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Massachusetts Literacy First Managing the Literacy Block for Student Success Massachusetts Reading First July 16, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Massachusetts Literacy First Managing the Literacy Block for Student Success Massachusetts Reading First July 16, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Massachusetts Literacy First Managing the Literacy Block for Student Success Massachusetts Reading First July 16, 2008

2 Literacy Block Success - Slide 2 Create Success New teacher induction Mid-course correction Whole school reflection

3 Literacy Block Success - Slide 3 What does the Research Say? Reid Lyon Video

4 Literacy Block Success - Slide 4 In order to effectively prevent early reading difficulties, we need to apply two kinds of knowledge From the “science of reading” Information about the individual components of instruction and assessment that are most effective in raising literacy levels From effective schools Information about leadership, organizational, and classroom practices that are most effective in raising literacy levels Understanding, and Motivation to Apply Torgesen, 2008

5 Literacy Block Success - Slide 5 Goals Perfect your practice with purpose, preparation, and pace Differentiate instruction Efficiently manage all aspects of the classroom Optimize learning of all components Optimize time and talent

6 Literacy Block Success - Slide 6 Goals Perfect your practice with purpose, preparation, and pace Optimize time and talent Differentiate instruction Efficiently manage all aspects of the classroom Optimize learning of all components

7 720 or bust! Good is the enemy of great! J. Collins

8 Literacy Block Success - Slide 8 Good Teachers Matter “By our estimates from Texas schools, having an above average teacher for five years running can completely close the average gap between low-income students and others.” John Kain & Eric Hanushek Schmoker, (p 9)

9 Literacy Block Success - Slide 9 Impact of Teacher Effectiveness on Student Achievement Kati Haycock (2005) uses the findings of this study and others by Sanders and Horn (1994). Students in the classes of teachers classified as most effective can be expected to gain about 52%ile points in their achievement over a year. Classroom Management That Works, Robert J. Marzano. Adapted from J. Robinson.

10 Literacy Block Success - Slide 10 Professional Development Teachers, like other professionals, can get more and more effective:  Participate in school/district workshops/grade level meetings  Work with school-based coaches  Take charge of your own learning  Read – professional books, journals  Help create a professional learning community  Take courses Schmoker, 2006

11 Literacy Block Success - Slide 11 Outstanding Teachers Create a literate environment Present intentional instruction and provide practice Choose texts from a variety of materials Link reading and writing activities

12 Literacy Block Success - Slide 12 Outstanding Teachers cont… Create many opportunities for reading Adjust instruction to meet students’ needs Encourage children’s monitoring of understanding Completely manage activities, behaviors, and classroom resources

13 Literacy Block Success - Slide 13 Examine your “groove” Monitor your “groove” Stay curious Keep learning Are you in the groove?

14 Literacy Block Success - Slide 14 Goals Perfect your practice with purpose, preparation, and pace Differentiate instruction Efficiently manage all aspects of the classroom Optimize learning of all components Optimize time and talent

15 Literacy Block Success - Slide 15 Differentiation Scheme: Instruction Managed by: Code Meaning Teacher Student Independent worksheets or small group activities-PA, Phonics Small group or whole class instruction in PA, Phonics Independent reading, small group activities, vocabulary, comprehension Teacher led discussion, question asking, vocabulary Torgesen, 2008

16 Literacy Block Success - Slide 16 C Children who began first grade with below-average letter- word reading skills demonstrated greater improvement with greater amounts of time in explicit, teacher managed, code-focused instruction. Basic Findings: Children with above-average vocabulary and word- reading scores at the start of the school year made greater gains in reading skill when they spent more time throughout the year in child- managed meaning-focused instruction (such as independent reading). Torgesen, 2008

17 Literacy Block Success - Slide 17 Differentiation Matters Classrooms that differentiated instruction appropriately produced higher overall reading growth. Torgesen, 2008

18 Literacy Block Success - Slide 18 Differentiated Instruction Examples Using assessment data to plan instruction Teaching targeted small groups Using flexible grouping patterns Matching text level to student ability Tailoring independent projects to student ability

19 Literacy Block Success - Slide 19 Differentiated Instruction Non-Examples Using only whole class instruction Using small groups that never change Using the same reading text with all students Using the same independent seatwork assignments for the entire class

20 Literacy Block Success - Slide 20 Students Reading at Grade Level Researched-Based Comprehensive Reading Program for All Students Research-Based, In-Class Interventions Research-Based, School-Designed Interventions System for Individual Solutions adapted from J. Robinson

21 Literacy Block Success - Slide 21 Tiered Model of Reading Instruction Who: ALL students What: Prevention/problem-solving model of reading instruction When: 90-minute literacy block & (in some cases) additional 30 minutes of targeted reading intervention instruction Where: All K-3 classrooms & other school- designated learning spaces

22 Literacy Block Success - Slide 22 Tiered Model continued… Why: Differentiated instruction: early identification and intervention for students at- risk for reading difficulties; challenging work for all students How: Tiers of scientifically-based reading instruction, professional development, assessment, grade-level data meetings, teacher & administrator collaboration Assessment informs your instruction.

23 Literacy Block Success - Slide 23 Organizing and Managing Learning Centers/Small Groups Group children for specific purposes, using formal and informal assessment data. Plan daily lessons and select curriculum materials and learning activities that reinforce instruction. Develop a daily schedule. Create a management system to establish easy to follow routines. Monitor the activities of all the children. Continually evaluate children’s progress and regularly regroup children to address their instructional needs.

24 Literacy Block Success - Slide 24 Centers & Interventions Centers Match reading lesson and student needs Extra needed practice on taught skills (engaging, fun) Skills and strategies from this week’s lesson

25 Literacy Block Success - Slide 25 Centers & Interventions Interventions 3-5 students in group Systematic & explicit Paced to match student’s skill level Provide multiple opportunities to respond Provide immediate corrective feedback

26 Literacy Block Success - Slide 26 Goals Perfect your practice with purpose, preparation, and pace Differentiate instruction Efficiently manage all aspects of the classroom Optimize learning of all components Optimize time and talent

27 Literacy Block Success - Slide 27 Excellent Classroom Management – Begin with the End in Mind Effective and consistent routines/signals Bell to bell instruction Entry and exit procedures Transition procedures Independent work, small group, & materials procedures Efficient traffic routes/scanning ease

28 Literacy Block Success - Slide 28 Magic in 90 Minutes Place, group, teach, and assess each lesson from the Teacher’s Guide Excellent Classroom Management Enough added practice for mastery 100% Engagement Timely Error Correction ProgramYou add the rest

29 Literacy Block Success - Slide 29 Excellent Classroom Management Effective and consistent routines : Consistent signal for attention Entry procedure and task that uses lesson reading skills Transition procedures/routines Independent work procedures Materials procedures Small group procedures Exit procedures from today’s lesson

30 Literacy Block Success - Slide 30 Upon Entering Write 6 words from the selection on oceans. Tell what they mean in sentences and pictures Write 3 questions about yesterday’s work. Be prepared to ask them of your partner 1. How… 2. Why… 3. …

31 Literacy Block Success - Slide 31 Quiet Center Noisy Center Noisy Center Computers Optimize Your View/Traffic Patterns adapted from J. Robinson

32 Literacy Block Success - Slide 32 Noisy Station Arranged for Best View/Traffic Routes adapted from J. Robinson

33 Literacy Block Success - Slide 33 Goals Perfect your practice with purpose, preparation, and pace Differentiate instruction Efficiently manage all aspects of the classroom Optimize learning of all components Optimize time and talent

34 Literacy Block Success - Slide 34 What Can Fluent Readers Do? Read every letter in every word Read text with 96% accuracy (independent) Apply syllabication strategies to divide lengthy words with little conscious analysis. Read fluently with adequate speed, phrasing, intonation; their reading sounds like they’re speaking. Rely little on contextual information because word recognition is rapid, automatic and efficient. Construct meaning as they read/make connections.

35 Literacy Block Success - Slide 35 The Four Part Processor Orthographic Processor Phonological Processor Meaning Processor Context Processor speech sound system letter memory phonics speech output writing output reading input vocabulary background information sentence context fluency

36 Literacy Block Success - Slide 36 Brain: Functional Neuroanatomy Each processing system operates in a distinct region of the left brain. Rapid communication among regions is essential. Reading problems can originate in one or several systems. All systems must be educated Moats, 2005

37 Literacy Block Success - Slide 37 The Phonological Processor Processes the speech sound system. We must teach: Identification, comparison, and manipulation of sounds Pronunciation of sounds and words Memory for sounds and words Links between sounds, spellings, and meanings Moats, 2005

38 Literacy Block Success - Slide 38 The Orthographic Processor Processes letters, letter patterns, and whole words. We must teach: Recognition and formation of letters Association of letters with sounds Attention to letter sequences and patterns Fluent recognition of whole words Recall of letters for spelling Moats, 2005

39 Literacy Block Success - Slide 39 The Meaning Processor We store word meanings in relation to: Other words Categories and concepts Examples of word use in context The sounds, spelling, and syllables Meaningful parts We must teach vocabulary with attention to all these areas. Moats, 2005

40 Literacy Block Success - Slide 40 The Context Processor (self-correction device) Interprets words we have heard, named, or partially identified, with reference to: Language Experience Knowledge of the concepts We teach the background that children need to interpret what they read. Moats, 2005

41 Literacy Block Success - Slide 41 Reading Comprehension REQUIRES More than Knowledge of Words “By age three, children from privileged families have heard 30 million more words than children from poor families. By kindergarten the gap is even greater. The consequences are catastrophic. Among all children, comprehension scores are stagnant. Convincing research tells us that key to both problems is to systematically build children’s vocabulary, fluency and domain knowledge.” -E.D. Hirsch

42 Literacy Block Success - Slide 42 Goals Perfect your practice with purpose, preparation, and pace Differentiate instruction Efficiently manage all aspects of the classroom Optimize learning of all components Optimize time and talent

43 Literacy Block Success - Slide 43 Put It All Together

44 Literacy Block Success - Slide 44 The First 6 Weeks of School adapted from Responsive Classroom Investment in time, energy, and efficiency Payoff in freedom to optimize learning, talent, and time A slow and purposeful beginning results in a competent, successful, cohesive classroom culture – one that supports success for all

45 Literacy Block Success - Slide 45 Assessments DIBELS – Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (3X for benchmarks) GRADE – Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (2X for outcomes/3X for monitoring progress) Other – district/school/program benchmarks Progress monitoring as needed Other diagnostics as needed

46 Literacy Block Success - Slide 46 The Barriers Permanent Memory All that we know and all that we understand. Working Memory consciousness Sensory Memory Background knowledge, academic and nonacademic The quality and type of processing that occurs in working memory that dictates whether that information makes it to permanent memory Much of what enters our Sensory Memory results in no permanent record. Too many things to attend to and encode Marzano, 2004

47 Literacy Block Success - Slide 47 Three Interacting Dynamics of Working Memory 1. Strength of Memory Trace: The more times we meaningfully engage information in working memory, the higher the probability that it will be embedded in permanent memory. 2. Depth of Processing: Thinking deeper about a concept adds detail to our understanding of information. 3. Elaboration: The variety of associations we make with information. Marzano, 2004

48 Literacy Block Success - Slide 48 Classroom Instruction Think about the BIG IDEA (concept). Make connections to what they know, what they’ll learn and how it affects their lives. Create opportunities for students to maintain the understanding of the BIG IDEA. Words on the wall connected to BIG IDEA (remember purpose). PROTOCOL for discussions (subskills).

49 Literacy Block Success - Slide 49 Classroom Ideals Teach the academic routines with the academic curriculum. Pay attention to how students learn as well as what they learn. Students working together learn more – more student talk/less teacher talk. The skills you teach through routines are necessary for learning.

50 Literacy Block Success - Slide 50 Continued… Know your students as well as your content. Make every effort to connect with students’ families. Model behaviors – social and academic every day. Respect your profession and your place as a professional.

51 Literacy Block Success - Slide 51 A Call to Action “Our understanding of ‘what works’ in reading is dynamic and fluid, subject to ongoing review and assessment through quality research.... We encourage all teachers to explore the research, open their minds to changes in their instructional practice, and take up the challenge of helping all children become successful readers.” - National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. iii, cited in J. Robinson, 2004.

52 Literacy Block Success - Slide 52 Resources fcrr.org responsiveclassroom.org reading.org doe.mass.edu/reading GRADE Resource Library readingrockets.org

53 Literacy Block Success - Slide 53 References Denton, P. & Kriete, R. (2000). The first six weeks of school. Greenfield, MA: The Northeast Foundation for Children. Gamse, B. C, Bloom, H. S., Kemple, J. J., Jacob, R. T. (2008). Reading First Impact Study: Interim Report (NCEE ). Washington, DC:National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U S department of Education. Hirsch, E.D. (2003). Reading comprehension requires knowledge – of words and the world. American Educator, Spring, 10 – 29. Marzano, R. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement: Research on what works in schools. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Moats, L. (2005). Language essentials for teachers of reading and spelling. Boston, MA: Sopris West. Robinson, J. (2004). Getting more out of your core reading program. Presentation at the 3 rd Annual National Reading First Conference: Reno, NV. Schmoker, Mike. (2006). Results now: How we can achieve unprecedented improvements in teaching and learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Torgesen, J. (2008). Reading First: Celebrating and looking forward. Presentation at Year End Massachusetts Reading First Conference: Marlborough, MA.


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