Presentation on theme: "Internet Protocol V4 Addressing & Subnetting Written by Bill Reed 22/02/04."— Presentation transcript:
Internet Protocol V4 Addressing & Subnetting Written by Bill Reed 22/02/04
Look at the structure of an IP V4 address. Examine the Binary principles behind an IP V4 address. Identify the historic classes of IP V4 addresses. Divide an IP V4 address into subnets. We will
IP V4 Address Structure Notation IP V4 Addresses are represented in a way known as DOTTED DECIMAL NOTATION An example of this could be 192.168.100.17 Each Decimal number represents a BINARY BYTE and therefore is limited to a value between 0 and 255
IP V4 Address Structure Hierarchical IP V4 Addresses are hierarchical in nature. 192.168.100.17 Think of a postal address. The first Decimal number could represent a country. The second Decimal number could represent county. The third Decimal number could represent a post code denoting a town, an area of that town and a street. The fourth Decimal number could represent a house number on that street. An advantage of hierarchical addressing is that additions can easily be made, for instance we could build another few houses in our street and give them numbers without effecting upper layers of our addressing structure. We call this scalability.
BINARY PRINCIPLES How Binary values work BINARY BIT VALUES 1286432168421 Eight BITS = 1 BYTE or OCTET If all eight values in a BYTE are added together they come to a value of 255
How Binary values work BINARY BIT VALUES 1286432168421 128
How Binary values work BINARY BIT VALUES 1286432168421 128 192
How Binary values work BINARY BIT VALUES 1286432168421 128 192224
How Binary values work BINARY BIT VALUES 1286432168421 128 192224240
How Binary values work BINARY BIT VALUES 1286432168421 128 192224240248
How Binary values work BINARY BIT VALUES 1286432168421 128 192224240248252
How Binary values work BINARY BIT VALUES 1286432168421 128 192224240248252254
How Binary values work BINARY BIT VALUES 1286432168421 128 192224240248252254255
192.168.100.17 RECAP IP V4 addressing is represented using DOTTED DECIMAL NOTATION Each DECIMAL number represents a BINARY BYTE A BINARY BYTE can represent a value between 0 and 255 IP V4 addressing is hierarchical and therefore scalable
The Historical IP V4 Address Classes Class Arange = 0.0.0.0 – 22.214.171.124 BIN 0??????? 0 = 00000000 - 126 = 01111110 (16,777,214 available addresses) Class B range = 126.96.36.199 – 188.8.131.52 BIN 10?????? 128 = 10000000 - 191 = 10111111 (65,534 available addresses) Class Crange = 192.0.0.0 – 184.108.40.206BIN 110????? 192 = 11000000 - 223 = 11011111 (254 available addresses)
Dividing an IP V4 address Subnetting We subnet to gain additional discrete network addresses from a single address space. Discrete network addresses are advantageous for security and organisational reasons. IP V4 addresses have things called default subnet masks Subnet masks tell some networking devices how we want to divide our address space A class A default subnet mask looks like 255.0.0.0 A class B default subnet mask looks like 255.255.0.0 A class C default subnet mask looks like 255.255.255.0
Dividing an IP V4 address Subnetting CASE STUDY 192.168.100.17 = ONE NETWORK with 254 available addresses 1.Our client has bought this class C address space from her ISP. 2.Our client has a building with 5 floors. 3.Our client needs a different network address space on each floor. HOW DO WE ACHIEVE THIS AND SATISFY OUR CLIENT?
Firstly we identify the address class. Next we identify the default subnet mask. Then we get out our DIY subnet calculator. Dividing an IP V4 address Subnetting CASE STUDY
DIY subnet calculator 1286432168421 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 BINARY values Accumulated BIT values We inform the network devices that we want to divide up Our address space by specifying a subnet mask that borrows BITS from the host portion of the address space. CASE STUDY192.168.100.17
DIY subnet calculator 1286432168421 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 192.168.100.17 255.255.255.0 IP V4 address Subnet mask When we subnet using the no math method we start from the right hand side. We move left along the numbers until we See a number larger than the amount of subnets that we need (8), this will be the number Of subnets that we create. Remember We need 5 subnets Next we count how many BITS are to the right Of this number (in this case there are 3 BITS) This is the number of BITS we must borrow. CASE STUDY
DIY subnet calculator 1286432168421 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 192.168.100.17 255.255.255.0 IP V4 address Subnet mask So far we have established that we need to Borrow 3 BITS from the host portion of the Address. Now we need to specify a subnet mask that tells the network devices of our intentions. We achieve this by changing the DECIMAL value in the host portion of our subnet mask to a value that represents 3 BINARY BITS added together. CASE STUDY
DIY subnet calculator 1286432168421 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 192.168.100.17 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.224 IP V4 address Subnet mask New subnet mask CASE STUDY So far we have specified a subnet mask to create 8 subnets We borrowed 3 BITS from the RHS to achieve this Now we must find out how many addresses are available inside each of those subnets. We do this by counting from the LHS the number of BITS borrowed (3) and taking 2 away from this number. 32 – 2 = 30
DIY subnet calculator CASE STUDY Our eight subnet addresses are: 192.168.100.0 192.168.100.32 192.168.100.64 192.168.100.96 192.168.100.128 192.168.100.160 192.168.100.192 192.168.100.224 An interesting aside is that the last octet of the last subnet address, matches the last octet of the subnet mask. (this will always be the case no matter what the subnet mask) Remember 32 was our spacing for the subnets That’s it we are done! Now you know how to subnet!