2 Chapter 16: Molecular Genetics You Must Know:The structure of DNAThe major steps in replicationThe difference between replication, transcription, and translation“Central Dogma”How DNA is packaged into a chromosome
3 Experiments:GriffinHershey and ChaseChargaffMeselson-Stahl
6 Proofreading and repair Mismatch RepairA DNA polymerase does this as soon as nucleotide is addedother proteins do this as well (they continually monitor)Excision Repairenzyme nuclease cuts segment of strand containing damageresulting gap is filled (A DNA polymerase and DNA ligase)
8 Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein You Must KnowThe key terms gene expression, transcription, and translationHow to explain the process of transcriptionHow eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcriptionThe steps to translationHow point mutations can change the amino acid sequence of a protein
12 Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression You Must KnowThe functions of the three parts of an operonThe role of repressor genes in operonsThe impact of DNA methylation and histone acetylation on gene expressionThe role of oncogenes, proto-oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes in cancer
19 Information flow in cells can be regulated by various mechanisms. Describe the role of THREE of the following in the regulation of proteinsynthesis:RNA splicingrepressor proteinsmethylationsiRNA(b) Information flow can be altered by mutation. Describe THREE differenttypes of mutations and their effect on protein synthesis.(c) Identify TWO environmental factors that increase the mutation rate in anorganism, and discuss their effect on the genome of the organism.(d) Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in the phenotype caused bymechanisms other than changes in the DNA sequence. Describe ONEexample of epigenetic inheritance.
20 Chapter 20: DNA Technology and Genomics You Must KnowThe terminology of biotechnologyThe steps in gene cloning with special attention to the biotechnology tools that make cloning possibleThe key ideas that make PCR possibleHow gel electrophoresis
25 4. The flow of genetic information from DNA to protein in eukaryotic cells is called the central dogma of biology.(a) Explain the role of each of the following in proteinsynthesis in eukaryotic cells.• RNA polymerase• Spliceosomes (snRNPs)• Codons• Ribosomes• tRNA(b) Cells regulate both protein synthesis and protein activity.Discuss TWO specific mechanisms of protein regulation ineukaryotic cells.(c) The central dogma does not apply to some viruses. Selecta specific virus or type of virus and explain how itdeviates from the central dogma.
26 Chapter 21“Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions”This chapter serves to connect genetics to evolution.Illustrative examples listed for this chapter are:Different types of hemoglobinMHC proteinsChlorophyllsMolecular diversity of antibodies in response to an antigen
27 Chapter 22: Descent with Modification You Must KnowNatural selection is a major mechanism of evolutionBiological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathGraphical analysis of allele frequencies in a populationApplication of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equationGraphical analyses of allele frequencies in a populationAnalysis of sequence data setsAnalysis of phylogenetic treesConstruction of phylogenetic trees based on sequence data
28 Evidence for evolution Direct observationsThe fossil recordHomologyHomologous structures vs. AnalogousConvergent evolutionEmbryonic homologiesVestigial organsMolecular homologiesBiogeographyContinental driftEndemic species
29 Chapter 23: The Evolution of Populations You Must KnowHow mutation and sexual reproduction each produce genetic variationThe conditions for Hardy-Weinberg EquilibriumHow to use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to calculate allelic frequencies and to test whether a population is evolving
30 PracticeSuppose in a plant population that red flowers (R) are dominant to white flowers (r). In a population of 500 individuals, 25% show the recessive phenotype. How many individuals would you expect to be homozygous dominant and heterozygous for this trait?
32 Chapter 24: The Origin of Species You Must KnowThe difference between microevolution and macroevolutionThe biological concept of speciesPrezygotic and postzygotic barriers that maintain reproductive isolation in natural populationsHow allopatric and sympatric speciation are similar and differentHow an autopolyploid or an allopolyploid chromosomal change can lead to sympatric speciationHow punctuated equilibrium and gradualism describe two different tempos of speciation
33 Pre and Post Zygotic Isolation HabitatBehavioralTemporalMechanicalGameticReduced Hybrid viabilityReduced Hybrid fertilityHybrid Breakdown
38 3. Reproduction can be either asexual or sexual. (a) Using a specific example, describe how organisms canreproduce asexually. Discuss TWO evolutionaryadvantages of asexual reproduction.(b) Identify THREE ways that sexual reproduction increasesgenetic variability. For each, explain how it increases geneticdiversity among the offspring.(c) Discuss TWO prezygotic isolating mechanisms that preventhybridization between two species. Include in your discussionan example of each mechanism.
39 4. Phylogeny reflects the evolutionary history of organisms. (a) Discuss TWO mechanisms of speciation that lead to the development ofseparate species from a common ancestor.(b) Explain THREE methods that have been used to investigate the phylogeny oforganisms. Describe a strength or weakness of each method.(c) The two phylogenetic trees represent the relationship of whales to six othermammals. All of the organisms shown have a pulley-shaped astragalus bone inthe ankle except for the whale.• For each tree, describe a monophyletic group, the closest relative to the whale, and the point at which the pulley astragalus was lost or gained.• Based on the principle of parsimony (the simplest explanation is the best) and the genomic information in the table shown, identify which tree is the best representation of the evolutionary relationship of these animals, and justify your answer.
40 Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth You Must KnowThe age of the Earth and when prokaryotic and eukaryotic life emerged.Characteristics of the early planet and its atmosphereHow Miller and Urey tested the Oparin- Haldane hypothesis and what they learnedMethods used to date fossils and rocksEvidence for endosymbiosisHow continental drift can explain the current distribution of species.
41 Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life You Must KnowThe taxonomic categories and how they indicate relatednessHow systematics is used to develop phylogenetic treesThe three domains of life including their similarities and their differences
43 3. Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species. (a) The evolution of a species is dependent on changes in the genome of thespecies. Identify TWO mechanisms of genetic change, and explain how eachaffects genetic variation.(b) Based on the data in the table below, draw a phylogenetic tree that reflects theevolutionary relationships of the organisms based on the differences in theircytochrome c amino-acid sequences and explain the relationships of theorganisms. Based on the data, identify which organism is most closely relatedto the chicken and explain your choice.(c) Describe TWO types of evidence—other than the comparison of proteins—that can be used to determine the phylogeny of organisms. Discuss onestrength of each type of evidence you described.
44 Three Domains Nuclear Envelop No Yes Membrane-enclosed organelles CharacteristicBacteriaArchaeaEukaryaNuclear EnvelopNoYesMembrane-enclosed organellesIntronsHistone proteins assoc. with DNACircular chromosome
45 Chapter 27: Bacteria You Must Know: Electrophoresis Plasmid-based transformationRestriction enzyme analysis of DNA