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Gifted and Talented (G&T) UK

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1 Gifted and Talented (G&T) UK
Professor Deborah Eyre September 2010

2 Three broad G&T paradigms. Where is England?
Unique individual Micro level Cohort paradigm Programmatical Start with G&T as a topic. In my work in looking at G&T over the last 50 years or so I came to the conclusion that it was useful and valid to group the range of approaches into 3 broad paradigms. Different paradigms have been prominent at different historical times but they also reflect a linear process in understanding. People coming the field usually start with paradigm 1 assumptions. Underpinned by certain beliefs. Intellectual capital Macro level Diversity of arenas for success Professor Deborah Eyre Professor Deborah Eyre

3 Unique individual – child genius
Micro level Unique education pathway for special person Education system of little importance Professor Deborah Eyre Professor Deborah Eyre

4 Cohort Paradigm Common characteristics of this group and differences from others Common learning needs Educational programmes for the gifted cohort Programmes separate from normal schooling: different in terms of concepts and content covered, skills developed and learning attitudes nurtured. Professor Deborah Eyre Professor Deborah Eyre

5 Intellectual Capital Paradigm
Macro (system) level Giftedness = those reaching high levels of performance Development significantly influenced by environmental and personality characteristics so can be nurtured Advanced performance in a specific field as well as more generally (not g) Education provision primarily domain specific and integrated Professor Deborah Eyre Professor Deborah Eyre

6 Professor Deborah Eyre
Eyre’s English Model Professor Deborah Eyre

7 Education in England 24,000 schools: 3,000 secondary (11-18) 21,000 primary (4-11) 6% of students educated in private schools 94% in state schools National framework for schooling, delivered regionally Regional Local Authorities (LAs) responsible for how their school perform Individual schools governed by School Governors = Local voluntary representatives + Principal Schools autonomous, allocated overall funding by formula. Deploy it as they wish: can recruit own staff, organise as they chose etc but must meet performance outcomes. School performance judged on student achievement levels Want to go back a stage now and set that in context before talking in more detail

8 Education in England (2)
National curriculum - 8 subject areas National assessment for students at ages 7,11,16,18 years in English, Maths, Science Frequent and robust cycle of inspection of schools (OfSTED), School league tables based on student performance at aged 11 and 16 publically available Schools contextual value-added data matching school socio-economic profile against comparable schools Intervention in inverse proportion to success. Lends itself very well to paradigm 3 Data rich system which provides public information about schools and student performance so… knowledgeable parents and sharp focus on the educational aspects that the system measures.

9 ‘Excellence in Schools’ Government White Paper October 1997
Gifted education became government policy Significant date! Because prior to that we had had some people doing very interesting work in UK but it was enthusiasts in limited pockets and not across the whole country and in all schools.

10 Why is gifted important for a country to nurture giftedness and creativity?
Today’s students are tomorrows social, intellectual, economic and cultural leaders Work on overall school improvement suggests that a focus on the gifted can help a school raise overall standards Effective education systems should meet the needs of all pupils, including the gifted To do nothing will ensure that disadvantaged children with the potential to excel underachieve Why the change. Lobbying by enthusiasts plus recognition of the links to ‘high level skills – economic agenda’ and school improvement – raising overall standards

11 Reasons to focus on a high performing education system
“Education is an essential foundation for personal, social and economic success in a globalised economy. The capacity to succeed in today’s global knowledge economy depends at least partly on being able to make a high level of skills available to a large number of citizens.” Cross-Border Higher Education and Development (OECD) JANUARY 2008

12 Professor Deborah Eyre
Policy tensions Universal services In-school Out- of- school Targeted provision for marginalised groups Professor Deborah Eyre

13 Disadvantaged a priority Out-of –school enrichment valued
The Policy Approach Disadvantaged a priority Out-of –school enrichment valued In all schools The interests in the last slide shaped the policy approach

14 Professor Deborah Eyre
Eyre’s English Model I created the model for the government and led the implementation of the policy at national level. NB This approach is deliberately designed as a set of principles not a set of tasks as needed to be to be flexible enough to meet multiple contexts in UK. Now it si used in many countries and localised to meet their particular system requirements Professor Deborah Eyre

15 Professor Deborah Eyre Professor Deborah Eyre
A key feature is that we make it simple for schools to understand and get them to focus on the things they can improve or change rather than on what they cannot. Professor Deborah Eyre Professor Deborah Eyre

16 Outliers: The story of success
“The emerging picture from such articles is that ten thousand hours of practice is required to achieve the level of mastery associated with being a world-class expert. It seems it take the brain this long to assimilate all it needs to know for true mastery.” Daniel Levitin 2006 “Outliers in a particular field reached their lofty status through a combination of ability, opportunity and utterly arbitrary advantage.” Gladwell (2008) Persistence and practice are important

17 Giftedness and creativity can be nurtured ….
Teaching for A. C. P. content teaching style belief Support from parents at home in support of school belief in child Commitment from child hard work not giving up self-belief Don’t know who will turn out to be gifted and in what but travel in hope and aim high for all.

18 Professor Deborah Eyre
Eyre’s English Model A quick look at each aspect of the model. If we go back to what schools have to do you will not be surprised to learn that we issue guidance and provide training on all aspects of. As I don’t have time to cover all aspects I will just restrict myself to a Classroom Professor Deborah Eyre

19 Professor Deborah Eyre
'In considering provision for the most able it is important that a school looks first at its practice for all pupils …provision cannot be bolted on to ineffective practice.' Eyre (1997) Professor Deborah Eyre

20 Developing Complementary Provision

21 Every teacher a teacher of the gifted
“Teachers who are enthusiastic, well organised and confident in their ability to deliver the curriculum. They are also intellectuals with a deep understanding of their subject and an interest in exploring the topics on the syllabus even beyond the requirements of the examination. They encourage their pupils to formulate and express their own opinions and to take intellectual risks.” Eyre, 2009 Professor Deborah Eyre

22 Creating the conditions for nurturing giftedness and creativity
General ethos of high achievement Agreed school-wide, policy or approach Curriculum on offer must include advanced requirements Rewards systems must recognise and reward high performance Assessment arrangements for learning and of learning Pupil grouping/setting/banding Classroom teaching and learning tecniques Special needs arrangements Monitoring processes Resource allocation for special events Professional development opportunities for teachers Co-ordination of pull-out programmes Co-ordination of out of school programmes

23 Professor Deborah Eyre
Advanced cognitive behaviour: What is it and how do we nurture it? Could atlk at length about all of this but going to just take a look at the most important of all Professor Deborah Eyre

24 What does success look like?
advanced learners …who win places in world-class universities and make a leading contribution future leaders …who are responsible and confident, improving things around them entrepreneurs ..who are creative, innovative and well placed to enjoy future success Professor Deborah Eyre

25 Knowledge & Understanding
subject-specific advanced skills subject-specific advanced knowledge and concepts big ideas/controversies and influential people Professor Deborah Eyre Professor Deborah Eyre

26 Values, Attitudes and Attributes
Inquiring Enterprising, Creative Resilient Risk-taking Problem solver Intellectually confident Open-minded Personally confident Good citizenship Persistent Community minded Mastery focused Collaborative and competitive Prone to generalisation Tolerant of complexity and ambiguity Professor Deborah Eyre Professor Deborah Eyre

27 Skills Critical thinking skills Creative thinking skills
Personal skills Self-reflection and self-regulation Communication skills - dialogue debate, listening Strategy flexibility Metacognition – transfer of knowledge to new contexts Strategy planning Hypothesis Research skills Independent learning skills Originality of thinking, Editing skills -attention to detail Critical path analysis Professor Deborah Eyre Professor Deborah Eyre

28 Professor Deborah Eyre
Intellectualising Learning Professor Deborah Eyre

29 Towards Advanced Cognitive Performance
advanced knowledge, skills and concepts domain valued behaviours (eg thinking like a ….) intellectual playfulness (eg breaking the domain rules) self-regulation and self-direction discussion, debate and argument around key ideas exposure to people with high levels of expertise in relation to existing level Keep it simple

30 What constitutes good provision?
Enhancing the core educational offer by adding: Breadth Depth Pace

31 Golden rules for nurturing giftedness
Create a classroom climate that supports the development of high achievement - risk taking, high flying Approach lessons as part of apprenticeship in a subject not just learning to the knowledge and skills needed to pass the exam - a community of learners Focus on the needs of individuals, make use of their strengths and recognise their weaknesses - empowered learners Design tasks that ensure intellectual challenge - higher order thinking Focus on high quality teacher/pupil interaction with both teacher and pupils playing a range of roles - questioning, explaining, challenging

32 Each school must … 1. Have a G&T policy document that outlines what it does and how. This should link to national policy guidelines 2. Have identified a cohort of G&T students that reflects their school profile (including multiple exceptional) but also continue to seek new talent 3. Provide differentiated classroom provision in all classes and all subject 4. Provide advanced courses and curriculum 5. Provide enrichment classes and use out-of – school enrichment courses 6. Track and monitor the progress of its students and use assessment for learning techniques to help students become independent 7. Monitor the effectiveness of their G&T approach and justify to inspectors

33 G&T education in England: A school-wide approach
Led from the top by the school Principal/Headteacher Is focused on provision of advanced learning opportunities not identifying ‘extraordinary’ children Student-centered approach Starts in the classroom but also uses enrichment Emphasises the role of the student and their parents Is co-ordinated by a G&T specialist who both supports teachers and measures impact on students Is captured in a whole-school approach to creating and rewarding excellence Includes a special interest in unlocking giftedness is disadvantaged and Special Needs students Focuses on removing barriers to success If we go back to what schools have to do you will not be surprised to learn that we issue guidance and provide training on all aspects of. As I don’t have time to cover all aspects I will just restrict myself to a 2 areas. 1) Classroom

34 What’s different about this
Doesn’t make premature assumptions about who will do well. It is open-minded and optimistic for all Recognises the need to optimise that which can be changed through education rather than focus on that which cannot Has universally high expectations and focuses on removing barriers to success not pathways Gives significance to the role the student in co-constructing their education Recognises the crucial roles of high quality learning opportunities and of tutoring or support Values achievement in many cognitive domains rather than the few traditional ones Eyre’s English Model, 2007

35 Are you saying every child is gifted?
We are not saying that every student can be gifted, but we are saying that if you take this approach every student will do as well as they can, and some will reach the high levels of performance we call gifted.

36 Professor Deborah Eyre Professor Deborah Eyre

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