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Theory of Situational and Approaches to Conflict Resolution Sandra Olga / 51408095 Felicia N/ 51410033.

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Presentation on theme: "Theory of Situational and Approaches to Conflict Resolution Sandra Olga / 51408095 Felicia N/ 51410033."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theory of Situational and Approaches to Conflict Resolution Sandra Olga / 51408095 Felicia N/ 51410033

2 Situational Theory Why we need this theory? To summarizes the prevailing situation as it affects the company relative to its position in the market and to its various constituent groups. It notes positive attributes of the subject, as well as the negatives and challenges that contribute to the need for Public Relations

3 Theory of Situational

4 Situational Theory It’s important to know what the stakeholder thinks of the company or organization- alone and relative to competition or alternative entities. Stakeholders as a way of describing relationships.

5 Situational Theory Public relations people could more effectively manage communications by identifying specific publics. These publics were subgroups that were more or less active in their communication behavior.

6 Situational Theory Example: PR for a politician Focus their communication efforts on those voters who can be counted on to go to polls on election day. Politician analysis what their public’s need. Grunig and Hunt: A situational theory of publics to give us more specific information about public’s communication needs.

7 Situational Theory There is a range: from those who actively seek and process information about an organization or an issue of interest, to those publics who passively receive information.

8 Situational Theory Three variables predict when publics will seek and process information about an issue: problem recognition, constraint recognition, and level of involvement.

9 Situational Theory Problem Recognition Publics facing an issue must first be aware of it and recognize its potential to affect them. Example: Bussinesman at trading company will be more aware of candidate for the next trade minister.

10 Situational Theory Constraint Recognition This variable describes how publics perceive obstacles that may stand in the way of a solution. If they believe they have a real shot at influencing an issue, they will tend to seek and process information on that issue.

11 Situational Theory Example: The parents of the children at primary school. They have more access to school decision makers because they have more contact with school principals, teachers, and administrators.

12 Situational Theory Level of Involvement This variable refers to how much an individual cares about an issue. Those who care a lot would likely be active communicators on an issue. Those who care little would likely be more passive in seeking and processing information.

13 Situational Theory Situational theory also helps explain why some groups are active on a single issue, others are active on many issues, and others are uniformly apathetic. The specific relationship is determined by the type of group (active, passive) and how an organization is linked with the issue.

14 Situational Theory Public relations can plan their communication strategies much more accurately if they know how actively their stakeholder publics will seek information from the organization.

15 Situational Theory Situational theory keeps us focused on the kinds of information that publics want rather than the organization’s choice of information to distribute. It also assumes that publics will pay attention and seek out information that is in their best interests.

16 Approaches to Conflict Resolution

17 Menurut Plowman, Briggs, dan Huang, terdapat 9 macam resolusi konflik berkaitan dengan organisasi dan publik: 1. Pertengkaran 2. Kerjasama 3. Akomodasi 4. Penghindaran 5. Konstruktif tanpa syarat 6. Kompromi 7. Berprinsip 8. Menang – menang atau tidak sama sekali 9. Mediasi

18 Approaches to Conflict Resolution






24 Reference: Marconi, Joe. 2004. Public Relations: The complete guide.USA: Thomson Learning http://highered.mcgraw- apter_3.pdf http://highered.mcgraw- apter_3.pdf  komunikasi/page/2/

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