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Thailand Country Report The State of Utilization of Tropical Timber From Fast-growing Plantations By Mr.Jaran Thongsatit Mr.Tinnakorn Piriyayotha Forest.

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Presentation on theme: "Thailand Country Report The State of Utilization of Tropical Timber From Fast-growing Plantations By Mr.Jaran Thongsatit Mr.Tinnakorn Piriyayotha Forest."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Thailand Country Report The State of Utilization of Tropical Timber From Fast-growing Plantations By Mr.Jaran Thongsatit Mr.Tinnakorn Piriyayotha Forest Research Office Royal Forest Department Workshop on Further Processing of Tropical Timber in the Asia- Pacific Region Gyeongju, Korea 9-12 July, 2002

3 I. Introduction Thailand locates in mid mainland Southeast Asia Forestry sector has developed in fairly defined stages. The National Forest Policy determined 40% of total country area (51.3 mil. hectares) will be forest So far, the remaining, to reforestation about 7.5 mil. hectares

4 Forest sector enrollment : The promotion on private sector on forest plantation has been created in National Economic & Social development plan since Public and Private engagement : Early 1990, the role of the private sector forestry has been recognized. Forest zoning, has been directed by having at least 40 % of the country.

5 Logging Ban The government promulgated a total ban on logging over the country in 1989.The government promulgated a total ban on logging over the country in 1989.

6 II. Forest Resources 1. Natural forest1. Natural forest 2. Rubberwood plantation2. Rubberwood plantation 3. Forest plantation3. Forest plantation 3.1 Eucalyptus 3.1 Eucalyptus Eucalyptus from the government project Eucalyptus from the government project Eucalyptus by the private sector’s industry Eucalyptus by the private sector’s industry 3.2 Teak 3.2 Teak

7 Under the National Reserved Forest Act (Article 20) More number of private sector involved in forest plantation Main farm size not more than 2,000 rai (320 hectare) Range between 500-1,000 rai ( hectare) Private Company State Government Total Total sector Enterprise office upto No. Rai No. Rai No. Rai No. Rai No. Rai , , , , ,195 Note 6.25 rai = 1 hectare Total Forest Area = 13 mil. hectare Rubber plantation = 1.9 mil. hectare

8 Rubber plantation Area of Rubber plantation, second ranking of the world from IndonesiaArea of Rubber plantation, second ranking of the world from Indonesia Export latex 2 million tons/year, the world’s first ranking.Export latex 2 million tons/year, the world’s first ranking. The Rubber Replanting Aid Fund pay for 6,800 baht/rai * ($ per hectare) for replanting.The Rubber Replanting Aid Fund pay for 6,800 baht/rai * ($ per hectare) for replanting.

9 The industry use the Rubberwood to produce furnitureparticleboard MDF parquet frame kitchenware spool woodfuel toys

10 III Plantation Establishment To focus adequate supplies of raw wood materials Re-Afforestation Act submit in 1992

11 This key stone of legislation, number of resolutions have been passed by the Council of Ministers concerning economic reforestation in and around. i Classification of the National Reserved Forest Area ii Renting of degraded forest lands (not exceeding 50 rai) by private sector iii Forest Industry Organization ; play role to encourage the private sector to invest.

12 Eucalyptus The planting achieved the target of 108,800 hectares during The planting achieved the target of 108,800 hectares during

13 The extension target is 1.28 million hectares, so far the planted areas was successfully reforested only 0.37 million hectares.The extension target is 1.28 million hectares, so far the planted areas was successfully reforested only 0.37 million hectares. Teak is popular for planting for 88,000 hectares during Teak is popular for planting for 88,000 hectares during Teak

14 Model of Wood Utilization Log Branch es Stump /Root Sawmill Peeling/S licing Lumb er Drying Preservation Furniture Constructed lumber Household utensils Lapwo od Flooring/P arquet Fuelwood Chippe r Chipwo od Carved wood Veneer Plywood Core/Veneer residue Particleb oard Cement-bonded Particleboard Defibr ator Pulp & Paper Fiberb oard Wood Chemical Wood-wool Cementboard Pole/P ost

15 Iv. Processing and Utilization 1. Primary processing1. Primary processing 1.1 Sawing1.1 Sawing 1.2 Wood preservation1.2 Wood preservation

16 Small log lSlSlSlSmall log of Rubberwood and wood from plantation, which have the different qualification from the wood of natural forest such as growth stress of small wood due to twist and split of lumber. lSlSlSlSmall log, diameter 6-9 ins., recovery rate %, which bow and split lumber, wood working remain yield % of log.

17 Sawing Chain saw Circular saw with motor of plow machine with motor of plow machine Oscillating saw Band saw

18 To decrease wood failure of small log from growth stress.

19 Balance cutting The technique of sawing for small log with balance cutting, sawing right and left distance equal from pith together by twin band saw to release the stress of log equal opposite side can make lumber be straight, no twist.The technique of sawing for small log with balance cutting, sawing right and left distance equal from pith together by twin band saw to release the stress of log equal opposite side can make lumber be straight, no twist. Saw types are balance saw, gang saw, or sash gang sawSaw types are balance saw, gang saw, or sash gang saw

20 Piling Piling is important for quality control of lumber without twist, bow, and end split.Piling is important for quality control of lumber without twist, bow, and end split. Piling is done by putting weight on top of pile.Piling is done by putting weight on top of pile.

21 Wood preservation Non chemical treatment Non chemical treatment

22 Non-pressure treatment Non-pressure treatment 1) Brush or spray treatment 1) Brush or spray treatment 2) Dipping 2) Dipping 3) Soaking 3) Soaking Chemical treatment

23 Vacuum and pressure treatment

24 Drying 1 Seasoning or air drying1 Seasoning or air drying for construction e.g. pole, post, and piling of log before wood chipping. for construction e.g. pole, post, and piling of log before wood chipping. For small log, more than 6 ins., diameter, seasoning in dry season take time 4-6 months for decrease moisture content into %. For small log, more than 6 ins., diameter, seasoning in dry season take time 4-6 months for decrease moisture content into %. Wood diameter more than 30 cm. should be lumbering before seasoning. Wood diameter more than 30 cm. should be lumbering before seasoning. 2 Kiln drying2 Kiln drying Kiln drying can be control temperature and relative humidity for dried wood and rapidity more than seasoning times. Kiln drying can be control temperature and relative humidity for dried wood and rapidity more than seasoning times.

25 Drying l Wood drying should be used seasoning for decreasing moisture content in wood lesser than 30 % for 1 month, then drying with kiln drying for 1 month. l Lumber should be control drying at surface, not rapidity dried. l If moisture content in wood and surface of wood are difference more than 5 %, wood stress due to wood failure, e.g. bow, case hardening, and honeycombing.

26 I v. Processing and Utilization 2. Secondary processing2. Secondary processing 2.1 Furniture manufacturing2.1 Furniture manufacturing 2.2 Wood-based panels manufacturing2.2 Wood-based panels manufacturing 2.3 Pulp and paper manufacturing2.3 Pulp and paper manufacturing 2.4 Charcoal production2.4 Charcoal production

27 Furniture

28 Wood-based panels - Veneer and plywood- Veneer and plywood - Composite board- Composite board - Fiberboard- Fiberboard - Particleboard- Particleboard - Wood cement board- Wood cement board

29 Veneer and plywood The shortage of large log, due to some factory changed peeling machine from 8 ft. to 4 ft. length and slicing machine for the thinnest veneer, 0.1 mm. thickness.The shortage of large log, due to some factory changed peeling machine from 8 ft. to 4 ft. length and slicing machine for the thinnest veneer, 0.1 mm. thickness. Some factory imported log for veneer production and re-export or overlay on wood products of factory.Some factory imported log for veneer production and re-export or overlay on wood products of factory.

30 Composite board Flooring (parquet and mosaic parquet) and block board are common technology.Flooring (parquet and mosaic parquet) and block board are common technology. by finger joint technique.by finger joint technique. Raw materials are Teak and Eucalyptus from plantation, rejected wood in flooring production % and %, respectively.Raw materials are Teak and Eucalyptus from plantation, rejected wood in flooring production % and %, respectively. Colour coating need to production because of still sapwood (cream colour), that difference from heartwood (dark colour).Colour coating need to production because of still sapwood (cream colour), that difference from heartwood (dark colour).

31 Fiberboard Hardboard and Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF).Hardboard and Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF). All of Hardboard in Thailand produce with wet process.All of Hardboard in Thailand produce with wet process. Raw materials of Hardboard are Eucalyptus and wood from plantation e.g. KraTinTaPa (Acacia sp.) and also Bagasse.Raw materials of Hardboard are Eucalyptus and wood from plantation e.g. KraTinTaPa (Acacia sp.) and also Bagasse. Raw materials of MDF are Rubberwood, Eucalyptus, KraTinTaPa, and Bagasse (MDF, which Bagasse used the first factory of the world).Raw materials of MDF are Rubberwood, Eucalyptus, KraTinTaPa, and Bagasse (MDF, which Bagasse used the first factory of the world).

32 Particleboard * Particleboard used as raw material for construction and furniture production because of decreasing of solid wood and logging ban in Due to particleboard used increasing in wood working.* Particleboard used as raw material for construction and furniture production because of decreasing of solid wood and logging ban in Due to particleboard used increasing in wood working. Extruded pressed processing used only one factory. Another factory used platen pressed processing.Extruded pressed processing used only one factory. Another factory used platen pressed processing. Raw materials are Rubberwood, Eucalyptus and Bagasse. 3 layers sheet, 12 and 16 mm. thickness, is characteristically of particleboard in Thailand.Raw materials are Rubberwood, Eucalyptus and Bagasse. 3 layers sheet, 12 and 16 mm. thickness, is characteristically of particleboard in Thailand.

33 Wood cement board Raw material of Wood Wool Cement Board is SomPhong (Tetrameles nudiflora R.Br.), import from Myanmar, today. Wood Cement Particleboard produced from Eucalyptus. Wood Cement Fiberboard, plank for wall house, produced from cement approximately 90 % and recovered paper approximately 10 % with mixed a little asbestos.

34 Pulp and paper Raw materials ; non-wood (e.g. Straw, Bamboo, Kenaf and Bagasse) and wood (Eucalyptus).Raw materials ; non-wood (e.g. Straw, Bamboo, Kenaf and Bagasse) and wood (Eucalyptus). That is short fiber, so Thailand must imported long fiber and also recovered paper.That is short fiber, so Thailand must imported long fiber and also recovered paper.

35 All pulp factories produce with chemical process except one factory produced pulp with semichemical process yield approximately 45 %.All pulp factories produce with chemical process except one factory produced pulp with semichemical process yield approximately 45 %. The products are kraft paper 50 % and other papers : printing-writing paper, paperboard, newsprint paper, household and sanitary paper etc.The products are kraft paper 50 % and other papers : printing-writing paper, paperboard, newsprint paper, household and sanitary paper etc.

36 charcoal Each year, Thailand has consumption charcoal 3 million kg. Demand of charcoal for export is large scale.

37 Rubberwood, the world market called it “White Teak” Eucalyptus sp., from Australia, used in pulp and paper industry. Teak from plantation will be the important raw materials again in the near future.

38 V. Markets for Plantation Timber Products The averaged increasing of Thailand’s population is 1.2 % per year. In 1985, Thailand has 53 million populations and increased to 61 million in 1999, The country’s capacity to produce and reforest cannot meet the demand so the price of wood and wood products still high.

39 Eucalyptus wood marketing Eucalyptus aged 5 years wood production about tons/rai. The total capital were 8,140 baht/rai. The selling price of log was 850 baht/ton, thus, the income was 14,152 baht and the net profit was 6,012 baht, that the averaged income per year total 1,200 baht/rai.

40 The price of the thinning teak wood at girth cm. and 2-6 m. length will cost 2,100-18,400 baht/cu.m.

41 V Markets for Plantation Timber Products Problems related to wood market - Absence of local & Central market - Legislation Laws - Investment in Forest Plantations

42 VI. Overview and Conclusion THAILAND area 51,311,502 hectares population 61.7 million. Forest area 12,972,200 hectares (25.28 %) to increase forest lands to 40 % wood consumption is 0.2 cu.m./year/person or million cu.m./year. logging ban in 1989, imported wood and wood products over than $ 800 million.

43 Forest areas about 13 mil. Hectares Forest Plantation 390,000 hectares Projected plan 520,000 hectares RFD has launched many projects to increase forest land to 40% of the whole country (51.5 mil. hectare)

44 Thailand has a privilege for plantation due to its location. Only 4-6 years for fast growing species and years for normal trees, harvesting can be done

45 The government has also launched a campaign namely “One village, one product” to promote indigenous knowledge to create their own specific product. Constraints caused by the Private Sector - Lack in-depth knowledge of plantations, processing & market - Budget support - working & methodologies to co-operate together

46 Best regards THAILAND


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