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Chapter 16 Blood.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Blood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Blood

2 Plasma and the cellular elements of blood Blood cell production
About this Chapter Plasma and the cellular elements of blood Blood cell production Red blood cells Platelets and coagulation

3 Trace elements and vitamins
Composition of Blood Amino acids Albumins Water Proteins Globulins Ions Glucose Fibrinogen is composed of Organic molecules BLOOD Plasma such as Lipids Trace elements and vitamins Nitrogenous waste CO2 Gases such as O2 Figure 16-1 (1 of 2)

4 Composition of Blood Figure 16-1 (2 of 2) Lymphocytes Red blood cells
Monocytes is composed of Cellular elements White blood cells BLOOD include Neutrophils Platelets m Eosinophils 5 10 15 Basophils Figure 16-1 (2 of 2)

5 Plasma Proteins Table 16-1

6 Three main cellular elements
Red blood cells – also called erythrocytes Platelets – split off from megakaryocytes White blood cells – also called leukocytes Lymphocytes – are also called immunocytes Monocytes – develop into macrophages Neutrophils – neutrophils along with monocytes and macrophages are known as phagocytes Eosinophils – eosinophils along with neutrophils and basophils are also called granulocytes Basophils – tissue basophils are called mast cells

7 Uncommitted stem cells Committed progenitor cells
Hematopoiesis Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell Uncommitted stem cells Committed progenitor cells Lymphocyte stem cells BONE MARROW Erythroblast Megakaryocyte Figure 16-2 (1 of 2)

8 Hematopoiesis Figure 16-2 (2 of 2) BONE MARROW Erythroblast
Megakaryocyte Reticulocyte CIRCULATION Erythrocyte Platelets Neutrophil Monocyte Basophil Eosinophil Lymphocyte Figure 16-2 (2 of 2)

9 Blood Cells Table 16-2

10 42% packed red cell volume
Clinical Tests Hematocrit: ratio of red blood cells to plasma MALES FEMALES Hematocrit 40%–54% 37%–47% Hemoglobin (g Hb/dL* blood) 14–17 12–16 Red cell count (cells/µL) 4.5–6.5 x 106 3.9–5.6 x 106 58% plasma volume Total white cell count (cells/µL)  4–11 x 103 4–11 x 103 Differential white cell count Neutrophils 50%–70% 50%–70% Eosinophils 1%–4% 1%–4% Basophils <1% <1% 100% Lymphocytes 20%–40% 20%–40% Monocytes 2%–8% 2%–8% <1% white cells Platelets (per µL) 150–450 x 103 150–450 x 103 *1 deciliter (dL) = 100 mL 42% packed red cell volume Figure 16-3

11 Focus on … Bone Marrow Bone marrow (a) Figure 16-4a

12 Focus on … Bone Marrow Central sinus Bone cortex Stroma of marrow
Venous sinuses Radial artery Nutrient artery (b) Figure 16-4b

13 Fragments of megakaryocyte break off to become platelets.
Focus on … Bone Marrow Mature blood cells squeeze through the endothelium to reach the circulation. Stem cell Platelets Reticulocyte expelling nucleus Mature neutrophil Fragments of megakaryocyte break off to become platelets. Reticular fiber Venous sinus Reticular cell Stem cell Macrophage Monocyte The stroma is composed of fibroblast-like reticular cells, collagenous fibers, and extracellular matrix. Lymphocyte (c) Figure 16-4c

14 Red Blood Cells Figure 16-5 Cytoskeleton filament Attachment protein
Actin (a) SEM shows biconcave disk shape of RBCs. (b) Cross section of RBC (c) The cytoskeleton creates the unique shape of RBCs. Figure 16-5

15 Osmotic Changes to Red Blood Cells
The disk-like structure of red blood cells allows them to modify their shape in response to osmotic changes Figure 16-6

16 Iron Homeostasis and Metabolism
Iron (Fe) in diet 1 Iron comes from the diet. 1 Intestine Plasma Bone Marrow 5 2 Fe absorbed by active transport. 3 RBC synthesis Fe 2 Fe・transferrin Fe Heme Hb 3 Transferrin protein transports Fe in plasma. RBC Hb Spleen 4 Liver stores excess Fe as ferritin. Old RBCs destroyed 5 Bone marrow uses Fe to make hemoglobin (Hb). Hb 6 Bilirubin 6 Spleen converts Hb to bilirubin. Liver 4 Kidney 7 Ferritin Liver metabolizes bilirubin and excretes it in bile. Bilirubin metabolism Bilirubin + metabolites 8 Bile 7 8 8 Bilirubin metabolites are excreted in urine and feces. Bilirubin metabolites in feces Bilirubin metabolites in urine Figure 16-7

17 Hemoglobin components are recycled
Red Blood Cells Live for about 120 days Hemoglobin components are recycled Amino acids are incorporated into new proteins Some iron from heme groups reused in new heme groups Remnants of heme groups are converted to bilirubin, then excreted as bile Jaundice results from elevated levels of bilirubin

18 Red Blood Cells Table 16-3

19 Sickled Red Blood Cells
Morphology can provide clues to the presence of disease Figure 16-8

20 Platelets Form from Megakaryocytes
Megakaryocytes are giant cells with multiple copies of DNA in the nucleus. The edges of the megakaryocyte break off to form cell fragments called platelets Platelets Red blood cell Endoplasmic reticulum (a) Figure 16-9a

21 Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair
Damage to wall of blood vessel Collagen exposed Tissue factor exposed 1 Platelets adhere and release platelet factors Vasoconstriction Coagulation cascade 2 Platelets aggregate into loose platelet plug Thrombin formation Converts fibrinogen to fibrin 3 Temporary hemostasis Clot: reinforced platelet plug Fibrin slowly dissolved by plasmin Cell growth and tissue repair Clot dissolves Intact blood vessel wall Figure 16-10

22 Platelet Plug Formation
1 Exposed collagen binds and activates platelets. Lumen of blood vessel 3 2 Release of platelet factors Prevents platelet adhesion Intact endothelium 4 3 Factors attract more platelets. 2 Releases prostacyclin and NO 4 Platelets aggregate into platelet plug. 1 Smooth muscle cells Collagen subendothelial layer Exposed collagen in damaged blood vessel wall ECF Figure 16-11

23 Clotting Process Table 16-4

24 The Coagulation Cascade
INTRINSIC PATHWAY EXTRINSIC PATHWAY Collagen or other activators Damage exposes tissue factor (III) XII Active XII VII XI Ca2+ Active XI Tissue factor (III) and active VII IX Ca2+ positive feedback Active IX VIII Ca2+ X phospholipids (PL) Active X COMMON PATHWAY Prothrombin Ca2+, V, PL , positive feedback Thrombin Fibrinogen XIII Fibrin Active XIII Ca2+ Cross-linked fibrin Figure 16-12

25 Coagulation and Fibrinolysis
Clot Fibrinolysis Thrombin Plasminogen tPA Fibrinogen Fibrin polymer Plasmin Fibrin fragments Figure 16-13

26 Coagulation Table 16-5

27 Coagulation Table 16-6

28 Coagulation Figure 16-14

29 Plasma and cellular elements
Summary Plasma and cellular elements Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and megakaryocytes Plasma proteins and their functions Five types of white blood cells Blood cell production Hematopoiesis and cytokines

30 Platelets and coagulation
Summary Red blood cell Transferrin, ferritin, bilirubin, bile, and jaundice Platelets and coagulation Hemostasis, platelet plug, platelet adhesion, platelet aggregation, and fibrin Coagulation cascade, fibrinogen, thrombin, plasmin, prostacyclin, and anticoagulants

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