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WOMEN’S WORK ACTIVITY AND FERTILITY Guy Standing Chapter 16 Selasa, 26 Februari 2013 Fransiska Engeline Moko.

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Presentation on theme: "WOMEN’S WORK ACTIVITY AND FERTILITY Guy Standing Chapter 16 Selasa, 26 Februari 2013 Fransiska Engeline Moko."— Presentation transcript:

1 WOMEN’S WORK ACTIVITY AND FERTILITY Guy Standing Chapter 16 Selasa, 26 Februari 2013 Fransiska Engeline Moko

2 The Relationship Hypothesis : Fertility is inversely related to women’s labor force participation  Mincer, 1963 : in US, rising female wage rates tended to reduce fertility  Mincer,1962; Cain,1966; Bowen and Finegan, 1969; Sweet, 1970 : young children reduced the probability of wive’s participation in the labor force

3 Bagaimana dengan low-income countries? Fertilitas yang tinggi dapat menjadi semakin tinggi di saat partisipasi kerja wanita rendah  Preferensi jenis kelamin anak  Anak yang bekerja di usia yang muda More recent research shows  Women who work earn income enables the family to afford a larger number of children  Childbearing and childraising may in fact not constrain the labor force participation of women  negligible opportunity cost

4 Role Compatibility (1)  According to type of work  Jaffe and Azumi (1960): fertility levels of women working in “cottage industries” were similiar to “economically inactive” and only women who worked “away from home” had lower average fertility  Davanzo and Lee (1978): opportunity cost of children is low for women doing agricultural work

5 Women’s work and fertility by type of work and urban-rural area in low-income countries Rural areas  positive relationship  Federici (1967): positively in the case of agricultural work and negatively in the case of other occupation  Pinelli (1971): women working in agriculture had higher fertility rates than those who were economically inactive

6 Urban area:  negative relationship  Weller (1968), Hass (1971), Goldstein (1972) Inverse relationship between women’s work and fertility in urban areas and in white collar and professional jobs Adanya ‘urban effect’ mengakibatkan hubungan yang positif antara ‘working women’ dan fertilitas, semakin ‘urban’ semakin modern pekerjaannya sehingga sulit untuk membangun hubungan kausalnya dengan fertilitas

7 Role Compatibility (2)  According to type of childcare Condition under which fertility is least likely to constrain women’s work activity:  There is closely knit extended family  Cost of the domestic labor is low  The desired schooling of chidren  Work’s done purely out of economic necessity rather than out of intrinsic interest  Combination of work and fertility  Ability and willingness to adjust the allocation of time to other activities (leisure)

8 Other aspects  Time frame of work Pengalaman kerja sebelum menikah  fertilitas rendah, tp tidak banyak mempengaruhi completed family size  Zarrate (1967): wife had done nondomestic work before marriage had lower fertility than those in which the wives had only worked at home Work experience before marriage making wife becomes less subordinate in desicisions making (fertility and childbearing)

9  Interruption effects ex: interruption for women in ‘carrer’  Ross (1974): interruption cost encourage fewer children Motivation seen as the crucial factor  Pinelli (1971): women who stated that they worked because they wanted to do so appeared to have lower fertility than those who worked from economic necessity

10  Labor discrimination effects  Labor market discrimination against women encourage high levels of fertility  Labor substitution effects Encourage high levels of fertility,if:  Work schedules and age-sex labor divisions are flexible  Children are available as workers

11 Conclusion  Fertility will be inversely related to opportunity income of women  Opportunity income  schooling, past experience, motivation to work The causal relationship of work activity and fertility remains unclear  need future research

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