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1 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations CONTINUUM MECHANICS (CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS - - HOOKE LAW)

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2 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations 3 internal equilibrium equations (Navier eq.) 6 unknown functions (stress matrix components) Boundary conditions (statics) 6 kinematics equations (Cauchy eq.), 9 unknown functions (6 strain matrix components, 3 displacements) Boundary conditions (kinematics) 9 equations 15 unknown functions (6 stresses, 6 strains, 3 displacements) From the formal point of view (mathematics) we are lacking 6 equations From the point of view of physics – there are no material properties involved Summary of stress and strain state equations

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3 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations Strain versus stress An obvious solution is to exploit already noticed interrelation between strains and stresses Material deformability properties General property of majority of solids is elasticity (instantaneous shape memory) P u Linear elasticity Deformation versus internal forces CEIIINOSSSTTUV UT TENSIO SIC VIS which reads: „as much the extension as the force is” where k is a constant dependent on a material and body shape This observation was made already in 1676 by Robert Hooke:

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4 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations Physical quantities (measurable) Mathematical quantities (non-measurable) Dynamics Kinematics Hooke, 1678 Navier, 1822 f - linear function of all strain matrix components defining all stress component matrix To make Hooke’s law independent of a body shape one has to use state variables characterizing internal forces and deformations in a material point i.e. stress and strain.

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5 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations The coefficients of this equation do depend only on the material considered, but not on the body shape. As Navier equation is a set of 9 linear algebraic equations then the number of coefficient in this set is 81 and can be represented as a matrix of 3 4 =81 components: Summation over kl indices reflects linear character of this constitutive equation.

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6 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations Nevertheless, the number of assumptions allows for the reduction of the coefficients number: two of them are already inscribed in the formula: Universality of linear elasticity follows observation, that for loading below a certain limit (elasticity limit) most of materials exhibit this property. 1.For zero valued deformations all stresses vanish: the body in a natural state is free of initial stresses. 2.Coefficients C ijkl do not depend on position in a body – material properties are uniform (homogeneous).

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7 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations 3. Assumption of the existence of elastic potential yields symmetry of group of indices ij - kl thus reducing the number of independent coefficients to 36 [=(81-9)/2]. 4. Symmetry of material inner structure allows for further reductions. In a general case of lacking any symmetry (anisotropy) the number of independent coefficients is 21 [=(36-6)/2+6]. 5. In the simplest and the most frequent case of structural materials (except the composite materials) – the number of coefficients is 2 (isotropy): or in an inverse form: The pairs of coefficients G, i E, ν are interdependent so there are really only two material independent constants.

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8 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations 9 9 6 6 81 components of C ijkl General anisotropy: 15+6=21 constants Isotropy: 2 constants 000 000 000 000 000 000 00 00 0 0 Symmetrical components Identical components Components dependent on other components

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9 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations Summation obeys ! Kronecker’s delta Lamé constants [Pa] Normal stress and normal strain dependences Shear stress and shear strain dependences This equation consists of two groups:

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10 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations Summation obeys ! Kronecker’s delta Poisson modulus [0] Young modulus [Pa] Normal stress and normal strain dependences Shear stress and shear strain dependences

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11 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations Mean strain Mean stress =3 Prawo zmiany objętości Volume change law

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12 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations =+ deviatoraxiator Decomposition of symmetric matrix (tensor) into deviator and volumetric part (axiator)

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13 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations Volume change law Distortion law

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14 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations ν 1/2 G E/3 E/9 K - 0 No volume change: incompressible material Constants cross-relations: 0 No shape change: stiff material

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15 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations x1x1 x2x2 x3x3 Volume change Composed (full) deformation x1x1 x2x2 x3x3 Shape change x1x1 x2x2 x3x3 +

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16 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations x1x1 x2x2 x3x3 Volume change Composed (full) deformation x1x1 x2x2 x3x3 Shape change x1x1 x2x2 x3x3 + FAST

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17 /16 M.Chrzanowski: Strength of Materials SM1-10: Continuum Mechanics: Constitutive equations stop

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Strengths Chapter 10 Strains. 1-1 Intro Structural materials deform under the action of forces Three kinds of deformation Increase in length called an.

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