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Macro Chapter 17 Institutions, Policies, and Cross- Country Differences in Income and Growth.

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Presentation on theme: "Macro Chapter 17 Institutions, Policies, and Cross- Country Differences in Income and Growth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Macro Chapter 17 Institutions, Policies, and Cross- Country Differences in Income and Growth

2 2 Learning Goals 1) 1)Explain how economic freedom and growth are related 2) 2)Identify the benefits of economic freedom

3 How Large Are the Income Differences Across Countries?

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5 How Do Growth Rates Vary across Countries?

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7 Why? 2 major reasons: 1)Institutions (see Chapter 16) 2)Economic Freedom

8 Economic Freedom as a Measure of Sound Institutions

9 Combine with next section

10 Institutions, Policies, and Economic Performance

11 Economic Freedom Method of organizing economy with the following characteristics: 1)Personal choice 2)Market-based voluntary exchange 3)Competitive entry into markets 4)Private property

12 Main point: the government’s policies and involvement in the economy are important, but too much government intervention can harm growth

13 Q17.1 Economic theory indicates that the size of government will be 1.unrelated to economic growth. 2.negatively related to economic growth at all possible sizes of government. 3.positively related to economic growth at all possible sizes of government. 4.positively related to economic growth at small levels of government but is negatively related to economic growth at large levels of government.

14 Major Conclusion: The more free the economy is, the higher the growth rate will be

15 The 2012 EFW report reveals the US is now in 18 th place with a rating of 7.69 “The United States, long considered the standard bearer for economic freedom among large industrial nations, has experienced a substantial decline in economic freedom during the past decade. From 1980 to 2000, the United States was generally rated the third freest economy in the world, ranking behind only Hong Kong and Singapore. After increasing steadily during the period from 1980 to 2000, the chainlinked EFW rating of the United States fell from 8.65 in 2000 to 8.21 in 2005 and 7.70 in The chain-linked ranking of the United States has fallen precipitously from second in 2000 to eighth in 2005 and 18th in 2010.”

16 Economic Freedom of the World See

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19 Watch video: Economic Freedom-Part 1

20 Economic Freedom and Income The real per-person income (using a PPP adjustment) for countries ordered by economic freedom rating is shown here by quartiles. Note the strong positive linkage. Income per person in the freest quartile of countries was about eight times the figure for the least free. Least-Free Quartile Second Quartile Most-Free Quartile $4,545 $14,961 $35, GDP Per Capita, PPP (in constant 2005 dollars) Third Quartile $6,464

21 Economic Freedom and Growth The relationship between the economic freedom of a country and its growth rate (of GDP per capita) during the period is shown here. Countries in the most free quartile grew at an annual rate of 3.1% compared to the 1.2% growth for the least-free quartile. Least-Free Quartile Second Quartile Most-Free Quartile 1.2% 2.4% 3.1% Growth of GDP Per Capita (Annual %) Third Quartile 2.3%

22 Economic Freedom and Poverty The extreme poverty rate in the most free quartile of countries was 2.7% compared to 41.5% in the least free quartile. The pattern in the data for the moderate poverty rate is the same. Clearly the countries with more economic freedom have lower poverty rates. Least-Free Quartile Second Quartile Most-Free Quartile 41.5% 7.8% 2.7% Extreme Poverty Rate ( ) Third Quartile 21.3% Least-Free Quartile Second Quartile Most-Free Quartile 3.6% 36.3% 57.4% Third Quartile 14.0% Moderate Poverty Rate ( )

23 Economic Freedom and Life Expectancy People in the most economically free countries had almost 20 additional years of life compared to those in the least free economies of the world. Least-Free Quartile Second Quartile Most-Free Quartile Years of Life Expectancy (at birth) 2007 Third Quartile 66.7

24 The infant mortality rate in the least economically free countries was nearly 12 times greater than that of the most free economies. Economic Freedom and Infant Mortality Rate Least-Free Quartile Second Quartile Most-Free Quartile Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births) 2007 Third Quartile 39.1

25 Access to sanitary water increased with economic freedom. Economic Freedom and Access to Sanitary Water 16.A3 Table in word file Should fit in this space Least-Free Quartile Second Quartile Most-Free Quartile 74.2% 89.5% 99.2% Share of Population with Access to Improved Water Source, 2006 Third Quartile 83.5%

26 Studies have shown that the quality of the environment is strongly linked to income. Economic Freedom and Environmental Quality 16.A3 Table in word file Should fit in this space Least-Free Quartile Second Quartile Most-Free Quartile Environmental Performance Index (2007/2008) Third Quartile 71.6

27 In the nations of the top quartile, the average income of the poorest 10% was more than eight times that of the poorest 10% from countries in the bottom quartile. Economic Freedom Income of Lowest 10% of Earners 16.A3 Table in word file Should fit in this space Least-Free Quartile Second Quartile Most-Free Quartile $896 $3,269 $9,105 Average Income of Poorest 10%, 2007 Third Quartile $1,744

28 The incidence of political corruption was lower in the more free economies of the world. These numbers are a reflection of the higher quality legal systems of the freer economies. Economic Freedom and Political Corruption 16.A3 Table in word file Should fit in this space Least-Free Quartile Second Quartile Most-Free Quartile Corruption Perceptions Index, 2007 Third Quartile 3. 2

29 With few exceptions, when an economy is more free the country will achieve: A higher growth rate A more equal distribution of income Better environmental quality Better health outcomes Higher standards of living

30 Watch video: Economic Freedom-Part 2

31 Q17.2 On average, countries that have a larger degree of economic freedom tend to have 1.higher per capita income levels but slower rates of economic growth than countries with less economic freedom. 2.lower per capita income levels but more rapid rates of economic growth than countries with less economic freedom. 3.both higher per capita income levels and more rapid growth rates than countries with less economic freedom. 4.both lower income levels and slower growth rates than countries with less economic freedom.

32 Question Answers 17.1 = = 3


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