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Chapter 16: Slavery Divides the Nation…

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1 Chapter 16: Slavery Divides the Nation…
Section 1: Slavery in the Territories

2 The Missouri Compromise
Agreement proposed in 1819. By Henry Clay to keep the number of slave and free states equal.

3 The Missouri Compromise
Debates about slavery in new territories.....Yes or No!!! 1819: 11 free states 11 slave states Missouri wanted to join the union as a slave state. This would give the South the majority in the Senate!!!

4 The Missouri Compromise
Maine wanted to become a state as well. Henry Clay came up with a compromise. Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state....This would keep everything balanced!!

5 The Missouri Compromise
Congress drew an imaginary line through Missouri....36' 30'N(Latitude)... Slavery was permitted in Louisiana Purchase territory south of the line. And banned slavery north of the line. Exception: Missouri itself (all slave state)

6 Slavery in the West… Wilmot Proviso- Popular Sovereignty:
Law passed in 1846 that banned slavery in any territories won by the U.S. from Mexico. Popular Sovereignty: Mid-1800's Idea that each territory could decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery.

7 Wilmot Proviso 1848: David Wilmot: Called this the Wilmot Proviso
Mexican War adds much land to the U.S. in the West! David Wilmot: Member of Congress from Penn. Tried to have all new Mexican territory slave free Ban on slavery! Called this the Wilmot Proviso

8 Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso: Passed by House of Reps.
Senate rejected the Wilmot Proviso. Continued arguments about slavery!!

9 Opposing Views Southerners: Wanted slavery
Northerners: Opposed slavery In between the two extremes: Moderates Felt that the Missouri Compromise line should extend to the Pacific Ocean. Some felt that the new states should be able to decide for themselves.

10 The Free-Soil Party Free-Soil party:
Bipartisan antislavery party founded by the U.S. in 1848 to keep slavery out of the western territories.

11 Free Soil Party Antislavery members that came from two parties:
1. The Northern Democrats. 2. Whigs. Goal of party: Keep slavery out of western territories

12 Election of 1848 Free-Soil Party: Democrats: Whigs:
Martin Van Buren(Ban on Slaves) Democrats: Lewis Cass(popular sovereignty) Whigs: Zachary Taylor(wins election)(slave owner) Slavery was main issue!!!

13 The Compromise of 1850 Section 2 Chapter 16

14 California’s Impact 1849: California wanted to enter as a free state.
15 free states 15 slave states California wanted to enter as a free state. Along with possibly : Oregon. Utah. And New Mexico. South would be out-voted by free states in the Senate! South wanted to secede from the U.S.

15 Clay v. Calhoun Clay: John C. Calhoun(S.C.):
AKA "The Great Compromiser" feared the nation would break apart. John C. Calhoun(S.C.): Refused to compromise 1.Wanted slavery in western territories. 2. Demanded that fugitive slaves be returned to their owners. If the North did not agree, the South would part in peace.

16 The Compromise of 1850 Five Parts:
1. California would enter Union as a free state. 2. Divided the rest of the Mexican Cession into New Mexico and Utah. (popular sovereignty) 3. Ended the slave trade in Washington D.C. (Congress would have no power over slave trade between slave states) 4. Strict fugitive slave law. 5. Settled border disputes between Texas and New Mexico.

17 Fugitive Slave Act Required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves.
If anyone let a fugitive escape....$1,000 fine and jail time. Special courts were created to handle cases--- NO suspects were allowed a jury trial!! Judges received $10 for sending the accused runaway to the South....$5 to set them free.

18 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Antislavery Bestseller: Harriet Beecher Stowe
Tells of an enslaved African American noted for his kindness. His owner whips him to death for not telling the whereabouts of two runaway slaves. Uncle Tom's Cabin outsold every book except the Bible in the years leading up to the Civil War. Translated into over 20 different languages.

19 The Crisis Deepens… Section 3 Chapter 16

20 Kansas-Nebraska Act Proposed by Senator Stephen Douglas 1854:
law that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. Giving the settlers the right of popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery. This territory stretched from Texas to Canada. President Franklin Pierce and Stephen Douglas helped to push it through Congress

21 Kansas-Nebraska Act Southerners were happy with the Act.
Northerners were outraged! The Missouri Compromise already banned slavery in these territories. It seemed the Kansas-Nebraska Act would repeal the Missouri Compromise! Northerners openly challenged the Fugitive Slave Act.

22 The Crisis Turns Violent
Most new settlers came because they wanted land cheap! Abolitionists moved into area as well as proslavery settlers. Border Ruffians- proslavery bands from Missouri who often battled antislavery forces in Kansas. 1855: Kansas held elections to choose law-makers. Border Ruffians crossed the border into Kansas and voted illegally.

23 Two Governments Proslavery legislature was elected and passed laws that angered Northerners. 1. People could be put to death for helping slaves escape. 2. Speaking out about slavery became a crime punishable by two years of hard labor. The antislavery settlers refused to follow laws and created their own legislature and governor! Kansas now had TWO separate governments!!

24 Bleeding Kansas Nickname of Kansas because of the guerrilla warfare that took place throughout 1856. Guerrilla warfare: The use of hit-and-run tactics Killings at Pottawatomie Creek Led by antislavery activist John Brown sparked many deaths in Kansas.

25 Dred Scott Case Dred Scott was enslaved in Missouri for many years.
He moved with his owner to Illinois and then to Wisconsin where slavery was banned. They eventually moved back to Missouri where Scott's owner died. Scott filed a lawsuit and argued that because he had lived in free territory, he had become a free man!

26 The Supreme Court Ruling..
Angered Northerners! 1. Supreme Court stated that Scott could not file a suit because slaves were not citizens. 2. Slaves were considered property. 3. The Court did not have the power to outlaw slavery in any territory--- The Missouri Compromise, according to the Court, was unconstitutional! This meant that slavery was legal in all territories!!!!

27 The Republican Party Emerges…
Section 4 Chapter 16

28 The Republican Party… Developed in 1854. Free-Soilers.
Northern Democrats. Antislavery Whigs. ALL wanted to stop slavery!!!

29 Election of 1856 John C. Fremont: Republican
Frontiersman who helped with California's independence Little political experience Opposed slavery.

30 Election of 1856 James Buchanan: Democrat:
“Northern man with southern principles" Hoped to attract people from the North and South.

31 Election of 1856 Millard Fillmore: "Know-Nothing-Party“
Wanted to preserve the Union.

32 Results Buchanan wins the election!!!
The Republicans did win 1/3 of popular vote. This showed that they had a lot of influence! Southerners began to worry that their influence was fading!!

33 Abe Lincoln Born in Kentucky. Grew up in Illinois. Frontiersman.
Self taught education. (only was in school for 1 yr.) Studied to be a lawyer "Just Folks“: simple man. Wrestling Honest-plain spoken. Opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act Decided to run for Senate against Stephen Douglas!

34 Lincoln- Douglas Debates
Seven debates between Lincoln and Douglas. Slavery was main issue. Douglas was a supporter of popular sovereignty. Lincoln opposed slavery in new territories. Douglas won the debates by a slim margin... Lincoln did become very popular from the debates (esp. in the North).

35 John Brown’s Raid 1859: Raids Harpers Ferry, Virginia
Raided a federal arsenal (gun warehouse) Captured by Robert E. Lee 10 raiders are killed by Lee's troops and Brown is captured! In court: Brown was found guilty of murder and treason (actions against one's country) Sentenced to Death! Martyr: (willing to give up your life for beliefs).

36 A Nation Divides Section 5 Chapter 16

37 Election of 1860… Abraham Lincoln: Stephen Douglas: John Breckinridge:
Republican candidate Stephen Douglas: Northern Democrats John Breckinridge: Southern Democrats John Bell: The Constitutional Union Party (Moderate --still looking for compromise between the North and South)

38 Election of 1860 Results… Abraham Lincoln wins the election!!!
Last Effort to Save Union: Senator John Crittenden Kentucky. Tries to introduce bill that would extend the Missouri Compromise line all the way to the Pacific. The South decides to secede from the Union.

39 The Confederate States of America…
Seven states: South Carolina. Alabama. Florida. Georgia. Louisiana. Mississippi. Texas. New President of Confederacy: Jefferson Davis of Mississippi. The confederate troops began to seize federal property in the South.(forts, post offices, government buildings)

40 The Civil War Begins… The Confederates attacked Fort Sumter on April 11, 1861. The Union commander, Major Robert Anderson, was forced to surrender on April 13, 1861. This sparked the beginning of the Civil War!!!

41 Essay Topics… 1. Explain how the election of 1860 was the final blow that started the Civil War. (Provide examples...) Provide three examples to support the following statement...(details needed) A series of compromises delayed the Civil War for 40 years. 2. Describe the Dred Scott Supreme Court case. --Three parts of decision --Two major results 3. Explain the four major parts of the Compromise of 1850.

42 Essay Topics… 4. List two ways in which the Lincoln-Douglas debates helped Abe Lincoln. 5. Explain Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. --How did North react. --How did South react. --Impact of the novel

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