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Directory and File Paths Copyright © Software Carpentry and The University of Edinburgh 2010-2011 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution.

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Presentation on theme: "Directory and File Paths Copyright © Software Carpentry and The University of Edinburgh 2010-2011 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Directory and File Paths Copyright © Software Carpentry and The University of Edinburgh This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License See for more information. Python

2 Directory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' planets.txt data vladusers We want to build a path

3 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = base + '/' + user + '/' + datadir >>> print path /users/vlad/data planets.txt data vladusers Use string addition

4 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = base + '/' + user + '/' + datadir >>> print path /users/vlad/data Code assumes Linux/UNIX paths

5 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = base + '/' + user + '/' + datadir >>> print path /users/vlad/data >>> from os.path import join

6 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = base + '/' + user + '/' + datadir >>> print path /users/vlad/data >>> from os.path import join >>> path = join(base, user, datadir)

7 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = base + '/' + user + '/' + datadir >>> print path /users/vlad/data >>> from os.path import join >>> path = join(base, user, datadir) >>> print path /users/vlad/data

8 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = base + '/' + user + '/' + datadir >>> print path /users/vlad/data >>> from os.path import join >>> path = join(base, user, datadir) >>> print path /users/vlad/data join picks the file separator based on the current operating system

9 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = join(base, user, datadir) >>> print path /users\\vlad\\data Running under Windows

10 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = join(base, user, datadir) >>> print path /users\\vlad\\data Running under Windows join chooses the Windows separator The double \ is only because we’re printing them

11 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = join(base, user, datadir) >>> print path /users\\vlad\\data Running under Windows join chooses the Windows separator The double \ is only because we’re printing them But it starts with a Linux/UNIX file separator How do we convert that?

12 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = join(base, user, datadir) >>> print path /users\\vlad\\data >>> from os.path import normpath

13 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = join(base, user, datadir) >>> print path /users\\vlad\\data >>> from os.path import normpath >>> nupath = normpath(path) >>> print nupath \\users\\vlad\\data

14 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> base = '/users' >>> user = 'vlad' >>> datadir = 'data' >>> path = join(base, user, datadir) >>> print path /users\\vlad\\data >>> from os.path import normpath >>> nupath = normpath(path) >>> print nupath \\users\\vlad\\data >>> normpath('/some/other/path') \\some\\other\\path normpath converts path separators

15 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = '/users/vlad//.///data/../..//vlad/./data/..' normpath not only converts path separators

16 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = '/users/vlad//.///data/../..//vlad/./data/..' >>> cleanpath = normpath(path) >>> print cleanpath /users/vlad normpath not only converts path separators

17 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = '/users/vlad//.///data/../..//vlad/./data/..' >>> cleanpath = normpath(path) >>> print cleanpath /users/vlad normpath not only converts path separators, it removes duplicated path separators

18 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = '/users/vlad//.///data/../..//vlad/./data/..' >>> cleanpath = normpath(path) >>> print cleanpath /users/vlad normpath not only converts path separators, it removes duplicated path separators and “.” current directory short-hand

19 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = '/users/vlad//.///data/../..//vlad/./data/..' >>> cleanpath = normpath(path) >>> print cleanpath /users/vlad normpath not only converts path separators, it Removes duplicated path separators Removes “.” current directory short-hand Tries to resolve “..” parent directory short-hand

20 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import dirname, basename

21 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import dirname, basename >>> path = '/users/vlad/data/planets.txt' planets.txt data vladusers

22 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import dirname, basename >>> path = '/users/vlad/data/planets.txt' >>> dirname(path) /users/vlad/data planets.txt data vladusers

23 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import dirname, basename >>> path = '/users/vlad/data/planets.txt' >>> dirname(path) /users/vlad/data >>> basename(path) planets.txt data vladusers

24 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import dirname, basename >>> path = '/users/vlad/data/planets.txt' >>> dirname(path) /users/vlad/data >>> basename(path) planets.txt >>> from os.path import split >>> (head, tail) = split(path) planets.txt data vladusers

25 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import dirname, basename >>> path = '/users/vlad/data/planets.txt' >>> dirname(path) /users/vlad/data >>> basename(path) planets.txt >>> from os.path import split >>> (head, tail) = split(path) >>> print head /users/vlad/data planets.txt data vladusers

26 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import dirname, basename >>> path = '/users/vlad/data/planets.txt' >>> dirname(path) /users/vlad/data >>> basename(path) planets.txt >>> from os.path import split >>> (head, tail) = split(path) >>> print head /users/vlad/data >>> print tail planets.txt data vladusers

27 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import splitext >>> path = '/users/vlad/data/planets.txt'

28 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import splitext >>> path = '/users/vlad/data/planets.txt' >>> (root, ext) = splitext(path)

29 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import splitext >>> path = '/users/vlad/data/planets.txt' >>> (root, ext) = splitext(path) >>> print root /users/vlad/data/planets

30 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import splitext >>> path = '/users/vlad/data/planets.txt' >>> (root, ext) = splitext(path) >>> print root /users/vlad/data/planets >>> print ext.txt

31 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import splitdrive >>> path = 'C:\\users\\vlad\\data\\planets.txt' >>> (drive, tail) = splitdrive(path)

32 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import splitdrive >>> path = 'C:\\users\\vlad\\data\\planets.txt' >>> (drive, tail) = splitdrive(path) >>> print drive C:

33 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> from os.path import splitdrive >>> path = 'C:\\users\\vlad\\data\\planets.txt' >>> (drive, tail) = splitdrive(path) >>> print drive C: >>> print tail \\users\\vlad\\data\\planets.txt

34 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = 'data/planets.txt' planets.txt data

35 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = 'data/planets.txt' >>> from os.path import isabs >>> isabs(path) False planets.txt data isabs checks is the path is absolute

36 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = 'data/planets.txt' >>> from os.path import isabs >>> isabs(path) False isabs checks is the path is absolute Linux/UNIX: does it start with / ? Windows: does it start with \ after the drive’s been removed? planets.txt data

37 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = 'data/planets.txt' >>> from os.path import isabs >>> isabs(path) False >>> from os.path import abspath >>> nupath = abspath(path) planets.txt data vladusers abspath makes relative paths absolute

38 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = 'data/planets.txt' >>> from os.path import isabs >>> isabs(path) False >>> from os.path import abspath >>> nupath = abspath(path) >>> print abspath /users/vlad/data/planets.txt planets.txt data vladusers abspath makes relative paths absolute

39 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = 'data/planets.txt' >>> from os.path import isabs >>> isabs(path) False >>> from os.path import abspath >>> nupath = abspath(path) >>> print abspath /users/vlad/data/planets.txt planets.txt data vladusers abspath makes relative paths absolute It uses getcwd()

40 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = 'data/planets.txt' >>> from os.path import isabs >>> isabs(path) False >>> from os.path import abspath >>> nupath = abspath(path) >>> print abspath /users/vlad/data/planets.txt >>> isabs(nupath) True planets.txt data vladusers

41 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = 'data/planets.txt' >>> from os.path import isabs >>> isabs(path) False >>> from os.path import abspath >>> nupath = abspath(path) >>> print abspath /users/vlad/data/planets.txt >>> isabs(nupath) True >>> abspath('data/../..') data..

42 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = 'data/planets.txt' >>> from os.path import isabs >>> isabs(path) False >>> from os.path import abspath >>> nupath = abspath(path) >>> print abspath /users/vlad/data/planets.txt >>> isabs(nupath) True >>> abspath('data/../..') /users data vladusers..

43 PythonDirectory and File Paths >>> path = 'data/planets.txt' >>> from os.path import isabs >>> isabs(path) False >>> from os.path import abspath >>> nupath = abspath(path) >>> print abspath /users/vlad/data/planets.txt >>> isabs(nupath) True >>> abspath('data/../..') /users data vladusers abspath also normalizes the path

44 PythonDirectory and File Paths Beware! None of these operations check whether the directories or files exist

45 PythonDirectory and File Paths Beware! None of these operations check whether the directories or files exist Remember os.path exists function

46 PythonDirectory and File Paths os.path Common pathname manipulations join Join relative paths together using operating system- specific separators normpath Clean up a path and convert separators to be consistent with the current operating system dirname Get the path up to the final directory/file in the path basename Get the final directory/file in the path split Split a path into directory and file name splitext Split a path to get a file extension splitdrive Split a path to get a drive name isabs Is a path relative or absolute? abspathConvert a path to an absolute path, using getcwd()

47 May 2011 created by Mike Jackson and Greg Wilson Copyright © Software Carpentry and The University of Edinburgh This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License See for more information.


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