work collaboratively or engage in meaning-making.” (NIE, 2009).

7 Singapore evaluation “Teachers’ understanding of SDL and CoL could be further enhanced so that they can facilitate development of 21st century skills in their students. For example, they can help students to set learning goals and develop strategies to monitor their own progress, or to develop group process skills and facilitating collaborative meaning-making to deepen their understanding of content knowledge..” (NIE, 2009)

8 This implies changing how learners and teachers spend their time An increase in digital activities that improve the learning experience A shift from class contact to more online, personalised, collaborative learning A shift in the way teachers spend their time in preparation, presentation, and support

9 New expectations of learning

10 …reduction in teacher-led whole class teaching…increase in personalised, collaborative, and self-directed learning From 20 th C to 21 st C learner? Learners’ activities

11 A pedagogical framework Begin with the educational requirements – What does it take to learn? (any subject, any age) -then challenge the technology to meet them -don’t let the technology drive the innovation

12 The learner learning LCLC Teacher concepts LCLC LPLP LPLP Learner concepts Learner practice Generate Modulate Learning through acquisition, instruction Learning through inquiry Acquiring Inquiring Talk, book, video, Web Inner mental acquisition and elaboration processes (Illeris 2003)

13 LCLC Teacher concepts Learning environment LCLC LPLP LPLP Learner concepts Learner practice Generate Modulate Generate Modulate Learning through practice with meaningful intrinsic feedback Task/Feedback Actions Interaction processes between learner and surroundings (Illeris 2003) The learner learning

14 Instructivism - Social constructivism – Experiential learning - Constructionism – Collaborative learning (Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Gagné Bruner, Papert, Marton, Bransford…) LCLC Teacher concepts Peer concepts Peer practice Learning environment LCLC LPLP LPLP Learner concepts Learner practice Generate Modulate Generate Modulate Generate Modulate Actions Ideas, questions Productions Task/Feedback Acquiring Inquiring The learner learning

15 LCLC Teacher concepts Peer concepts Peer practice Learning environment LCLC LPLP LPLP Teacher communication cycle Peer communication cycle Teacher modelling cycle Peer modelling cycle Learner concepts Learner practice Generate Modulate Generate Modulate Representing the types of learning Inquiring Discussing Acquiring Practising Sharing Producing The teacher needs to use all these types of learning to promote and facilitate the cycles involved in collaborative learning

16 LCLC Teacher concepts Peer concepts Peer practice Learning environment LCLC LPLP LPLP Peer communication cycle Teacher modelling cycle Peer modelling cycle Learner concepts Learner practice Generate Modulate Generate Modulate Representing collaborative learning Collaborative learning (Roschelle, Schwartz, Dillenbourg) Lab, Game, Simulation “a coordinated synchronous activity that is the result of a continued attempt to construct and maintain a shared conception of a problem” Shared conception

17 LCLC Teacher concepts Peer concepts Peer practice Learning environment LCLC LPLP LPLP Teacher communication cycle Peer communication cycle Teacher modelling cycle Peer modelling cycle Learner concepts Learner practice Generate Modulate Generate Modulate What can technology offer? Web resources Webinar Forum Podcast Simulation Game Collaborative design tools Video, PPT, Design The teacher must challenge the Learning Technology Environment to support all these aspects of the collaborative learning process

18 How? How are teachers and adult educators to bootstrap themselves into being proficient users of technology for teaching and learning? Where is the time to come from to do this? What is the expected model for future teaching and learning? What should we invest in?

19 New expectations of teaching

20 …increase in activity to improve the learning experience…shift from class teaching to more personalised From 20 th C to 21 st C teacher? Teachers’ activities …shift from individual design to co-design of learning

21 T eachers as a professional learning community Building on the work of others Articulating their best pedagogic ideas Adopting, adapting, testing, improving learning designs Sharing successful learning designs Comparing conventional with digital teaching

22 Further details… Rethinking University Teaching: A Conversational Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies (Routledge, 2002) (Chinese edition ECNU Press) Teaching as a Design Science: Building pedagogical patterns for learning and technology(Routledge, 2012)

23 Which skills will contribute to and foster teachers’ professional learning? Changes in mindsets and practice Being able to adopt and trial in the workplace Contributing to professional dialogue Developmental growth Being able to compare own contexts and experiences with others Professional learning as dialogic inquiry – the glue between all the metaphors for professional learning [Black, Bound and Yap, Tools for Learning Design, IAL Research Digest, 2012: p17]

24 Teachers need a shared description of their teaching ideas, and not just indexed by topic, but also by pedagogy

25 Learning design tools for teachers

26 Can we support learning design computationally? Teachers need much more support to make the most of learning technologies They learn together, collaborate, build on the work of others, and build their knowledge Not in just in staff development courses, but in the same way as other designers learn… That’s why we built 

27 The Learning Designer overview The start screen: Import or Create Properties: Input parameters and constraints, Learning outcomes Timeline: design Teaching-Learning Activities, timing, group sizes, sequencing Analysis: feedback on the overall learning experience and teacher workload

28 The Learning Designer Elicits design in terms of specific pedagogical concepts, as a ‘pedagogical pattern’ Teachers express their effective teaching ideas to share with others to adopt and adapt Others can adopt ‘pedagogical patterns’ of good teaching and open resources Models pedagogical and logistical benefits/disadvantages Advises on technology and recommends alternatives

29 Timings Categorised teaching- learning activities Short description Learning outcome Colour- coded content Capturing pedagogy as lesson plans Black text articulates teacher’s pedagogy

30 The Pedagogical Patterns Collector

31 Read, Watch, Listen Investigate Discuss Practice Share Produce Adjust the type of learning activity. Edit the instructions. Adjust the type of learning activity. Edit the instructions. Check the feedback on the overall distribution of learning activity Add link to an OER, e.g. a digital tool for practice Adopt – Adapt – Import other resources or designs - Export Adopt/Adapt a teaching pattern Export to Word [Moodle]

32 Ways of doing teaching as design science Complexity Big data Algorithmic discovery Bottoms up New kinds of pedagogy being explored Learning analytics collecting the data How many pedagogical patterns are there? Teachers innovating as design scientists

33 Comments on the PPC [The pie-chart] is one of the most useful features … it gives a good overview of the balance between different learning experiences (WV05) I rarely consider how the students' time is apportioned … it's good to be made to think about this. (WV17) Seeing how the sessions are shaping up in such a visual medium …. would probably make me think more carefully about providing a mix of activities (WV19

34 Developing new teachers and CPD Import existing learning designs Offer advice and guidance Analyse the designs

35 Import an existing learning design Developing new teachers and CPD Adapt an existing learning design Consider advice and guidance on adaptation Consider alternative learning activities

36 Comments on staff development You could base its use in PG Cert… this kind of flow, so that it becomes a learned behaviour from the start. I like the idea of working through this with some new staff and getting them to think before they get pulled into just standing there and lecturing because that's what happened to them when they were at university, getting them to think through how they can shift the patterns of how they're designing their learning

37 Encouraging creativity and innovation Analysis of designs Alternative design ideas

38 Comments on alternative design ideas “Yes I think that is very useful to see what someone else has done… you get very useful ideas that you hadn’t thought of before that you use in your design”. “I think it definitely helps you to reflect on what you're doing [...] And then to see the pie chart and then to realise I want some more production and practice in there...” “This would cause me to think again about my design … if the system tells me that what I am planning has no inquiry element but yet that's what I'm trying to achieve, there must be something wrong”

39 Analysing the design Interpreted in terms of theory in the Conversational Framework Contrasting teacher workload for own design and reuse

40 Using technology to reduce teacher workload A greater benefit at lower cost Convert learner-related costs of teaching to peer teaching: structure a hierarchy of online peer discussion groups, to produce one group output for feedback by the teacher, reducing teacher time and increasing active student learning A much greater benefit for slightly higher cost Invest in high quality adaptive learning materials and systems that provide personalised learning and result in higher student retention and lower per capita costs

41 Modelling the costs and benefits of moving to online learning

42 …increase in activity to improve the learning experience…shift from class teaching to more personalised From 20 th C to 21 st C teacher? Teachers’ activities …shift from individual design to co-design of learning

43 Planning learning experience and teacher workload How might we estimate the effects of the decisions we make as we plan a course? We select the set of teaching and learning activities we intend to use These have consequences for the pedagogical benefits, and the comparative costs in terms of teachers’ workload The next slide shows how the intervening assumptions join up the decisions and consequences

44 Define the type of learning each TLA offers Select Teaching-Learning Activities (TLAs): wiki, simulation, e-portfolio Select Teaching-Learning Activities (TLAs): wiki, simulation, e-portfolio Decide group size for each TLA Decide Teacher Time needed to prepare and present each TLA Distribute learning hours across the selected TLAs Distribution of learner time across types of learning experienced Teacher time for: Design and preparation Class and online presentation Marking and learner support Teacher time for: Design and preparation Class and online presentation Marking and learner support Input total credit hours, size of cohort

45 Comparison of pedagogical benefits, and costs in terms of teachers’ workload Yr 1Yr 2Typical Yr 1Yr 2Typical Student numbers Teacher hrs per student ConventionalBlended More active learning Lower per capita costs in stable state for large numbers But who funds the up-front design and development costs?

46 How? 1.How are teachers and adult educators to bootstrap themselves into being proficient users of technology for teaching and learning? 2.Where is the time to come from to do this? 3.What is the expected model for future teaching and learning? 4.What should we invest in? Collaborative learning, sharing best ideas, learning design tools Collaboration, sharing, reuse; peer feedback; adaptive games More learner collaboration; guided independent learning; online links between workplace and college; less summative assessment Teachers! Time for personal development, sharing, adopting and adapting, innovating, testing and discovering

47 T eachers as a professional learning community Reconceptualise teaching as ‘a design science’: Teachers adopting, adapting, testing, improving, sharing learning designs Teaching as collaborative learning, supported by online collaborative design tools and repositories A theory-based computational representation of pedagogic design that migrates across subjects

48 Summary Online teaching and learning – the global and policy perspective expects it Making teaching more efficient – a pedagogical perspective Pedagogy – categorising the technologies for active, collaborative learning Design tools for teachers – to put teachers at the forefront of innovation Cost-benefit modelling – to ensure we reap the benefits of the technology at affordable cost - And learners want it, and need it - We need a clear pedagogic framework - Technology has a lot to offer pedagogy - Do teachers want this? - Invest in the teachers!

49 Learning Designer downloads Pedagogical Patterns Collector Learning Designer for Windows: Learning Designer for Mac/Linux: https://sites.google.com/a/lkl.ac.uk/ldse/Home The Learning Design Support Environment project website

50 The LDSE project team IOE/LKL Brock Craft (RF) Diana Laurillard (PI) Dejan Ljubojevic (RF) Oxford Liz Masterman (CoPI) Marion Manton (CoPI) Joanna Wild (RF) Birkbeck/LKL George Magooulas (CoPI) Patricia Charlton Dionisis Dimakopoulos LondonMet Tom Boyle (CoPI) LSE Steve Ryan (CoPI) Ed Whitley Roser Pujadas (PhD Student) RVC Kim Whittlestone (CoPI) Stephen May Carrie Roder (PhD Student)


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