Presentation on theme: "THE MODERN AGE 1 by SARA GIL CASTRILLO. The Modern Age began with the discovery of the American continent in 1492, and ended with the French Revolution."— Presentation transcript:
The Modern Age began with the discovery of the American continent in 1492, and ended with the French Revolution in 1789. 2
Economy and society – Exploration and discoveries – Economic transformation – society Politics, religion and science The Spanish monarchy – Habsburg Spain – The Bourbon Dynasty Art and culture 3
Economy and society Exploration and discoveries During the 15 th and 16 th centuries, many geographic discoveries took place. In 1492, Christopher Columbus started a journey to the East Indies, with money from the Catholic Kings. During that journey, Columbus discovered America. 4
Other discoveries: Pizarro: He discovered Peru in 1531 Hernán Cortés discovered Mexico in 1520 5
Economic transformation During the Modern Age, agriculture was the main economic activity, but commerce was growing and industrialisation was starting. - European countries produced more coins, using gold and silver from America. - The first modern factories appeared, with new machines and other technology. 6
Society: During the Modern Age, society was divided into three groups: nobility, clergy and commoners. The nobility included royalty and members of the upper class, such as lords and ladies. The nobility and the clergy had special privileges. They could gobern and they didn’t have to pay taxes. King Nobility and clergy Commoners 7
Commoners didn’t have any special privileges. There were burghers, who lived in towns and cities, and peasants, who lived in the country. In the Modern Age, burghers became a powerful social and economic group. Country peasants formed the largest social group in the Modern Age. They were usually very poor, and some of them lived in terrible conditions. 8
Politics, religion and science Importants changes ocurred during the Modern Age: - European Monarchies became more powerful, dominating the nobility and unifying their kingdoms. Louis XIV of France 9
- There were religious conflicts and persecutions that killed hundreds of thousands people. The Modern Age was a time of religious intolerance and conflic. During the 16 th century, a German monk named Martin Luther published criticism of the Catholic Church. As a result, European Christians divided into two different groups: Catholics and Protestants. Martin Luther At this time, there were many religious wars between Catholics, Protestants and Muslims. 10
- Social changes favoured the birth of the modern science and technology. In the 16 th century, there were important changes in society and the way that people thought. These changes favoured the development of modern science. Many people were corious about the world around them and wanted to study nature. The scientific method was established to design experiments and explain their results. Copernicus The printing press made it easier for people to share ideas about science and culture. 11
12 During this time, technical advances changed people’s daily lives. There were also great developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy and medicine. Science progressed quickly in the Modern Age, especially in the 18 th century. Galileo Isaac Newton Some of the greatest thinkers of the Modern Age were: Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Servet, Descartes, Bacon, Pascal, Newton, Linnaeus and Jenner.
14 Fernando II Isabel I The Spanish monarchy The Catholic Kings: - United their kingdoms to form one dynasty. - Increased their power and created a modern state. - Where intolerant toward other religions, and persecuted Jews and Muslims. - Conquered new territories, such as the Kingdom of Granada (1492), the Canary Islands (1496) and Melilla (1497); they also took over the Kingdom of Navarra (1512). - Gave money to Columbus for the journey in which he discovered America. In Spain, the Modern Age began with the reign of the Catholic Kings: Isabel I of Castilla and Fernando II of Aragón.
15 Habsburg Spain During the Habsburg Dynasty, Spain became the centre of an enormous, international empire. The empire included territories in Europe, Asia, Africa and America. In the 16 th and 17 th centuries, Spain was ruled by the Habsburg Dynasty, or the House of Austria. The dynasty began with Carlos I, the grandson of the Catholic Kings. Carlos I
16 The most important members of the Habsburg Dynasty were Carlos I and Felipe II. They ruled during the 16 th century and dominated Europe. The next Habsburg Kings were Felipe III, Felipe IV and Carlos II. They had many problems because there was an economic crisis in Europe. Felipe II Felipe IVCarlos IIFelipe III
17 The Bourbon Dynasty When King Carlos II died in 1700, the War of Succession began, to decide who would be the new king. As a result, Spain lost power in Europe, and a new dynasty replaced the Habsburgs: the Bourbon Dynasty. The first Bourbon king was Felipe V, who ruled with absolute power. He eliminated many local laws and institutions, and created new ones for the whole empire. After Felipe V, the next kings were Fernando VI and Carlos III. Carlos III was king during the Enlightenment, and he started many new plans to modernise Spain. Carlos III improved Spain’s system of roads and highways. Carlos III
18 Art and culture The main artistic styles of the Modern Age were the Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical styles. The Renaissance Style This style was typical in the 15 th and 16 th centuries. It was inspired by ancient Greek and Roman art, and by new knowledge about human anatomy and perspective. Some of the most famous Renaissance artists are Leonardo da Vinci, Micheangelo and Raphael. Michelangelo (Sistine Chapel)Micheangelo (David)
19 Leonardo da Vinci (Mona Lisa)Leonardo da Vinci (Vitruvian man)
20 Raphael (The beautiful gardener) Raphael (School of Athens) Raphael (Angel)
21 The Baroque Style This style was typical in the 17 th century and the first half of the 18th century. It used lots of curved lines, decoration and dramatic effects, such as contrasts between light and dark areas. Some of the most famous baroque artists are Bernini, Rembrandt, Rubens and Caravaggio. RubensRembrandt Bernini
22 The Neoclassical Style This style was typical of the second half of the 18 th century. It returned to the classical styles and concepts of ancient Greek and Rome. The Neoclassical Style was specially important in architecture.
23 Art and literature in Spain There were great artists who made important contributions to the world of art and literature. Santa Teresa de Jesús At the beginning of the 16 th century, the most important painter in Spain was El Greco. In spanish literature, the most important writers were Santa Teresa de Jesús and Garcilaso de la Vega. El Greco
24 The time between the middel of the 16 th century and the end of 17 th century, is called the Golden Age of Spanish Art and Literature. In spanish art there were great painters, like Ribera, Murillo, and the most especially Velazquez. Murillo Velázquez
25 In spanish literature, the greatest writers were Quevedo, Góngora, Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca and Miguel de Cervantes. Góngora Lope de Vega Calderón de la Barca Miguel de Cervantes
26 During the 18 th century, another world-famous painter from Spain was Francisco de Goya.