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Chapter 16: Transformations in Europe, 1500 - 1750 By Matt Ferra.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16: Transformations in Europe, 1500 - 1750 By Matt Ferra."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16: Transformations in Europe, By Matt Ferra

2 Culture and Ideas Religious reformation – Pope Leo X: Medici family, oversaw the design and financing of new Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Raised financed by indulgence. – Martin Luther: professor of scripture who objected Leo’s indulgence. – A contest led to Luther burning the papal bull and to the Protestant Reformation

3 Culture and Ideas cont. John Calvin – The Institutes of the Christian Religion – Agreed with Luther, but denied that human faith could merit salvation – Calvinists elected their own governing committees, councils, dress codes, life styles, and worship styles.

4 Culture and Ideas cont. Witch hunts – Believed that natural events were the cause of the supernatural – Believed ¾ of women practiced witchcraft – Both the accusers and the accused believed in witches – Widows ad independent-minded women = WITCHES

5 Culture and Ideas cont. Scientific Revolution – Aristotle: believed that everything was comprised of the four basic elements The Earth was made of earth and water. The atmosphere was made of air and fire -Pythagoras: a^2 + b^2 = c^2

6 Culture and Ideas cont. Nicholas Copernicus ( ): first to develop heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of the solar system – Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Galileo Gallilei strengthened this theory – Intellectual and religious leaders wanted authorities to surpress these ideas because they contradicted with the Bible – Scholars like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton continued to experiment and continue with Galileo’s theories of physics

7 Culture and Ideas cont. Enlightenment – A scientific movement by “enlightened” individuals over laws, religion, and social hierarchies – Voltaire: “No opinion is worth burning your neighbor for.”

8 Social and Economic Life The Bourgeoisie: the urban class in France that dominated finance activities (burghers, town dwellers) – Able to buy exotic luxuries Caribbean and Brazilian sugar and rum Mexican chocolate Virginia tobacco North American furs East Indian cotton textiles and spices Chinese tea

9 Social and Economic Life Bourgeoisie countries – Netherlands: manufacturers, craftsmen, Dutch textile industry – Amsterdam was a major port an Holland’s largest city, as well as its financial center

10 Social and Economic Life Dutch pioneered joint-stock companies, giving the Dutch East and West India Companies monopolies over trade to the East and West Indies France and England had their own companies too The companies sold their shares to individuals to raise large sums for overseas enterprises Stock exchanges- Italian innovation, transferred to Europe in the 16 th century

11 Social and Economic Life Some bourgeoisie members used their wealth to raise their social status to gain entry in the gentry. – Retired businessmen – Loaned money to peasants – A family could avoid taxation by living in the gentry for 3+ generations Or purchasing a title from the king

12 Social and Economic Life Peasants and Laborers – Europeans continued to depend on serfs, but kept them at a distance – Improving agriculture hadn’t really improved since 1300 – Little Ice Age: temperatures dropped slightly but caused problems for crops; starvation – Men made livings as miners, lumberjacks, and charcoal makers – The growing want for wood fuel caused serious deforestation

13 Social and Economic Life Women and the Family – Status and work were tied to their husbands and families – No arranged marriages – chose own partners

14 Political Innovations State development – City-states and principalities like the Holy Roman Empire – Tried to build a powerful European empire – failed – Charles V – Holy Roman emperor Hoped to centralize imperial power and lead a Christian coalition Halted Ottoman Empire in 1529 Gave up dream of unification in 1546

15 Political Innovations Religious policies – Spanish and French rules defended Catholic tradition against Protestants – King Philip II brought in Spanish Inquisition to stop all who oppressed him – King Henry VIII used his power to disband monasteries and convents

16 Political Innovations English Civil War King Charles I Ruled 11 years without Parliament Raised funds with “loans” from wealthy subjects A rebellion forced him to summon a Parliament to approve new taxes Charles refused to grant certain guarantees Ordered arrest of critics in House of Commons War commences

17 Political Innovations A similar struggle in France – Estates General represented traditional rights of clergy, nobility, and towns – Asserted rights during French Wars of Religion – Raised funds by selling appointments to high government offices

18 Political Innovations Warfare and diplomacy – Warfare was almost constant in early modern Europe – Monarchs expended vast sums of money, causing widespread devastation and death – Thirty Years War: caused long-lasting depopulation and economic decline – Improves skills in weaponry – Cities built fortifications for command structures – England rose as sea power under King Henry VIII – Balance of power: major European states formed temporary alliances to prevent one state from becoming too powerful

19 Political Innovations Heavy costs – European rulers increased revenues – Expensive wars caused treasury to default under King Philip II – Silver and gold bullion filled Spain’s treasury temporarily

20 Political Innovations Dutch revolt – Netherlands rises as economic power – King Philip imposes heavy sales tax and Catholic orthodox – 2 revolts: 1566 and 1572 – Emerged as dominant, commercial power after long war – Caused England to enlarge government’s role in managing the economy


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