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Globalisering og arbeiderbevegelsen Kristian Stokke

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Presentation on theme: "Globalisering og arbeiderbevegelsen Kristian Stokke"— Presentation transcript:

1 Globalisering og arbeiderbevegelsen Kristian Stokke

2 Globalization and labour Hyperglobalism Hyperglobalism There is no alternative There is no alternative End of working class & real world socialism End of working class & real world socialism Global capital/local labour: Race to the bottom Global capital/local labour: Race to the bottom Alternative position Alternative position Globalization transforms economic relations and thereby poses challenges for organized labor Globalization transforms economic relations and thereby poses challenges for organized labor Organized labor makes strategic decisions regarding politicisation of issues and arenas/scales for mobilization and politicisation Organized labor makes strategic decisions regarding politicisation of issues and arenas/scales for mobilization and politicisation Skepticism Skepticism Globalization is politically constructed (and a myth) Globalization is politically constructed (and a myth) Workforce expansion Workforce expansion National capital/ regulation/ labor: Business as usual National capital/ regulation/ labor: Business as usual

3 The second great transformation Fordism Fordism Mass production of homogenous goods Mass production of homogenous goods Vertical integration of firms Vertical integration of firms Job specialization, division of labour Job specialization, division of labour State regulation, welfare state, collective bargaining State regulation, welfare state, collective bargaining Mass consumption of mass durables Mass consumption of mass durables National economy, politics, culture National economy, politics, culture Flexible accumulation Flexible accumulation Flexible production, variety of products (just in time) Flexible production, variety of products (just in time) Quasi-vertical integration: subcontracting Quasi-vertical integration: subcontracting Worker flexibility and informalization Worker flexibility and informalization Deregulation and privatization Deregulation and privatization Individualized consumption of specialized products Individualized consumption of specialized products Globalized economy, politics and culture Globalized economy, politics and culture David Harvey (1989). The Condition of Postmodernity

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5 Flexibilization Labour flexibility as a social process and a political discourse. Labour flexibility as a social process and a political discourse. Social process: Social process: External numerical flexibility - number of employees adjusted in accordance with employers’ needs External numerical flexibility - number of employees adjusted in accordance with employers’ needs Externalisation - part of the firm’s work is put out through sub-contracting Externalisation - part of the firm’s work is put out through sub-contracting Internal numerical flexibility - working hours and their ’delivery’ adjusted according to employers’ needs Internal numerical flexibility - working hours and their ’delivery’ adjusted according to employers’ needs Functional flexibility - workers’ jobs modified according to employers’ needs Functional flexibility - workers’ jobs modified according to employers’ needs Wages flexibility - labour’s reward according to productivity and market conditions Wages flexibility - labour’s reward according to productivity and market conditions Political discourse: Political discourse: Flexibility as freedom or flexibility as attack on labour rights Flexibility as freedom or flexibility as attack on labour rights

6 Internationalism Old and new internationalism Old and new internationalism Workers of the World Unite (The Communist Manifesto, 1848) Workers of the World Unite (The Communist Manifesto, 1848) You can’t be a trade unionist unless you are an internationalist, the reason being that substandard conditions anywhere are a threat to good conditions anywhere (Lane Kirkland AFL-CIO, 1994) You can’t be a trade unionist unless you are an internationalist, the reason being that substandard conditions anywhere are a threat to good conditions anywhere (Lane Kirkland AFL-CIO, 1994) Social clause Social clause ILO core conventions to be ratified in trade agreements, to apply to all who work, including in the informal sector and in the FTZs ILO core conventions to be ratified in trade agreements, to apply to all who work, including in the informal sector and in the FTZs Freedom of associations; Right to organise and engage in collective bargaining; Abolition of forced labour; Abolition of child labour; Against discrimination in employment Freedom of associations; Right to organise and engage in collective bargaining; Abolition of forced labour; Abolition of child labour; Against discrimination in employment

7 Informalization (’Brazilinization’) Work outside the formal wage-labour market, e.g. self-employment Work outside the formal wage-labour market, e.g. self-employment Social process: Social process: Informal sector: exclusion from formal sector and labour absorption in informal sector Informal sector: exclusion from formal sector and labour absorption in informal sector Informalization: informal and formal sectors are intimately linked: flexibilization in the South spells informalization Informalization: informal and formal sectors are intimately linked: flexibilization in the South spells informalization Discourse: Discourse: The informal sector will shrink with development (leftover from underdevelopment) vs. the informal sector being created by capitalist development The informal sector will shrink with development (leftover from underdevelopment) vs. the informal sector being created by capitalist development

8 Femininization Growth in female employment worldwide Growth in female employment worldwide Social process Social process Growth of women workers in the ”new international division of labour” (1970s and 80s) and in casual work (homework) (1990s-) Growth of women workers in the ”new international division of labour” (1970s and 80s) and in casual work (homework) (1990s-) Work in the informal sector means greater insecurity, reduced work hours and pay, loss of insurance, holidays, maternity leave, sick pay, pension etc. Work in the informal sector means greater insecurity, reduced work hours and pay, loss of insurance, holidays, maternity leave, sick pay, pension etc. Discourse Discourse Workforce participation an important achievement vs. pre-existing gender division of labour being utilised to achieve labour flexibility Workforce participation an important achievement vs. pre-existing gender division of labour being utilised to achieve labour flexibility

9 Gamle og nye bevegelser Fra arbeidsplass til formell politisk sfære Arbeiderbevegelser Politisk integrasjon basis for rettigheter Medlemsskap, demokratisk representasjon, hierarki Massemobilisering (streik), politiske forhandlinger I sivilsamfunnet, med vekt på politisk autonomi Nye sosiale bevegelser Identitetspolitikk for aksept og rettigheter Aktivistnettverk, deltager- styrt, massebevegelser Offentlig protest og kulturelle innovasjoner (nye livsstiler) Lokalisering Mål Organisering Aksjonsmidler InteressepolitikkIdentitetspolitikk Saker

10 Social movement unionism Workplace and community Workplace and community The emerging social-movement unionism is an active, community-oriented strategy which works with a broad conception of who the working people are. It breaks down the binary oppositions between workplace and community, economic and political struggles, and between formal-sector workers and the working poor. The emerging social-movement unionism is an active, community-oriented strategy which works with a broad conception of who the working people are. It breaks down the binary oppositions between workplace and community, economic and political struggles, and between formal-sector workers and the working poor. Issues Issues Labour standards: Struggles against child labor and flexibilization/informalization globally Labour standards: Struggles against child labor and flexibilization/informalization globally Livelihoods: Struggle over both production and reproduction issues (e.g. anti-privatization, South Africa) Livelihoods: Struggle over both production and reproduction issues (e.g. anti-privatization, South Africa)

11 Globalization and labour Challenges, but also opportunities Challenges, but also opportunities Workplace changes and discourses of flexibility and competitivenes Workplace changes and discourses of flexibility and competitivenes Democratic political spaces and human rights discourses Democratic political spaces and human rights discourses Strategies Strategies Going global: New internationalism Going global: New internationalism Going social: Social movement unionism Going social: Social movement unionism


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