2 I. The Afroeurasian Trade World Before Columbus The Trade World of the Indian Ocean1. South China Sea2. Admiral Zheng He3. IndiaPeoples and Cultures of the Indian Ocean1. Austronesian families2. Bride wealthI. The Afroeurasian Trade World Before ColumbusA. The Trade World of the Indian Ocean1. The South China Sea trade was the most developed part of the Indian Ocean sea trade. Chinese goods heading east had to travel through the South China Sea ports.2. China was heavily involved in overseas trade. Admiral Zheng He’s journeys took him as far as Egypt, but the voyages came to an end following the admiral’s death and the death of the emperor who had initiated the voyages.3. India became another important link in the flow of trade. Indian ports became the link between China and the Persian Gulf.B. Peoples and Cultures of the Indian Ocean1. The peoples throughout the eastern rim of the Pacific Ocean all spoke languages of the Austronesian family. These peoples included the populations of Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.2. Women in these cultures enjoyed a higher status than most other women throughout the world. In Southeast Asia, a groom paid his bride’s family a sum of money at the time of marriage. This was identified as “bride wealth.”
4 I. The Afroeurasian Trade World Before Columbus Trade with Africa and the Middle East1. African cargo2. Middle Eastern rivalsGenoese and Venetian Middlemen1. Italian influence2. Shifting slave marketsI. The Afroeurasian Trade World Before ColumbusC. Trade with Africa and the Middle East1. Africa became the source of gold and slaves. Gold was transported across the Sahara Desert to North African ports. Slavery was practiced in Africa before the Europeans arrived.2. Arabic and African merchants had marketed slaves from Africa to European and Middle Eastern markets for years.D. Genoese and Venetian Middlemen1. Italian merchants dominated the European trade following the end of the Crusades. When the Atlantic Ocean explorations began, the Italian merchants, navigators, and financiers advised the Spanish and Portuguese monarchs.2. Ancient Roman slave markets were based in the Black Sea areas. Many of the Roman slaves were from the Balkans or other eastern regions. With new slave markets opening in the West, the trade shifted focus to the African continent.
5 II. The European Voyages of Discovery Causes of European Expansion1. Luxury goods2. Religious fervor3. Inquisitive minds4. Royal competition5. Employment opportunitiesII. The European Voyages of DiscoveryA. Causes of European Expansion1. Rebounding from the devastating Black Death, Europeans developed a taste for enjoyment and comfort. The philosophy that life was short and needed to be enjoyed created a market for luxury items.2. The desire to spread Christianity helped to fuel the explorations of distant lands. There also was concern about the Islamic religion spreading unchecked throughout the uncharted regions of the world.3. Many explorers simply wanted answers to questions that had annoyed people for generations. This tied in with their desire to gain glory and name recognition.4. The growth of government power and competition among monarchs helped propel the voyages of discovery. Once the exploration business began, monarchs throughout western Europe immediately showed interest and offered financial support.5. For many who were not in the elite social class, job opportunities were slim. Sailing on an ocean vessel and charting unknown seas was an opportunity for ordinary men to escape poverty and improve their quality of life.
6 II. The European Voyages of Discovery Technology and the Rise of Exploration1. Ptolemy’s Geography2. Magnetic compass3. AstrolabeThe Expanding Portuguese Empire1. Portuguese goals2. Prince Henry the Navigator3. The African coast4. Indian Ocean portsII. The European Voyages of DiscoveryB. Technology and the Rise of Exploration1. Long forgotten, Ptolemy’s Geography was reintroduced to the West by Arab scholars. Flaws in the work included the absence of the Americas and the depiction of China as being much closer to Europe than it actually was.2. The magnetic compass assisted sailors in determining their direction and sea position.3. The astrolabe identified the altitude of the sun and enabled mariners to plot their position relative to the equator.C. The Expanding Portuguese Empire1. Portuguese explorers hoped to gain military glory, find the mythical Prester John, and defeat the Muslim powers. They also hoped to find gold and develop a trade in the slave and spice markets.2. Prince Henry was dubbed “the Navigator” because he supported the study of geography and navigation and sponsored expeditions to West Africa.3. The Portuguese understood the need for friendly ports along the trade routes. A string of trading posts and forts were built along the African coast for Portuguese vessels.4. The Portuguese fought for and won control of the Indian spice trade from Muslim defenders.
8 II. The European Voyages of Discovery Christopher Columbus’s Voyages to the Americas1. Financing2. The islands3. Spanish colonizationII. The European Voyages of DiscoveryD. Christopher Columbus’s Voyages to the Americas1. Columbus’s proposed westward voyage was first rejected by Portugal. He finally received financing for his voyage from the Spanish monarchs.2. Initially thinking he had landed in the Indies, Columbus continued south and found a large island. What he thought was Japan was to be identified later as Cuba. He did find gold ornaments worn by some native groups, which he reported to the Spanish rulers.3. In the following decades, Spain developed colonies throughout the New World. Columbus made several journeys to the New World but was never interested in governing the region.
10 II. The European Voyages of Discovery Later Explorers1. Magellan2. Cabot3. CartierII. The European Voyages of DiscoveryE. Later Explorers1. Ferdinand Magellan also sailed for the Spanish crown. Although his crew was the first to circumnavigate the globe, what started as a fleet of five ships finished with a crew of eighteen survivors returning to Spain with one ship. Magellan was killed in a battle in the Philippines.2. John Cabot discovered Newfoundland and explored the New England coast.3. French explorer Jacques Cartier made exploration trips into the St. Lawrence region of Canada, looking for a passageway to Asia.10
12 II. The European Voyages of Discovery Spanish Conquest in the New World1. The Mexica Empire2. Montezuma3. The Inca Empire4. Francisco Pizarro5. CuzcoII. The European Voyages of DiscoveryF. Spanish Conquest in the New World1. The vast Mexica Empire was a sophisticated civilization with a capital larger than any European city of the time. After landing on the Mexican coast, Hernando Cortés ignored orders to limit his activities to trade and exploration and established a settlement. From the coast, he moved inland and conquered the native populations, claiming the land for Spain.2. The Aztec leader, Montezuma, was killed in battle, opening the entire region for the conquistadors.3. The Inca Empire was located in the South American region of Peru. The Incas were an isolated population living more than 9,800 feet above sea level.4. Following five years of war, Francisco Pizarro defeated the Incas. The Inca leader, Atahualpa, planned a trap for the Spanish, but the Spaniards ambushed and captured him and later executed him.5. With the Inca leader gone, Spanish forces moved in and ransacked Cuzco, the capital of the Inca Empire.
14 Dona Marina Translating for Hernando Cortes During His Meeting with Montezuma, (p. 475) 1. Why are the caged birds and the tied up animal (a deer?) in the scene?(Answer: These probably are gifts that Montezuma offered his guest Cortes. In both the Spanish and Mexica cultures, such gifts could be understood as a form of tribute, suggesting that the giver pledged allegiance to the receiver. )2. How does the painter try to show that Cortes has superior status?(Answer: Cortes is larger than Montezuma, and he sits upon a dais. Behind Montezuma a line of Aztec notables stand, and it seems as if they are waiting to pay homage to Cortes. Both Dona Marina and Cortes are making gestures of command or instruction. )3. The artist who painted this picture was from Tlaxcala, one of the earliest cities to ally itself with Cortes against Tenochtitlan and Montezuma. Why might a Tlaxcalan artist have shown Montezuma offering tribute to Cortes and listening to his instructions?(Answer: In the years after the conquest, it was in the Tlaxcalans’ interest to emphasize their early military support of the Spanish, and the Spaniards’ “right” to rule central Mexico. The painting presents Cortes as the natural overlord of central Mexico and Montezuma as his vassal, to support Spanish claims to rule. )
15 III. The Impact of Conquest Colonial Administration1. Viceroyalties2. New World court systemThe Impact of European Settlement on the Lives of Indigenous Peoples1. Encomienda system2. DiseaseIII. The Impact of ConquestA. Colonial Administration1. Spanish holdings in the New World were divided into viceroyalties or administrative divisions: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata. Each viceroyalty had an imperial governor or viceroy.2. Each viceroy was advised by an audiencia, a panel of judges. Other colonial officials included intendants and corregidores.B. The Impact of European Settlement on the Lives of Indigenous Peoples1. The Spanish emperor granted conquerors the right to use the indigenous people for the betterment of the colony. The encomienda system reflected the efforts of the Spanish to exploit the labor of Native Americans.2. Europeans introduced natives to new and unknown diseases. A large portion of the native population died from European diseases such as smallpox.
16 Mixed Races, (p. 477)1. Can you see how these pictures show an imagined “racial” hierarchy?(Answer: The top two rows present mixed marriages involving one “white” Spanish partner. The bottom two rows seem to involve marriages with partners of African descent. Supposedly lighter skinned people are at the top of the hierarchy, darker skinned towards the bottom.2. Is there any suggestion that the social hierarchy (of occupation, social status) parallels the racial hierarchy?(Answer: The pattern is not completely clear, but the “darker” families toward the bottom of the page tend to have more simple clothes and humble occupations. For example, the women in the third row down are carrying baskets of goods they might be selling at a market or bringing home after purchase. The women at the top are not laden, and have clothes that appear more expensive. )3. Who do you suppose the audience for a painting like this might have been?(Answer: It seems unlikely that the people living in the mixed-race societies of Latin America and the Caribbean would have needed a guide to the various “mixes” and their social ranks – they grew up acutely aware of these things. More likely this set of images was to satisfy the curiosity of educated Europeans about societies in the New World and the intermarriage of Europeans, Africans, and indigenous Americans.)
17 III. The Impact of Conquest The Columbian Exchange1. Corn2. PotatoesSugar and Early Transatlantic Slavery1. Sugar cane2. Plantation system3. Exploitation of laborIII. The Impact of ConquestC. The Columbian Exchange1. A transatlantic exchange of crops occurred after the Europeans colonized the New World. Corn became an important crop in Europe, as did tomatoes and a variety of beans, squash, and other types of vegetables. This increased the nutritional value of the European diet and over time improved Europeans’ health.2. Potatoes spread throughout the world as a major food staple for humans and for livestock as well.D. Sugar and Early Transatlantic Slavery1. Sugar was initially considered a luxury that few could afford. Sugar was difficult to raise because it was labor intensive and had to be marketed quickly or else it would spoil. Yet, if it could get to a market, it would bring in large amounts of profits.2. Using slaves from Africa, Europeans developed sugar plantations on the islands. Large fields would be planted and harvested, producing large quantities of sugar.3. The production of sugar influenced the transatlantic slave trade. Portuguese ships brought the first shipment of African slaves to Brazil around By 1700, large numbers of slaves were used in sugar cane production.
19 III. The Impact of Conquest The Birth of the Global Economy1. Global sea routes2. Commodities3. Rise and fall of economic empiresIII. The Impact of ConquestE. The Birth of the Global Economy1. While overland routes could only link trade from continent to continent, sea routes linked the entire world. States that had access to the open seas now found themselves in prime locations on the global map.2. Most nations became addicted to commodities from faraway places. The world wanted silk and porcelain from Asia, slaves from Africa, and riches from the New World.3. As more European states became involved in global trading, some had the ability to maintain large empires, while others found their resources were seriously stretched to the limit. Those who were stretched to the limit would become targets for the stronger states.
22 Silver Mine at Potosi, (p. 483) 1. Compare this painting of the Potosi silver mine to the painting of sugar refining at a Brazilian sugar plantation on p. 480? What aspects of each enterprise seem to have interested the artist? Does either painting suggest a concern with the working conditions and lives of the forced laborers?(Answer: Neither painting shows abuse of the workers or their living quarters. Both artists seem most concerned with showing the details of a production process that generated a tremendous amount of wealth for the owners/masters. These are not paintings protesting the existence of slave enterprises, but representations of the sinews of economic power. )2. Is there any evidence in this image of mechanization of the production process at this mine, or even the use of draft animals?(Answer: There is none. If you look carefully at the figures doing the open-pit mining on the mountain face, you can find overseers on horses, but there is no sign of draft animals anywhere. In the foreground people are shoveling and transporting ore by hand. This points to the importance of very cheap slave labor for this, and other, mines in the New World. )
23 IV. Changing Values and Beliefs New Ideas About Race1. Physical justifications2. Biblical justificationsMichel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity1. Skepticism2. The essayIV. Changing Values and BeliefsA. New Ideas About Race1. Ideas about the inferiority of certain races were needed to justify the institution of slavery. Some Europeans claimed that Africans lived like beasts, lacked rational thought, and were extremely ignorant.2. Other views supporting black enslavement were biblical in origin. Ham was the cursed son of Noah who was exiled in Africa; therefore, Africans were the cursed sons of Ham.B. Michel do Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity1. With the increasing knowledge of the surrounding world, and the horrific events of the past decades of religious wars, a new school of thought developed: skepticism. Skeptics doubted that true certainty about anything would ever be attainable. Cultural relativism suggested that one culture was not necessarily superior to another but that they were simply different from each other.2. Michel de Montaigne developed a new literary genre, the essay. In “On Cannibals” he discussed his enlightened consciousness and challenged European superiority.
24 IV. Changing Values and Beliefs William Shakespeare and His Influence1. Othello2. The TempestReligious Conversion in the New World1. Missionaries2. Virgin of GuadalupeIV. Changing Values and BeliefsC. William Shakespeare and His Influence1. Shakespeare’s work addresses the impact of the connections made between Europeans and peoples of other cultures. His play Othello raises questions about racial classification, intolerance, and racial stereotypes.2. It is unclear whether Shakespeare’s last play, The Tempest, was intended to criticize or endorse racial intolerance.D. Religious Conversion in the New World1. European missionaries took on the task of converting native peoples to the Christian Church. Catholic friars sought to understand native cultures so that they might make Christianity more comprehensible to indigenous people.2. The Virgin of Guadalupe became an icon for Catholics in Central and South America.