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Chapter 16 Transformations in Europe, 1500 - 1750 AP World History.

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1 Chapter 16 Transformations in Europe, AP World History

2 I. Culture and Ideas A. Religious Reformation Catholic Church began to get money for building new churches (St. Peter’s Basilica) by authorizing sale of indulgences. Martin Luther challenged the church on these practices that he considered corrupt and said salvation could come by faith alone.

3 John Calvin argued that salvation was God’s gift to the predestined. Protestant Reformation appealed to Germans who disliked the Italian dominated church and to peasants and urban workers who wanted to reject the religion of their masters. Catholics responded with the Council of Trent. The Protestant Reformation led to a number of wars of religion ending in 1648.

4 St. Peter's Basilica has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world, holding 60,000 people. It is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic sites. It is the burial site of its namesake Saint Peter, who was one of the 12 apostles of Jesus.

5 Martin Luther ( ) was a German priest and professor of theology who initiated the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment of sin could be purchased with money, called indulgences. His Ninety- Five Theses in 1517 resulted in his excommunication in 1521.

6 John Calvin ( ) was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. Calvinism teaches that salvation was a gift from God to only those predestined for salvation. He broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530.

7 The Council of Trent met on and off from 1545 to This Catholic Reformation is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils. It issued condemnations on what it defined as Protestant heresies and defined Church teachings.

8 Religions in Europe after the Reformation.

9 B. Traditional Thinking and Witch-Hunts European beliefs derived from both local folk traditions and Judeo- Christian beliefs. During the 16 th and 17 th centuries over 100,000 people (3/4 women) were tried and about half of them were executed on charges of witchcraft. Witch hunts became manifestations of fear of unattached women without male guidance.

10 A witch-hunt is a search for witches or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic, mass hysteria and lynching.

11 The extraordinary fear of the power of witches in the late 16 th and 17 th centuries is testimony to the belief in the spiritual causes of natural events. (Over 100,000 people, 3/4 women, were tried and half of them were executed)

12 C. Scientific Revolution According to Aristotle, everything on earth was reducible to four elements; sun, moon, planets, and stars. They were so light and pure that they floated in crystalline spheres and rotated around the earth in perfectly circular orbits. Copernican sun-centered model was initially criticized and suppressed by Protestant leaders and by the Catholic Church. Isaac Newton’s discovery of the law of gravity showed why planets move around the sun around the sun in elliptical orbits. Newton and other scientists did not believe that their discoveries were in conflict with religious belief.

13 Nicolaus Copernicus ( ) was a Polish Renaissance astronomer, priest and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology. His book is regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy which began the Scientific Revolution.

14 The essentials of the Copernican Solar System were: 1) The daily motion of the sun and stars is the result of the earth turning on its axis. 2) The sun lies at the center of the solar system. 3) All the planets orbit the sun in the same direction with the planets closer to the sun going around faster. 4) The shapes of the orbits are circles and that the planets move at constant speed. (same as Ptolemy)

15 Galileo Galilei ( ) was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include a 30 power telescope, consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism.

16 After 1610, Galileo Galilei began publicly supporting heliocentrism and was denounced to the Roman Inquisition because it contradicted Aristotle’s model of the universe as well as several passages of Scripture. In 1633, he was sentenced to house arrest until he died.

17 Sir Isaac Newton (1643 – 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and theologian who is considered to be one of the most influential people in human history. His book discusses classical mechanics, universal gravitation, and the three laws of motion. He helped prove heliocentrism and built the first practical reflecting telescope.

18 D. The Early Enlightenment Intellectual movement that assumed that social behavior and institutions were governed by scientific laws. Also influenced by Reformation and by accounts of other cultures. Most thinkers were optimistic that the application of reason would lead to human progress. Aroused opposition from many absolutist rulers and from clergy, but the printing press made possible the survival and dissemination of new ideas.

19 John Locke ( ) was one of the most influential English Enlightenment philosophers. His social contract theory and contributions to classical republicanism are reflected in the American Declaration of Independence.

20 François-Marie Arouet ( ), better known by the pen name, Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher. He advocated civil liberties, including freedom of religion and free trade.

21 Thomas Hobbes ( ) was an English Enlightenment philosopher who established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory.

22 Calvin and Hobbes Get it?!

23 Montesquieu ( ), was a French Enlightenment social commentator and political thinker who was famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions throughout the world.

24 II. Social and Economic Life A. The Bourgeoisie Europe experienced spectacular growth from Wealthy urban Bourgeoisie thrived on manufacturing, finance, and especially trade. Amsterdam’s growth, built on trade and finance exemplifies Bourgeoisie power.

25 Forged mutually beneficial relationships with the monarchs and built extensive family and ethnic networks to facilitate trade. Partnerships between merchants and monarchs led to the development of joint stock companies and stock exchanges. Anglo-Dutch wars of the 1600s provide evidence of the growing importance of trade. Many Bourgeoisie married into noble families or purchased titles of nobility.

26 The bourgeoisie were wealthy town dwellers who earned their money by being a merchant or owning their own business. They dominated trade, finance and manufacturing.

27 By 1700, Amsterdam was a major financial center and its ships carried 80% of trade between Spain and northern Europe. It was home to the Amsterdam exchange, the largest stock exchange in Europe, and joint-stock companies which gave the Dutch monopolies on trade to the East and West Indies.

28 B. Peasants and Laborers Serfdom disappeared in Western Europe, but gained new prominence in Eastern Europe. African slaves contributed greatly to Europe’s economy. New World crops helped peasants avoid starvation. High consumption of wood for heating, cooking, construction, shipbuilding, and industrial uses led to deforestation. Europeans began to use coal instead of wood. Deforestation had particularly severe effects on the rural poor who had used forests for building materials and food. Urban poor consisted of “deserving poor” and “unworthy poor.”

29 The slave trade massively contributed to Europe’s economy via the American colonies.

30 The trans-Atlantic slave trade Diaspora.

31 New World crops, like maize and potatoes, helped peasants avoid starvation.

32 High consumption of wood for heating, cooking, construction, shipbuilding, and industrial uses led to deforestation which had particularly severe effects on the rural poor who had used forests for building materials and food.

33 C. Women and the Family Women’s status tied closely to their husband. Young people of the Bourgeoisie married late to finish education led to independence from parents and a low birth rate. Bourgeoisie parents great emphasis on education and promoted the establishment of schools. Most schools, professions, and guilds barred women.

34 Bourgeoisie women married late to finish their education. This led to an increased independence from parents and a low birth rate.

35 III. Political Innovations A. State Development Between Charles of Burgundy inherited the thrones of Castile and Aragon, with their colonial empires, the Austrian Habsburg possessions, and position of Holy Roman Emperor. Able to form coalition that defeated Ottomans at gates of Vienna. Lutheran German princes rebelled against French-speaking Catholic Charles, seized church lands and gave rise to German Wars of Religion. Charles abdicated the throne and his son Phillip received Spain and a weakened Holy Roman Empire went to his brother Ferdinand. Rulers of Spain, England, and France began to pursue own efforts at political unification.

36 Charles V (1500 – 1558) was from the Habsburg family in Austria. He became the Holy Roman Emperor, inherited the Spanish throne, halted the Ottoman Empire’s advance into Europe, and is best known for his strong opposition of the Protestant Reformation.

37 Charles V territorial empire from

38 Philip II (1527 – 1598) became the King of Spain when his father, Charles V, abdicated and retired to a monastery. He used the Spanish Inquisition to hunt down anyone who was not Catholic (Jews, Muslims, Protestants, and his critics).

39 B. Religious Policies Rulers of Spain and France defended Catholicism from Protestant Challenge. Henry VIII challenged papal authority and declared himself the head of the Church of England because the pope would not grant him a divorce from Catherine of Aragon.

40 Henry VIII ( ) was the King of England and besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church.

41 Henry VIII six wives.

42 Catherine of Aragon was the youngest child of Ferdinand and Isabella. She was Henry VIII’s 1 st wife, the mother of Mary Queen of Scots, and her divorce resulted in the separation of England from the Roman Catholic Church.

43 Anne Boleyn was Catherine of Aragon’s Queen consort, Henry VIII’s 2 nd wife, mother of Queen Elizabeth I, and was beheaded at the Tower of London for adultery.

44 Jane Seymour married Henry VIII 10 days after Anne Boleyn’s execution, died two weeks after the birth of Edward VI, was the only wife to receive a queen’s funeral, and was buried beside Henry VIII.

45 Anne of Cleves was Henry VIII’s 4 th wife. She was German and he married her from a portrait, but when she showed up he thought she was ugly. Fearing for her life, she agreed to a divorce.

46 Catherine Howard married Henry VII’s 20 days after his divorce from Anne of Cleves. She was Anne Boleyn’s cousin and was beheaded in less then two years for adultery.

47 Catherine Parr was Henry VIII’s 6 th and final wife. She was the first queen of Ireland and was the most married English queen - she had four husbands.

48 C. Monarchies in England and France Conflict between Parliament and Charles I led to a civil war and the establishment of a Puritan republic under Oliver Cromwell. After the Stuart line was restored Parliament enforced its will on the Monarch with the Glorious Revolution when William and Mary had to sign the Bill of Rights which limited the power of the crown. In France the Bourbon Kings were able to circumvent the Estates General and develop an absolutist style of government. Louis XIV’s finance minister, Colbert was able to increase revenue through more efficient tax collection and promote economic growth while Louis entertained and controlled the nobility at his court at Versailles.

49 Charles I (1600 – 1649) was the king of England who believed he was an absolute monarch and evaded any check on his power by not summoning Parliament for 11 years. He plunged his kingdom into the English Civil War after ordering the arrest of his leading critics in the House of Commons. He was later beheaded for treason.

50 Puritan General Oliver Cromwell (1599 – 1658) became the leader of the new English republic after Charles I was beheaded. He was as unwilling as kings to share power with Parliament, so after his death, the monarchy was restored.

51 The English King James II (1633 – 1701) refused to respect Parliament’s rights and was forced into exile in the bloodless Glorious Revolution of William and Mary were called to the throne by Parliament and to end the Glorious Revolution, they signed the English Bill of Rights and began a new co- operation between the Parliament and the monarchs.

52 Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles symbolized the French monarch’s triumph over the traditional rights of the nobility, clergy, and towns.

53 Niccolò Machiavelli ( ) was an Italian philosopher and writer. He is one of the main founders of modern political science and is most famous for his book, The Prince. He urged rulers to achieve obedience by fear and deception.

54 John Locke ( ) disputed monarchial claims to absolute authority by divine right. He argued that rulers derived their authority from the consent of the governed and, like everyone else, were subject to the law.

55 D. Warfare and Diplomacy Military revolution in which cannon, muskets, and commoner foot soldiers became the mainstays of European armies. Europeans devised new command structures, signal techniques, and marching drills. Ships became more deadly with multiple tiers of cannon and four- wheel cannon carriages.

56 England took the lead in naval development and this was demonstrated when the Royal Navy defeated the Spanish Armada which signaled an end to Spain’s military dominance in Europe. France rose as the strongest continental power while England maintained superior naval power. During the Spanish War of Succession England, allied with Austria and Prussia were able to prevent the French house of Bourbon from taking the Spanish throne. With the emergence of Russia after the Great Northern War the four powers of Europe; France, Britain, Austria, and Russia were able to maintain a balance of power.

57 Spanish galleons were slower than caravels but it had superior firepower.

58 Spanish Armada was King Philip’s failed attempt to invade England in A storm and superior English tactics led to the defeat.

59 Route of the Armada.

60 War of the Spanish Succession. The great British victories in this war were in the Spanish Netherlands and the Holy Roman Empire and they established Britain as a great power.

61 E. Paying the Piper To pay heavy costs of war European monarchs made profitable alliances with commercial elites. Netherlands became a commercial power after wrestling autonomy from Spain. Spain damaged economy by kicking out Jews, Protestants, and descendants of Muslims. England used naval dominance to break Dutch trade power and improved its financial position by collecting taxes directly and creating a central bank. France used streamlined tax collection, used protective tariffs to promote domestic industries, and improved its transportation network, but were not able to tax nobles or secure low cost loans.

62 Trade thrives when government taxation and regulation were not excessive, where courts enforced contracts and collected debts, and where military power stood ready to protect overseas expansion by force when necessary.

63 IV. Comparative Perspectives In 1575, French scholar Loys Le Roy described three technological innovations that he thought had propelled Europe into a golden age: the printing press, the marine compass, and cannonry. Le Roy noted that Europe had finally caught up to the Muslim world and had benefitted from the spread of knowledge and the Muslims refused to let documents be printed in Europe.


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