Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Abstract Class, Packages and interface from Chapter 9

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Abstract Class, Packages and interface from Chapter 9"— Presentation transcript:

1 Abstract Class, Packages and interface from Chapter 9
Lecture 10

2 Review Abstract classes Using final with inheritance Packages
Access protection Importing packages

3 Abstract Classes Sometimes, we want to define a superclass that declares the structure of a abstraction with a complete implementation of every method. That is, we want to create a superclass that only defines a generalised form that will be shared by all of its subclasses.

4 More about Abstract Classes
The main purpose of an abstract class is to define a common interface for it's subclasses to which some or all implementation is deferred. Abstract classes may be used in designing a family of related subclasses. The general form is: abstract type name (parameter-list)

5 Example of Abstract In an object-oriented drawing application, we can draw circles, lines, squares, and so on. Each of these graphic objects share certain states (position), and behavior (move, draw). You can take advantage of these similarities and declare them all to inherit from the same parent Graphic Object. Graphic Object circles lines square

6 Example of Graphic Object
abstract class GraphicObject { int x, y; . . . void moveTo(int newX, int newY) { } abstract void draw(); class circle extends GraphicObject { void draw() {

7 Example –page 217

8 Explanation In object-oriented programming, we want to model an abstract concept without being able to create an instance of it. Here, class A defines an abstract class callme() {This class also supports a concrete method callme1(). } callme() is implemented in Class B.

9 Final Final with inheritance has three uses.
First, it can be used to create the equivalent of a named constant Secondly, to apply final to prevent overriding Thirdly, to use final to prevent inheritance

10 Using final to prevent overriding
Overriding is one of java’s most powerful features, there will be times when we will want to prevent it from occurring. To disallow a method from being overridden, we specify final as a modifier at the start of its declaration.

11 Example – with a compilation error
Because show() is declared as final, it cannot be overridden. error

12 Using final to prevent inheritance
Sometimes, we want to prevent a class from being inherited. To do this, we can precede the class declaration with final. Declaring a class as final implies that all of its methods as final.

13 Example – with a compilation error

14 Package Packages are one of the basic components of a Java Program. In general, a Java source can contain any of the following: A single package statement Any number of import statements A single public class declaration Any number of classes private to the package

15 Name of the package (directory), not class
Create a package To create a package is easy. The user simply includes a package command as the first statement in a Java source file. The package statement defines a name space in which classes are package, which has no name. The format is: package pkg; Name of the package (directory), not class

16 Package Hierarchy directory The package hierarch is:
package java.awt.image; It access the package in java/awt/image directory

17 Example (1) Make a directory called YourPackage under your current directory mkdir YourPackage Use a notepad to create a file as follows and put it under the directory of YourPackage

18 use notepad to create another one
Example (2) Compile it use notepad to create another one YourPackage

19 Example (3) input: 4, output 4*4 = 16

20 More Example (1) Create a file on left-hand side.
Put it into a directory called Mypack Compile it

21 More Example (2) The Class Path

22 Access Protection In Java, there are at least three control mechanism.
private, public and protected Package adds another dimension to access control. Java provides many levels of protection over the visibility of variables and methods within classes, subclasses and packages

23 Importing Packages Java includes the import statement to bring certain classes or entire packages into visibility. Once imported, a class can be referred to directly, using only its name. The format is: import pkg1[.pkg2](classname)

24 Examples of Importing Packages
import java.util.Date (import Date Package undre java, utility) import* (import IO packages under java)

25 Your Class is created under YourPackage
Example (1) Your Class is created under YourPackage

26 Example (2) Create a file using import YourPackage.* (it will import any classes under this directory)

27 Your Class under YourPackage

28 More Example class add

29 More Example - Explanation
Create a add class which has add and sub methods Create a lecture108 and import the add class Pass the value from agrs[0] and pass to add class to perform add and sub. Here, the add class consists of add() and sub() method

30 Summary Abstract classes – used as a family
Using final with inheritance – the last method Packages – create class path Access protection – private, public protect (Packages) Importing packages – import other classes

Download ppt "Abstract Class, Packages and interface from Chapter 9"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google