Presentation on theme: "15-Jan-15 More Haskell Functions Maybe, Either, List, Set, Map."— Presentation transcript:
15-Jan-15 More Haskell Functions Maybe, Either, List, Set, Map
Maybe find (imported from Data.List ) takes a predicate and a list, and returns the first element that satisfies the predicate Example: find (> 4) [1..10] But what if there is no such element? find (> 40) [1..10] In such a case, Java would return null Any Java method that supposed to return an object might instead return null Thus, it is common to get NullPointerException In Haskell, find returns a Maybe find :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Maybe a A Maybe can have the value Nothing or Just something find (>4) [1..10] Just 5 find (> 40) [1..10] Nothing This works well when combined with pattern matching
Using Maybe Maybe is a monad For now, you can just think of it as a “wrapper” The usual way to deal with monads like this is with a case expression tell :: Maybe String -> String tell arg = case arg of Just s -> "Yes, we have " ++ s Nothing -> "No, sorry!" GHCi> tell (Just "bananas") "Yes, we have bananas" GHCi> tell Nothing "No, sorry!"
Either Either takes two types: Either a b buy :: String -> Int -> Either String Int buy item cost = if cost < 20 then Left ("Purchased " ++ item) else Right cost *Main> buy "lamp" 15 Left "Purchased lamp" *Main> buy "sofa" 300 Right 300
Using Either buy item cost = if cost < 20 then Left("Purchased " ++ item) else Right cost tell_if_bought :: String -> Int -> String tell_if_bought item price = case buy item price of Left s -> "Yes, " ++ s Right i -> "$" ++ (show price) ++ " was too expensive." GHCi> tell_if_bought "Sofa" 300 "$300 was too expensive." GHCi> tell_if_bought "lamp" 16 "Yes, Purchased lamp"
Modules A Haskell module is like a Java package A module contains functions, types, and typeclasses Unlike Java, there are a lot of name collisions, so modules often have to be imported in a qualified way To import into GHCi, use :m + module... module To import into a program, use import module import module ( f1,..., fn ) will import only the named functions import module hiding ( f1,..., fn ) will import all but the named functions import qualified module imports the module; we call an imported function fn with module. fn import qualified module as M imports the module; we call an imported function fn with M. fn
Typeclasses A Haskell typeclass is like a Java interface--it tells what functions an object can support Some typeclasses and what they support: Eq -- == and /= Ord -- = > Num -- + - * / and others Show -- show (enables printing as a string) Read -- read (conversion from a string to something else) Functor -- fmap (enables mapping over things) List s belong to the Functor typeclass Monad -- >>= >> return fail
Data.List I The standard Prelude imports many Data.List functions for us: map, filter, foldl, etc. intersperse :: a -> [a] -> [a] intersperse ' ' "hello" "h e l l o” intercalate :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [a] intercalate " and " ["one", "two", "three"] "one and two and three" transpose :: [[a]] -> [[a]] transpose [[1,2,3],[4,5,6]] [[1,4],[2,5],[3,6]] take 5 ( iterate (* 2) 1) [1,2,4,8,16] take 5 ( drop 5 (iterate (* 2) 1)) [32,64,128,256,512] take 5 $ drop 5 $ iterate (* 2) 1 [32,64,128,256,512] takeWhile (/= ' ') "Hello there" "Hello" dropWhile (/= ' ') "Hello there" " there"
Data.List II The following are especially helpful when dealing with text: span isLetter "one two three" ("one"," two three") break isSpace "one two three" ("one"," two three") words "Here are some words." ["Here","are","some","words."] unwords $ words "Here are some words." "Here are some words." lines "Roses are red\nViolets are blue" ["Roses are red","Violets are blue"] unlines $ lines "Roses are red\nViolets are blue" "Roses are red\nViolets are blue\n"
Data.Map Maps are constructed from lists of 2-tuples Not using a Map: *Main> let nums = [(1, "one"), (2, "two"), (3, "three"), (4, "four"), (5, "five")] *Main> lookup 3 nums Just "three" Using a Map: *Main> let dict = Map.fromList nums *Main> dict fromList [(1,"one"),(2,"two"),(3,"three"),(4,"four"),(5,"five")] *Main> :t Map.fromList Map.fromList :: (Ord k) => [(k, a)] -> Map.Map k a *Main> Map.lookup 3 dict Just "three" *Main> Map.lookup 7 dict Nothing
Map operations I Maps in Haskell are implemented with binary trees, not with hash tables Hence, keys must belong to the Ord typeclass Map.empty -- returns an empty map Map.null map -- tests if a map is empty Map.singleton key value -- returns a map with one key/value pair Map.fromList list -- given a list of 2-tuples, returns a map Note: Only the last value is kept if a key is repeated Map.insert key value map -- inserts a key/value pair Map.size map -- returns the number of key/value pairs Map.member key -- tests if the key is in the map Map.lookup key -- returns Just value or Nothing
Map operations II Map.map f map -- returns a map in which f has been applied to each value Map.filter f map -- returns a map containing only those key/value pairs for which f value is True Map.keys map -- returns a list of keys Map.elems map -- returns a list of values Map.toList map -- returns a list of (key, value) 2-tuples Map.fromListWith f list -- given a list of 2-tuples, returns a map; f is applied to combine duplicate values for the same key Map.insertWith f key value -- inserts the key/value pair into the map, using the function f to combine duplicate values for the same key
Sets in Haskell Sets, like Maps, are constructed from lists The import should be qualified to avoid name collisions: import qualified Data.Set as Set This is also true for Maps: import qualified Data.Map as Map Set.fromList list -- returns a set created from a list (duplicates are removed) Set.toList set -- returns an ordered list from a set
Set operations Set.empty Set.null set Set.member value set Set.union set1 set2 Set.intersection set1 set2 Set.difference set1 set2 Set.size set Set.singleton value Set.insert value set Set.delete value set Set.map f set Set.filter f set
Compiling a Haskell program On UNIX (including Linux and Mac OS): Compile with ghc --make filename (omit the.hs ) Run with./filename On Windows: Set the PATH environment variable to something like C:\ghc\ghc- 6.6\bin Compile with ghc inputfile -o outputfile Also works on a Mac compiling hello.hs results in hello.hi, hello.o, and main.exe Run with outputfile.exe Running as an interpreted program, without compiling: runhaskell filename.hs