Presentation on theme: "The World Economy 1400s-1700s Ch. 16 AP World History."— Presentation transcript:
The World Economy 1400s-1700s Ch. 16 AP World History
Silver Vital to the World Economy Spaniards took over silver mines in Mexico and South America (mainly Bolivia) by the mid-16 th century. Spanish monarchy kept 1/5 of mined silver; used to build armies and public buildings. Most of silver used in trade; silver passed through Spanish merchants and on to China and India. Silver began replacing paper money in China and during the Ming dynasty, some taxes had to be paid in silver; gap between rich and poor Chinese people increased due to taxes paid in silver.
Maritime Power Constant contact between Western and Eastern known world prior to this period. Europeans still ignorant of wider world -Some had a fear of exploration because they believed the world was flat. -Vikings had already ventured to Greenland and N. America by 10 th century.
New Technology During 15 th century, Europeans: - adapted Chinese explosives into gunnery, making first guns and cannons. -designed/built new ships to carry heavy armaments. -used and improved compass and map-making. Thus, military power and advantage grew and Europeans were easily able to intimidate and gain power.
Portugal Rulers wanted to explore: excitement, potential harm to the powerful Muslim world, wealth. 1434, began expeditions down African coast (slaves & spices). 1498, Vasco da Gama’s fleet found a route around African tip, arriving in India. -difficult to trade b/c of est. Muslim traders; later used violence to gain items for world trade. Set up trade forts on African & Indian coasts. 1514, reached Indonesia (spices!) & China. 1542, reached Japan, launched missionary efforts.
Spain Also wanted to prove itself to Muslim world & gain wealth. 1492: last Muslim fortress captured; Spain sends Columbus for a Western route to India, instead “discovers” a new world. Later expedition by Amerigo Vespucci gave new world its name. Spain won papal approval to claim present-day Latin America. Portugal won papal approval over Brazil. Ferdinand Magellan sailed westward in 1519, across Pacific, reaching Indonesian islands(1521); Spain claimed Philippines and various Pacific islands.
Northern European Expeditions Gained lead in exploration by late 16 th cent. France, England, and Holland strove to gain land and spread Protestantism. Easily explored with faster, lighter ships. Mainly aimed for N. America because of Spain and Portuguese dominance in south. Driven by discovery of uncharted land, native populations, and potential profit. Expeditions from anywhere in Europe were always life-risking.
France 1534, crossed Atlantic and claimed Canada. 17 th cent, pressed south to Great Lakes and Mississippi valley regions.
Britain Wanted to find a NW passage to spices in India, accomplishing little before 17 th cent. By 17 th cent, gained N. American east coast colonies.
Holland Dutch competed with Portuguese for SE Asian ports; ousted Portuguese from Indonesian islands by 17 th cent. Established settlements in S. Africa as relay station for East Indies-bound ships.
Trading Companies Companies given gov. monopolies on trade in designated regions. -not strictly supervised by gov. -companies able to raise armies and money; gained fortunes; acted like independent govs. in specified regions. Dutch East India Company ruled Taiwan for some time. British East India Company ruled parts of India (18 th cent.); had active role in N. American fur trade.
Europe’s sea routes led to… Columbian exchange: foods, diseases, ppl. New import-export patterns New overseas empires
Columbian Exchange 16 th and 17 th cent, Euro- peans & Africans brought diseases to Native Amer- icans; over ½ of native population died. -Europeans able to repopulate new world with African slaves & Europeans. New World crops (corn, potatoes, etc) spread via W. merchants; adoption of new crops triggered large pop. increases around world; new staple crops. Some Europeans feared new food b/c they believed it spread the plague and it wasn’t mentioned in Bible. Horses and cattle introduced to New World.
West’s Commercial Outreach Europe did not completely take over Asian & African territories, just established ports there. Europe weaseled way in and dominated international trade routes, increasing profits. -EX. Battle of Lepanto (1571), Spanish fleet defeated Ottoman empire navy in Mediterranean; ended hope for Muslims to defeat European naval power; Europe dominated Mediterranean trade. 17 th cent: ports on w. coast of Africa, in India, in SE Asian islands; Dutch port in Nagasaki. -provided contacts and goods that Europeans would not otherwise receive *Europeans gained access without total control*
Imbalances Spain first dominated World trade, lost control b/c lack of bank system; England, France, Holland then dominated world trade; profits brought wealth and capital. W. Europe traded manufactured goods (guns, cloth) for raw materials (silver, sugar); enhanced commercialism Mercantilism: basic world trade policy; nations sell exports as much as possible without importing goods from outside of own empire. -Tariffs(taxes) stimulated home-based manufacturing. Dependents to core nations produced low-cost goods (metals and crops) and human labor (slave trade) for dominating nations.
International Inequality Only a few people in European dominated regions benefited from European trade/exploitation, not whole region. -African slave traders grew rich. -Latin American regional merchants and farmers grew rich from mines and food sale. Many peasants stuck to subsistence farming, not entering market economy. Forced labor grew wherever there was cheap production. -African slaves, Native Americans/mestizo enslave- ment, spice production slaves in Dutch East Indies.
“World” Economy Some countries and regions stayed out of world trade system; i.e. China and Japan stayed relatively isolated India interested in World trade, selling goods for silver and allowing coastal ports, but rulers more focused on internal development. Russia traded mainly with nomads in central Asia, not Western world trade. Non-slave-trade Africa untouched by world trade.
China Avoided involvement in international trade on another country’s terms. Extensive gov. regulation to keep Europeans(with Asian ports) in check Kept traditional characteristics, valuing old over new; did, however, adopt European gunnery. China was a strong exporter, receiving much of New World silver; avoided subservience to European merchants; no need for outside goods.
Japan Open to Christian missions; fascinated by W. gunnery and shipping. Guns used in feudal wars; leaders worried this western influence would threaten samurai dominance. Still, made own gun industry, then cut out most European contact. Travel in and out of Japan forbidden besides some Chinese contacts and Dutch-Nagasaki port.
Expansionist 16 th cent. world trade dependencies: S. America, the W. Indies, parts of N. America, regions in w. Africa. -by 17 th cent, some of SE Asia brought into dependencies via W. trading companies. 17 th cent, as Indian Mughal Empire fell, British and French E. India Companies moved in. -Manufacturing in India declined as it became more dependent on Europe (never completely dependent like Latin America). E. Europe exported more grains (grown by serfs) to the growing W. Europe cities.
Colonial Expansion Europe had a network of overseas colonies Sugar became more readily available around the world; it wasn’t just a high- class product anymore; prompted dentistry by 18 th cent.
The Americas Euro guns, horses, weapons were advantageous and pop. losses created opportunities in colonies. Spanish expanded via violent and treacherous adventurers; launched expedition from Cuba for conquest of Aztecs(Mexico); 1531, fought toward Inca realm(Andes); continued to spread south. Francisco Pizarro, conquistador Colonies established by gold-seeking Europeans; formal administrations on new lands later formed as agricultural settlements grew. French in Canada; Dutch and English on E. coast of N. America; 17 th cent, all three colonized W. Indian islands.
British and French Religious refugees went to English colonies; proprietors received gov land grants. French Canada(New France) had high birth rates; Catholic organization. Seven Years War (b/w England and France) -Ended with Treaty of Paris(1763): France regained W. Indian sugar islands & African posts. Britain took control of Canada & MS basin. Dutch attached to Asian colonies; British and French attached to West Indian holdings, N. America not as profitable.
N. America S. colonies: tobacco, sugar, cotton; large estates based on: slave labor, wealthy planter, weak formal govs. Colonists had assemblies, gained political experience; they read European Enlightenment materials and philosophies 18 th cent, American merchants traded with China, so Britain tried to put more limits (taxes) on this local economy and thus encouraged rebellion. Colonists displaced Native Americans, gained vast stretches of territory; never tried to combine cultures as those in Latin America did(religion). 1700, African slaves well established
N. America & W. Europe White N. American settlers maintained most features of Euro- style families and lifestyles; but, settlers had larger families. The independent American government (1776) used many W. European theories and ideas.
Africa and Asia Europeans generally stuck to small African ports, without moving to interior , Dutch Cape Colony (S. Africa): supply station for ships that became a Dutch farming region; clashed with the Africans (trying to enslave). Spain in the PI, won MANY converts; Dutch company in Indonesia & Taiwan; beginning in 17 th cent, French and British fighting over dominance in India.
India British East India company gained Calcutta and had strong connections with British gov, giving it more power; the French had neither. French interested in missionary work; British more interested in profits. Both had Indian allies and troops. English lost Calcutta(1756) and regained it, plus more territory; French lost power in India; Britain would continue its hold over India.
Continuities Slave labor continued to grow European brutality in conquests over civilizations Religion and profits drove colonizers Attempting to find shorter routes to India (England, Spain, Portugal tried) Various regions refused to be affected by expanding world trade Muslims continued trade in Africa.
Changes “New” foods/crops spread world-wide Introduction of animals to the New world Diseases changed demography of Americas The core nations flip-flopped and so did their dependencies; as colonial holdings grew, world economy grew.
Major Comparisons British vs. French: French seemed more focused on evangelizing non-believers while the British were driven more by profits. (EX. India) Actual land possessions of the major exploration countries (size and location).