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L-16 Part III Era of Great Reforms (2) 2. The Other Great Reforms.

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Presentation on theme: "L-16 Part III Era of Great Reforms (2) 2. The Other Great Reforms."— Presentation transcript:

1 L-16 Part III Era of Great Reforms (2) 2. The Other Great Reforms

2 A. Themes 1.Emancipation trigger 2.Nikolaevan prereforms as base 3.Fundamental principles a.All-estate b.Publicity c.Raskreposhchenie: “Unfettering of social forces” d.Gradualism 4.Politics 5.Piecemeal 6.Fiscal Constraints 7.Dysfunctions and disillusionment

3 B. Why More Great Reforms? 1.Psychological: Crimean debacle delegitimized, mandated systemic reform 2.Mounting demand & prereform preparations 3.Vacuum created by emancipation 4.Glasnost’ (publicity): irreversibility

4 C. Zemstvo: Local Self- Government 1.Prereform Problems 2.Reform process 3.Structure: Provincial and district zemstvo 4.Functions 5.Problems 6.Politics 7.Impact

5 Unkovskii Speech as Tver Deputy to St. Petersburg (1859) “The entire life of the people is under government tutelage. No question, however trifling, can be dealt with by the people themselves.... They dare not [without official sanction] repair a miserable bridge, or hire an elementary school teacher.... The whole of our administration is a vast system of malfeasance raised to the dignity of government.... We need the emancipation not only of the peasants, but also of the whole people.”

6 First Zemstvo Deputies: Social Composition (1865-7) Social GroupDistrict (Uezd)Province Nobles42%74% Peasants38%11% Townspeople11% Clergy7%4% Other2%0%

7 Moscow Zemstvo Address and Alexander II’s Response (1865) Zemstvo votes (270-36) for resolution “to complete the structure of the state by convoking a general assembly of elected personnel of the Russian land to consider needs common to the entire country.” Alexander’s response: “Such deviations from the order of things established by laws in force can only make it more difficult for me to fulfill my plans; in no case can they assist in the achievement of the purpose to which they may be directed.”

8 1879 Moscow Zemstvo Address “All those present unanimously recognize that only a constitutional order, resting on the force of right and law, can disarm terror and limit the arbitrariness of the authorities. In view of this unanimity of outlook, it was decided to organize locally the dissemination of constitutionalist ideas and to assist all attempts to submit constitutionalist demands to the government.”

9 Zemstvo Board Meeting

10 Zemstvo Lunch (1872)

11 Volost Administrative Center

12 Volost Assembly

13 Village Elders with State Medals

14 D. Education 1.Prereform 2.Educational Issues a.Public Debate b.Policy Thaw 3.Crisis of 1861 4.Golovnin Reforms, 1863-4 5.Tolstoi’s “Reaction” 1866-81 6.Impact

15 A. V. Golovnin

16 Dmitrii Tolstoi

17 New Zemstvo School

18 Zemstvo School: Class

19 Percent of Children in School YearPercent of school-age children in school 17950.2 18578.0 187818.0 189621.0

20 Expansion of Enrollments Level18541881 University3,6009,860 Secondary18,00083,000 Primary105,0001,200,000

21 University: Social Composition (percent) Social Origin18481875 Nobility and Officialdom 6443 Clergy735 Others2922

22 Literacy Rates (Percent of population over Age 9) Country185018891913 MFMFMF Russia191031135426 Gt. Britain7245918999 Germany8684979599 Japan64209798 U.S.A.8176888593

23 Pupils in Primary and Secondary Schools (in thousands) Country1840186018901914 Russia2709552,5109,656 Gt. Britain2,1004,3716,329 Germany3,7004,4007,10011,326 France2,9004,0295,6855,800 Japan1,3283,1207,595 USA1,2602,83014,57621,100

24 Pupils per 1,000 Inhabitants Country1840186018901914 Russia5132159 Gt. Britain78132152 Germany113151156175 France85108149148 Japan3878146 USA74`90231213

25 University Enrollments (in thousands) Country186018901913 Russia8.512.5127.0 Gt. Britain13.4 Germany7.328.479.6 France60.1 Japan4.315.056.0 USA60.1

26 University Enrollments (per 10,000 inhabitants) Country186018901913 Russia118 Gt. Britain4 Germany2612 France511 Japan1411 USA10

27 Book and Brochure Publishing (in thousands) Country1828-321888-891913 Russia0.7647.24730.1 Gt. Britain1.0606.33012.4 Germany5.53017.523.2 France4.6407.350 USA1.0134.32212.2

28 Newspapers Indicator184018901913 Number of Titles2046671,055 Press runs0.9 million3.3 million Copies per capita1021

29 1890: Newspapers in Comparative Perspective CountryNews- papers Press Runs (millions) Copies per capita Russia6670.910 Gt. Britain2,22310.2285 Germany5,50010.1208 France4,10014.2224 Japan4700.154 USA15,39214.2225

30 E. Judicial Reform 1.Prereform Courts 2.Bludov Commission, 1850-61 3.Jurists Take Charge 4.Judicial Statute of 1864 5.Structure 6.State infringements 7.Impact

31 Dmitrii Iv. Bludov

32 Sergei Iv. Zarudnyi

33 Judicial Breakdown: Unresolved Cases (percent) Judicial Organ1833- 40 1841- 50 1851- 60 1861- 64 All levels13.617.026.330.8 Senate20.613.320.123.9 Criminal District10.110.415.817.9 Civil District32.126.125.424.6 Primary Court6.728.536.1

34 Crime and Prosecution (per 100,000 inhabitants) Index1851 -60 1861- 70 1871- 80 1881- 90 1891- 1900 Crimes5168681,3971,2211,332 Tried3564849491,4061,365 Convicted123148673713694

35 Categories of Crimes (annual average; in thousands) Category1846- 1857 1874- 1883 1884- 1893 1899- 1905 State crimes0.012.0 Murder4.23.85.219.8 Sexual offenses0.61.83.19.7 Religious6.81.01.61.4 Robbery1.612.314.144.8 Petty theft18.641.923.182.4

36 Volost court

37 Volost Court: Corporal Punishment

38 F. Military Reforms 1.Prereform problems 2.Obstacles to reform 3.Miliutin and reformers 4.Reforms: admin, education, tech, UMT 5.Politics of reform 6.Impact

39 Russian Army Indicator17251801185018971913 Number (thousands) 2103791,1181,1331,320 % of Population 1.30.981.960.890.83

40 Military Expenditures (1889) CountryTotal (mln dollars) Per capita (dollars) Percent of GNP Russia1241.13.5 Gt. Britain1563.12.1 Germany1513.12.6 France1534.02.8 USA661.10.5

41 Military Per 1,000 Inhabitants Country1810185118891913 Russia13.79.36.97.7 Gt. Britain17.24.77.28.6 Germany2.09.810.512.9 France19.510.315.916.7 USA1.60.90.61.9

42 G. Urban Government Reform 1.Prereform problems 2.Commission, 1862-70 3.Reform statute: structure, composition, functions, and finances of new city government 4.Impact

43 Moscow Street Scene 1880s

44 Horse-drawn Tram Moscow

45 St. Petersburg “Taxis”

46 Tula, 1900

47 Poor Relief: Refuge for the Homeless

48 Nizhnii Novgorod: Downtown Trade Center

49 Father, Son: Migrant Labor

50 Saratov and Vol’sk: Provincial and District Capitals

51 H. Censorship 1.Prereform 2.Dynamics: policy shifts and growth of the press 3.Temporary Regulations of 1865

52 Censorship: 1863 Caricature

53 Caricature: “Conscription” of Journals

54 I. Church Reform 1.Prereform problems 2.Process and politics 3.Reforms and Blueprints 4.Impact

55 J. Conclusions 1.Dynamics 2.Principles of Great Reforms 3.Politics 4.Problems


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