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1 ©Wrbka / univie Conservative vs. dynamic agricultural landscapes in Austria – a comparison based on historical development of landscape structure Dr.Thomas Wrbka University of Vienna; Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology
2 ©Wrbka / univie Wilderness?
3 ©Wrbka / univie Matrei in Eastern Tyrol / Austria Or just another European example for modern landscape transformation? Global warming Tourism Forest fragmentation Abandonment Traffic Urbanisation
4 ©Wrbka / univie AUSTRIA ?: situated in the “heart of Europe”; only 84.000 square kilometers! transitional between four biogeographical zones (subatlantic, subcontinental, alpine, submediterranean); steep ecological gradients (altitude, precipitation, temperature,...); high diversity of bedrock, soil and landforms;
5 ©Wrbka / univie Austria – cultural perspective: situated at the “crossroads” of Europe: Danube corridor, Amber road, Mountain passes through the Alps high diversity of cultural traditions: illyric, celtic, romanic, slavic, hungarian, germanic (bavarian, suebian, franconian); long history of interaction between humans & nature – earliest artifacts from 30.000 BC ! high diversity of landscape types Dwelling Houses and Farm Buildings
6 ©Wrbka / univie Classification of Austrian Cultural Landscapes Main Types 12 Types and 47 Subtypes
7 ©Wrbka / univie Example for Group E - Upland dairyfarming coverage: 17% Sample Site: Post - Behamberg
8 ©Wrbka / univie Group I: Cropfarming landscapes Subgroup 404: Large scale cropfarming in extraalpine Lowlands coverage: 12% Sample Site: Teichhof
9 ©Wrbka / univie Recent Changes in Austrian agricultural landscapes 1: Fragmentation of the „wet meadow landscape“ in the Vienna Basin between 1900 to 1950
10 ©Wrbka / univie How to track changes ? First (Josefinian) Land Survey (1764 – 1787) First complete land survey of the Austrian territories Conducted by army officers Scale: 1 : 28.880 Military map General information on broad land-cover types Detailed and very reliable information on features interesting for military purposes („obstacles“): watercourses, swamps, dense forest,..) >>>Meso-scale
11 ©Wrbka / univie Franziscan Cadastral Map (1817 – 1871) Second complete land survey of the total Austro- Hungarian Empire Conducted by army officers Scale: 1 : 2.880 Taxation map Detailed information for every land parcel (yield data, etc.) in paper data- base >>>Micro-scale How to track changes ?
12 ©Wrbka / univie Landscape change in Südburgenland / Talboden der Pinka Strong increase of cropland Strong decrease of grassland Strong increase of settlements Slight decrease of orchards >>>Directional change over 150 years
13 ©Wrbka / univie Grünland wird “verackert” Obstgärten werden “verbaut” >>>Character change: transition between major land- use categories Landscape change in Südburgenland / Talboden der Pinka
14 ©Wrbka / univie Fallows are getting cultivated, but new fallows are occurring Fallows are getting cultivated, but NO new fallows are occurring Fallows are invaded by shrubs or afforested, few are cultivated again Landscape change in Südburgenland / Hillsides (“Riedelflanken”) >>>Oscillation and slow change
15 ©Wrbka / univie 1764 - 1787 1817–1861 1984 1994 2000 From change detection to change analysis Transformation matrix Konservative L. Gerichtet dynamische L. ? Trend analysis
16 ©Wrbka / univie VOITSAU Reconstruction of land-use from digitized historical cadastrial map Some landscape elements persist over long periods >>> PELs / persistent landscape elements
17 ©Wrbka / univie Percentage of PELs is regionally very different: High percentage (= conservative l.) vs. Low percentage (= dynamic landscapes) Grossarl Theyern / Nussdorf Voitsau Sampling design for in depth studies on formation and function of agricultural landscapes
18 ©Wrbka / univie Transgressing the map age boundary Reconstruction of land-use from written sources: archive of monastery Göttweig
19 ©Wrbka / univie Vegetation Survey 1995 Digital Elevation Model 1995 PLANNED ONLY: soil profiles (esp. in erosion areas) Palaeobotanical Data (e.g. pollen profiles) Dendrochronological Data Malakological Data Archaeological Data …. Parish registers from 17.C onwards POPULATION CENSUS from 1869 onwards Investigated entity (Village, settlement) PARCELSHOLDINGSPERSONS Plans and Maps, from 2.H. 17C. Municipality Account Books, 1.H. 19.C Kastenamts- Accounts, 16.-19. C Village Law (Custumal), 16. C Forste Regulations, 16. and 18. C statistical data on cultivation, 20. C Notes on traditio 11.-13. C. Charters, 12.-15. C. Urbarial Books, 13/14. Jh. Peasant Labour books, 15. C. Property registers, 16.-19. C --- Theresianian „Fassion“, mid-18 C Josephinian „Fassion“, 1780 Franziszeian Cadastral Map, ca. 1820-1840 + Cadastral Estimation Registers etc. Gewährbücher, 15.-19. C Tithe register: Tithes on Wine, 16.-19. C „Local Urbarii- Description“, 1733 Integration of data from different sources Example: Theyern, Nussdorf
20 ©Wrbka / univie How pre-industrial agricultural systems work and thus should be studied PRODUCTION technology, social organi- sation AGRO- ECOSYSTEM crops, soils, water, animals POPULATION mode of demo- graphic behavior environmental factors (climate, etc.) influence external connections Farm households nutrient transfer human constitution Raw products seed products money labor draught power
21 ©Wrbka / univie Coincidence between high nature value and high percentage of persistent landscape elements
22 ©Wrbka / univie Vernacular architecture ancient land management traditions maintaining green infrastructure wise use of renewable resources multifunctional use of forest resources Conservative agricultural landscapes as “role-models” for sustainable development? Thank You ! At least: a promising coincidence of natural, cultural & economic values !
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