9 Initial CredibilityThe credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.
10 Derived CredibilityThe credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.
11 Terminal CredibilityThe credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.
12 Tips for Enhancing Credibility Explain your competenceEstablish common ground with your audienceDeliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction
13 LogosThe name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.
14 EvidenceSupporting materials used to prove or disprove something.
15 Tips for Using Evidence Use specific evidenceUse novel evidenceUse evidence from credible sourcesMake clear the point of your evidence
16 ReasoningThe process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.
17 Four Types of Reasoning Reasoning from specific instancesReasoning from principleCausal reasoningAnalogical reasoning
18 Reasoning from Specific Instances Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.
19 Reasoning from Specific Instances Example: Contrary to what the chemical industry argues, limiting pesticide use does not threaten the food supply. (1.)Sweden has cut back on pesticides by 50 percent over the last few years with almost no decrease in its harvest. (2.)The Campbell Soup Company uses no pesticides at all on tomatoes grown in Mexico, and they reap as much fruit as ever. (3.) Many California farmers who practice pesticide-free agriculture have actually experienced increases in their crop yields.1 example +1 example +1 example= conclusion
20 Guidelines for Reasoning from Specific Instances Avoid hasty generalizationsIf your evidence does not justify a sweeping conclusion, qualify your argumentReinforce your argument with statistics or testimony
21 Reasoning from Principle Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
22 Reasoning from Principle Example: Reasoning must be valid and all of the premises must be true.To be elected President of the United States, a person must be at least 35 years of age.Bill Clinton was elected President of the United States.Therefore, Bill Clinton was at least 35 years of age when elected.
23 Guidelines for Reasoning from Principle Make sure listeners will accept your general principle (premise)Provide evidence to support your minor premise
24 Causal ReasoningReasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
25 Causal Reasoning Example: Because the ice was on the step, I fell and broke my leg.
26 Guidelines for Causal Reasoning Avoid the fallacy of false causeDo not assume that events have only a single cause
27 Analogical ReasoningReasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and implies that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.
28 Analogical Reasoning Example: Almost every industrialized nation in the world except for the United States has a national curriculum and national tests to help ensure that schools throughout the country are meeting high standards of education. If such a system can work elsewhere, it can work in the United States as well.
29 Guidelines for Analogical Reasoning Above all, make sure the two cases being compared are essentially alike
31 Fallacies Hasty generalization Ad hominem Either-or False cause Invalid analogyRed herringAd hominemEither-orBandwagonSlippery slope
32 Hasty GeneralizationA fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence. (associated with reasoning from specifics)
33 Example: Hasty Generalization “Last year alone three members of our state legislature were convicted of corruption. We can conclude, then, that all of our state's politicians are corrupt.”1 member+ 1 member= all politicians
34 False CauseA fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second. (associated with causal reasoning)
35 Example: False Cause“I'm sure the stock market will rise this year. It usually goes up when the American League wins the World Series.”
36 Invalid AnalogyAn analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike. (associated with analogical reasoning)
37 Example: Invalid Analogy “Of course Lisheng can prepare great Italian food; his Chinese cooking is fabulous.”
38 Red HerringA fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
39 Example: Red Herring“Why should we worry about endangered animal species when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents each year?”
40 Ad HominemA fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.
41 Example: Ad Hominem“The governor has a number of interesting economic proposals, but let’s not forget that she comes from a very wealthy family.”
42 Either-OrA fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
43 Example: Either-Or“The government must either raise taxes or reduce services for the poor.”
44 BandwagonA fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
45 Example: Bandwagon“The President must be correct in his approach to domestic policy; after all, polls show that 60 percent of the people support him.”
46 Slippery SlopeA fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
47 Example: Slippery Slope “Passing federal laws to control the amount of violence on television is the first step in a process that will result in absolute government control of the media and total censorship over all forms of artistic expression.”
48 PathosThe name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.
49 Emotional AppealsAppeals that are intended to make listeners feel sad, angry, guilty, afraid, happy, proud, sympathetic, reverent, etc.
50 Tips for Generating Emotional Appeal Use emotional languageDevelop vivid examplesSpeak with sincerity and conviction
51 Using Emotional Appeal Ethically Make sure emotional appeal is appropriate to the speech topicDo not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning
52 True-False QuizThe more favorably listeners view a speaker’s competence and character, the more likely they are to accept what the speaker says.Because it moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion, reasoning from principle is the opposite of reasoning from specific instances.Research shows that skeptical listeners are more likely to be persuaded by evidence they are already familiar with than by evidence that is new to them.
53 True-False QuizIt is usually inappropriate for persuasive speakers to refer to their personal experience in an attempt to bolster their credibility.The red herring fallacy refers to statements that introduce an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.A speaker can have high credibility for one audience and low credibility for another audience.
54 True-False QuizArguments guilty of the ad hominem fallacy attack the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.Studies have shown that speakers with low initial credibility need to use more evidence than speakers with high initial credibility.According to your textbook, emotional appeals are often appropriate in persuasive speeches on questions of policy.
55 True-False QuizThe following statement is an example of reasoning by analogy: “The United Nations charter establishes the right of all people to live free of political repression. The government of North Korea subjects its people to political repression. Therefore, the government of North Korea is violating the U.N. charter.”