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Chapter 16 Blood. About this Chapter Plasma and the cellular elements of blood Blood cell production Red blood cells Platelets and coagulation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Blood. About this Chapter Plasma and the cellular elements of blood Blood cell production Red blood cells Platelets and coagulation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Blood

2 About this Chapter Plasma and the cellular elements of blood Blood cell production Red blood cells Platelets and coagulation

3 Composition of Blood Figure 16-1 (1 of 2) BLOOD Gases such as Plasma Ions Trace elements and vitamins O2O2 CO 2 Proteins Glucose Lipids Nitrogenous waste Globulins Fibrinogen Amino acids Albumins Organic molecules Water is composed of

4 Composition of Blood Figure 16-1 (2 of 2) Cellular elements Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Lymphocytes Monocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils include m BLOOD is composed of

5 Plasma Proteins Table 16-1

6 Cellular Elements Three main cellular elements Red blood cells – also called erythrocytes Platelets – split off from megakaryocytes White blood cells – also called leukocytes Lymphocytes – are also called immunocytes Monocytes – develop into macrophages Neutrophils – neutrophils along with monocytes and macrophages are known as phagocytes Eosinophils – eosinophils along with neutrophils and basophils are also called granulocytes Basophils – tissue basophils are called mast cells

7 Hematopoiesis Figure 16-2 (1 of 2) Uncommitted stem cells Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell Committed progenitor cells Erythroblast Megakaryocyte Lymphocyte stem cells BONE MARROW

8 Hematopoiesis Figure 16-2 (2 of 2) Erythroblast Megakaryocyte Reticulocyte ErythrocytePlatelets Basophil Eosinophil NeutrophilMonocyteLymphocyte BONE MARROW CIRCULATION

9 Blood Cells Table 16-2

10 Clinical Tests Hematocrit: ratio of red blood cells to plasma Figure % 58% plasma volume 42% packed red cell volume <1% white cells MALESFEMALES Hematocrit40%–54%37%–47% Hemoglobin (g Hb/dL* blood)14–1712–16 Red cell count (cells/µL) 4.5–6.5 x –5.6 x 10 6 Total white cell count (cells/µL) 4–11 x 10 3 Differential white cell count Neutrophils50%–70% Eosinophils1%–4% Basophils<1% Lymphocytes20%–40% Monocytes2%–8% Platelets (per µL) 150–450 x 10 3 *1 deciliter (dL) = 100 mL

11 Focus on … Bone Marrow Figure 16-4a (a) Bone marrow

12 Focus on … Bone Marrow Figure 16-4b Bone cortex Central sinus Venous sinuses Stroma of marrow (b) Nutrient artery Radial artery

13 Focus on … Bone Marrow Figure 16-4c Platelets Reticular cell Stem cell Mature blood cells squeeze through the endothelium to reach the circulation. Fragments of megakaryocyte break off to become platelets. The stroma is composed of fibroblast-like reticular cells, collagenous fibers, and extracellular matrix. Reticulocyte expelling nucleus Stem cell Monocyte (c) Lymphocyte Macrophage Venous sinus Mature neutrophil Reticular fiber

14 Red Blood Cells Figure 16-5 Cytoskeleton filament Attachment protein Actin (a) SEM shows biconcave disk shape of RBCs. (b) Cross section of RBC (c) The cytoskeleton creates the unique shape of RBCs.

15 Osmotic Changes to Red Blood Cells The disk-like structure of red blood cells allows them to modify their shape in response to osmotic changes Figure 16-6

16 Iron Homeostasis and Metabolism Figure Intestine Liver Bone Marrow Kidney Spleen Iron (Fe) in diet Fe ・ transferrin Fe Heme Hb RBC synthesis Old RBCs destroyed Hb Bilirubin + metabolites Bilirubin metabolites in feces Bilirubin metabolites in urine Ferritin Bilirubin metabolism Bile Hb Bilirubin Plasma RBC Iron comes from the diet. Fe absorbed by active transport. Transferrin protein transports Fe in plasma. Liver stores excess Fe as ferritin. Bone marrow uses Fe to make hemoglobin (Hb). Spleen converts Hb to bilirubin. Liver metabolizes bilirubin and excretes it in bile. Bilirubin metabolites are excreted in urine and feces.

17 Red Blood Cells Live for about 120 days Hemoglobin components are recycled Amino acids are incorporated into new proteins Some iron from heme groups reused in new heme groups Remnants of heme groups are converted to bilirubin, then excreted as bile Jaundice results from elevated levels of bilirubin

18 Red Blood Cells Table 16-3

19 Figure 16-8 Sickled Red Blood Cells Morphology can provide clues to the presence of disease

20 Platelets Form from Megakaryocytes Figure 16-9a Megakaryocytes are giant cells with multiple copies of DNA in the nucleus. Endoplasmic reticulum Platelets Red blood cell (a) The edges of the megakaryocyte break off to form cell fragments called platelets

21 3 2 1 Damage to wall of blood vessel Tissue factor exposed Intact blood vessel wall Clot: reinforced platelet plug Fibrin slowly dissolved by plasmin Clot dissolves Collagen exposed Platelets aggregate into loose platelet plug Temporary hemostasis Cell growth and tissue repair Vasoconstriction Platelets adhere and release platelet factors Thrombin formation Coagulation cascade Converts fibrinogen to fibrin Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair Figure 16-10

22 Platelet Plug Formation Figure Prevents platelet adhesion Lumen of blood vessel Intact endothelium Smooth muscle cells Collagen subendothelial layer Exposed collagen in damaged blood vessel wall ECF Releases prostacyclin and NO Exposed collagen binds and activates platelets. Release of platelet factors Factors attract more platelets. Platelets aggregate into platelet plug. 1

23 Clotting Process Table 16-4

24 The Coagulation Cascade Figure INTRINSIC PATHWAY COMMON PATHWAY EXTRINSIC PATHWAY Cross-linked fibrin Thrombin Fibrin Active IX Active X Active XIII Tissue factor (III) and active VII Collagen or other activators Damage exposes tissue factor (III) Active XII Active XI XII VIII VII IX XI Ca 2+ Fibrinogen Prothrombin Ca 2+, V, PL, positive feedback phospholipids (PL) X XIII

25 Coagulation and Fibrinolysis Figure ThrombinPlasminogen Fibrin polymer Plasmin tPA Fibrin fragments Coagulation Fibrinolysis Fibrinogen Clot

26 Coagulation Table 16-5

27 Coagulation Table 16-6

28 Coagulation Figure 16-14

29 Summary Plasma and cellular elements Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and megakaryocytes Plasma proteins and their functions Five types of white blood cells Blood cell production Hematopoiesis and cytokines

30 Summary Red blood cell Transferrin, ferritin, bilirubin, bile, and jaundice Platelets and coagulation Hemostasis, platelet plug, platelet adhesion, platelet aggregation, and fibrin Coagulation cascade, fibrinogen, thrombin, plasmin, prostacyclin, and anticoagulants


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