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Slide 1 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking 17 Methods of Persuasion C h a p t e r.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking 17 Methods of Persuasion C h a p t e r."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking 17 Methods of Persuasion C h a p t e r

2 Slide 2 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Methods of Persuasion Building credibility (ethos) Using evidence Reasoning (logos) Appealing to emotions (pathos) Building credibility (ethos) Using evidence Reasoning (logos) Appealing to emotions (pathos)

3 Slide 3 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Ethos The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.

4 Slide 4 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Credibility The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.

5 Slide 5 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Factors of Credibility Competence Character Competence Character

6 Slide 6 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Competence How an audience regards a speaker’s intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject.

7 Slide 7 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Character How an audience regards a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.

8 Slide 8 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Types of Credibility Initial Derived Terminal Initial Derived Terminal

9 Slide 9 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Initial Credibility The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.

10 Slide 10 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Derived Credibility The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.

11 Slide 11 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Terminal Credibility The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.

12 Slide 12 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Tips for Enhancing Credibility Explain your competence Establish common ground with your audience Deliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction Explain your competence Establish common ground with your audience Deliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction

13 Slide 13 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Logos The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.

14 Slide 14 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Evidence Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something.

15 Slide 15 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Tips for Using Evidence Use specific evidence Use novel evidencenovel Use evidence from credible sources Make clear the point of your evidence Use specific evidence Use novel evidencenovel Use evidence from credible sources Make clear the point of your evidence

16 Slide 16 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Reasoning The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.

17 Slide 17 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Four Types of Reasoning Reasoning from specific instances Reasoning from principle Causal reasoning Analogical reasoning Reasoning from specific instances Reasoning from principle Causal reasoning Analogical reasoning

18 Slide 18 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Reasoning from Specific Instances Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.

19 Slide 19 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Reasoning from Specific Instances Example: Contrary to what the chemical industry argues, limiting pesticide use does not threaten the food supply. (1.)Sweden has cut back on pesticides by 50 percent over the last few years with almost no decrease in its harvest. (2.)The Campbell Soup Company uses no pesticides at all on tomatoes grown in Mexico, and they reap as much fruit as ever. (3.) Many California farmers who practice pesticide-free agriculture have actually experienced increases in their crop yields. 1 example +1 example +1 example = conclusion

20 Slide 20 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Guidelines for Reasoning from Specific Instances Avoid hasty generalizations If your evidence does not justify a sweeping conclusion, qualify your argument Reinforce your argument with statistics or testimony Avoid hasty generalizations If your evidence does not justify a sweeping conclusion, qualify your argument Reinforce your argument with statistics or testimony

21 Slide 21 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Reasoning from Principle Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.

22 Slide 22 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Reasoning from Principle Example: Reasoning must be valid and all of the premises must be true. 1.To be elected President of the United States, a person must be at least 35 years of age. 2.Bill Clinton was elected President of the United States. 3.Therefore, Bill Clinton was at least 35 years of age when elected. Reasoning must be valid and all of the premises must be true. 1.To be elected President of the United States, a person must be at least 35 years of age. 2.Bill Clinton was elected President of the United States. 3.Therefore, Bill Clinton was at least 35 years of age when elected.

23 Slide 23 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Guidelines for Reasoning from Principle Make sure listeners will accept your general principle (premise) Provide evidence to support your minor premise Make sure listeners will accept your general principle (premise) Provide evidence to support your minor premise

24 Slide 24 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Causal Reasoning Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.

25 Slide 25 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Causal Reasoning Example: Because the ice was on the step, I fell and broke my leg.

26 Slide 26 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Guidelines for Causal Reasoning Avoid the fallacy of false cause Do not assume that events have only a single cause Avoid the fallacy of false cause Do not assume that events have only a single cause

27 Slide 27 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Analogical Reasoning Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and implies that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.

28 Slide 28 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Analogical Reasoning Example: Almost every industrialized nation in the world except for the United States has a national curriculum and national tests to help ensure that schools throughout the country are meeting high standards of education. If such a system can work elsewhere, it can work in the United States as well.

29 Slide 29 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Guidelines for Analogical Reasoning Above all, make sure the two cases being compared are essentially alike

30 Slide 30 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Fallacy An error in reasoning.

31 Slide 31 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Fallacies Hasty generalization False cause Invalid analogy Red herring Hasty generalization False cause Invalid analogy Red herring Ad hominem Either-or Bandwagon Slippery slope

32 Slide 32 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Hasty Generalization A fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence. (associated with reasoning from specifics)

33 Slide 33 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Example: Hasty Generalization “Last year alone three members of our state legislature were convicted of corruption. We can conclude, then, that all of our state's politicians are corrupt.” 1 member + 1 member = all politicians

34 Slide 34 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking False Cause A fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second. (associated with causal reasoning)

35 Slide 35 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Example: False Cause “I'm sure the stock market will rise this year. It usually goes up when the American League wins the World Series.”

36 Slide 36 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Invalid Analogy An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike. (associated with analogical reasoning)

37 Slide 37 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Example: Invalid Analogy “Of course Lisheng can prepare great Italian food; his Chinese cooking is fabulous.”

38 Slide 38 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Red Herring A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.

39 Slide 39 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Example: Red Herring “Why should we worry about endangered animal species when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents each year?”

40 Slide 40 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Ad Hominem A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.

41 Slide 41 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Example: Ad Hominem “The governor has a number of interesting economic proposals, but let’s not forget that she comes from a very wealthy family.”

42 Slide 42 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Either-Or A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.

43 Slide 43 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Example: Either-Or “The government must either raise taxes or reduce services for the poor.”

44 Slide 44 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Bandwagon A fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.

45 Slide 45 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking E xample: Bandwagon “The President must be correct in his approach to domestic policy; after all, polls show that 60 percent of the people support him.”

46 Slide 46 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Slippery Slope A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.

47 Slide 47 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Example: Slippery Slope “Passing federal laws to control the amount of violence on television is the first step in a process that will result in absolute government control of the media and total censorship over all forms of artistic expression.”

48 Slide 48 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Pathos The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.

49 Slide 49 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Emotional Appeals Appeals that are intended to make listeners feel sad, angry, guilty, afraid, happy, proud, sympathetic, reverent, etc.

50 Slide 50 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Tips for Generating Emotional Appeal Use emotional language Develop vivid examples Speak with sincerity and conviction Use emotional language Develop vivid examples Speak with sincerity and conviction

51 Slide 51 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Using Emotional Appeal Ethically Make sure emotional appeal is appropriate to the speech topic Do not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning Make sure emotional appeal is appropriate to the speech topic Do not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning

52 Slide 52 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking 1.The more favorably listeners view a speaker’s competence and character, the more likely they are to accept what the speaker says. 2.Because it moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion, reasoning from principle is the opposite of reasoning from specific instances. 3.Research shows that skeptical listeners are more likely to be persuaded by evidence they are already familiar with than by evidence that is new to them. 1.The more favorably listeners view a speaker’s competence and character, the more likely they are to accept what the speaker says. 2.Because it moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion, reasoning from principle is the opposite of reasoning from specific instances. 3.Research shows that skeptical listeners are more likely to be persuaded by evidence they are already familiar with than by evidence that is new to them. True-False Quiz

53 Slide 53 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking 4.It is usually inappropriate for persuasive speakers to refer to their personal experience in an attempt to bolster their credibility. 5.The red herring fallacy refers to statements that introduce an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion. 6.A speaker can have high credibility for one audience and low credibility for another audience. 4.It is usually inappropriate for persuasive speakers to refer to their personal experience in an attempt to bolster their credibility. 5.The red herring fallacy refers to statements that introduce an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion. 6.A speaker can have high credibility for one audience and low credibility for another audience. True-False Quiz

54 Slide 54 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking 7.Arguments guilty of the ad hominem fallacy attack the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute. 8.Studies have shown that speakers with low initial credibility need to use more evidence than speakers with high initial credibility. 9.According to your textbook, emotional appeals are often appropriate in persuasive speeches on questions of policy. 7.Arguments guilty of the ad hominem fallacy attack the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute. 8.Studies have shown that speakers with low initial credibility need to use more evidence than speakers with high initial credibility. 9.According to your textbook, emotional appeals are often appropriate in persuasive speeches on questions of policy. True-False Quiz

55 Slide 55 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking 10.The following statement is an example of reasoning by analogy: “The United Nations charter establishes the right of all people to live free of political repression. The government of North Korea subjects its people to political repression. Therefore, the government of North Korea is violating the U.N. charter.” True-False Quiz

56 Slide 56 Methods of Persuasion/Ch 16 Introduction to Public Speaking Review Methods of Persuasion Review Methods of Persuasion


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