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Thoughts on ENERGY John Kramlich Professor of Mechanical Engineering Phil Malte Professor of Mechanical Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "Thoughts on ENERGY John Kramlich Professor of Mechanical Engineering Phil Malte Professor of Mechanical Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thoughts on ENERGY John Kramlich Professor of Mechanical Engineering Phil Malte Professor of Mechanical Engineering

2 QUESTIONS to ANSWER US Energy: Where are we now?US Energy: Where are we now? Where are we going?Where are we going? How about the local scene?How about the local scene?

3 TransportationHeatingElectricity Total Petroleum Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Hydro Total US Energy in Quads (1.0E+15 Btu)

4 TransportationHeatingElectricity Total Petroleum Import 16-Domestic Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Hydro Total US Energy in Quads (1.0E+15 Btu)

5 TransportationHeatingElectricity Total Petroleum Import 16-Domestic Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Hydro Total US Energy in Quads (1.0E+15 Btu)

6 TransportationHeatingElectricity Total Petroleum Import 16-Domestic Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Hydro Total US Energy in Quads (1.0E+15 Btu)

7 TransportationHeatingElectricity Total Petroleum Import 16-Domestic Coal Natural Gas Nuclear 0077 Hydro 0033 Total US Energy in Quads (1.0E+15 Btu)

8 Quads

9 TransportationHeatingElectricity Total Petroleum Import 16-Domestic Coal Natural Gas Nuclear 0077 Hydro 0033 Total US Energy in Quads (1.0E+15 Btu)

10 GASOLINE ENGINE EFFICIENCY FUEL100% Engine35% Start/stop, running cold, running off “sweet spot” (hard acceleration), oversized engines, throttle losses 20% Well-to-wheels 15-17% Why? We ask a lot from a car

11 Hybrid Gasoline-Electric

12 Hybrid Advantages Ideal: Engine runs near one RPM and torque (engines oversized) Regenerative braking Hard acceleration covered by battery Avoids big losses of city driving Since wind friction goes with speed squared, highway mileage often lower than city (35 mph best!)

13 Fuel Cell Propulsion

14 The Fuel Cell: An Externally-Fueled Battery

15 Fuel Cell Issues Platinum for cell Expensive machining Expensive membrane Auto: 35$/kW Fuel cell: 300$/kW Must find ways to get cost down or may not compete

16 Hydrogen Issues

17 Make H 2 in fuel plant? Natural gas to H 2 leads to a significant loss in fuel value (recover only ~60% of original energy). Store H 2 on vehicle? Safety? Space? Make H 2 from gasoline? Carry a chemical plant on your car?

18 “Well-to-Wheel” Efficiencies Fuel Prod EngW-WCO2 g/km Ems Gas-now85%18%15%220Low Gas-adv85%23%20 %170Ultra/S Hybrid85%36%31%110Ultra/S FC-HC60%50%30%110Super FC-MeOH50%36%18%110Super

19 Running Out of Oil? Record of Consumption and Production in USA Resource Cheap versus Expensive Oil

20 Oil in the USA

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24 Resource (economically recoverable billions of barrels) Crude Oil~1000World (25% recvy) Shale Oil~17000World: 25 gal/ton Shale Oil~3000US+Canada: 25 Tar Sands US,Canada,Venzl ANWR % of US use Use Rate7 bbo/yrUSA Use Rate25 bbo/yrWORLD

25 Message The supply of Cheap-to-Recover crude oil is limited – there is about a 40 years supply at the present consumption rate. The world is becoming increasingly dependent on Middle Eastern crude oil. There is a lot of Expensive-to-Recover oil – monetarily and environmentally expensive. Should transportation move away from oil?

26 TransportationHeatingElectricity Total Petroleum Import 16-Domestic Coal Natural Gas Nuclear 0077 Hydro 0033 Total US Energy in Quads (1.0E+15 Btu)

27 Conventional Power Plant

28 Air Pump Fuel Burner Turbine Generator Hot Exhaust Simple Gas Turbine

29 Modern Combined Cycle Power Plant

30

31

32 CO 2 Cleanup?

33 TransportationHeatingElectricity Total Petroleum Import 16-Domestic Coal Natural Gas Nuclear 0077 Hydro 0033 Total US Energy in Quads (1.0E+15 Btu)

34 Natural Gas in USA

35 Natural Gas for Electricity 4% average yearly growth rate

36 May be priced out of some markets

37 TransportationHeatingElectricity Total Petroleum Import 16-Domestic Coal Natural Gas Nuclear 0077 Hydro 0033 Total US Energy in Quads (1.0E+15 Btu)

38 Hydropower

39 Turbine/ Generator Set

40 Some Engineering Energy = g[mass of water thru turbine] X [height of dam] Low reservoirs reduce effective height Reduced river flows cut mass available 300 W projection-TV operated for one hour = one ton of water through Grand Coulee Dam.

41 Washington Electric Power Capacities and Actual Use (1998)

42 The Big Five

43 What Next?

44 A Tale of Two Houses Malte 3500 ft 2 Gas furnace, hot water, range-top Balance electric PSE Kramlich 2000 ft 2 All electric Heat pump furnace SCL

45 Annual Energy Consumption

46 Heat is present in all air But heat flows only from hot to cold So heat in outside air won’t directly warm your house Use electricity to “pump” heat from outside into your house Better than just using electricity alone to get heat Multiplies value of electricity Heat Pump

47 Message Larger house requires more energy. Electricity gives more heat (per unit energy input) than gas if a heat pump is used. But: Electricity costs more, which is a reflection of its greater utility.

48 Solar PV? Panel+BOS Costs = $750/kw-peak (grid-tied) 12 kw System = $90,000 Capacity Factor = 12% (20% in AZ) Power generated = 12,600 kW-hr/year (Kramlich: 18,000-24,000, Malte: 11,000-15,000) Simple Cost over 30 year life = 24¢/kW-hr Arizona: 14¢/kW-hr

49 Vansycle Project: Wallula

50 Stateline Project, Wallula 450 Turbines 300 MW max 70,000 homes

51 Seattle City Light and Stateline 10/18/01 in PI: –50 MW now –150 MW future –175 MW maybe –$48.50/MWH Stateline first phase: 265 MW peak from 400 turbines

52 WRAP UP FUELUSAWORLDTREND Oil39%34%  Nat Gas 23%20%  Coal22%20%? Nuclear8%6%? Hydro4%6%? Biomass4%14%? Solar&Wind  Electricity 

53 Renewable/Global Warming If CO 2 avoidance key: Nuclear, biomass, CO 2 sequestration, solar, wind, tidal, hydro If renewable is also key, remove nuclear, unless fusion is solved Current: Solar=0.069 Q, Wind=0.12 Q. Biomass=2.9 out of 100


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