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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Urban Problems This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Urban Problems This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Urban Problems This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Chapter outline Historical Growth Current Growth Urban growth Fiscal Crises and Health care Housing problems and homelessness Segregation Urban Problems Problems Wallerstein’s view Global Cities Functionalist Conflict Interactionist Perspectives

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Urbanization Urbanization: The process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities rather than in rural areas Began with industrialization, which lead to the growth of cities Brought profound changes and problems, including housing shortages, overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, pollution, and crime

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Suburbanization Began with efforts to correct the housing shortage following WWII The “Baby Boom” The Housing Act of 1949 gave builders incentives to develop affordable housing Lenient lending policies allowed veterans to buy homes Shift away from central cities set up economic and racial divisions that still exist today

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6 Suburbanization, cont. Other factors that lead to uburbanization Availability of inexpensive land Low-cost mass construction methods New federally financed highway systems Inexpensive gasoline Racial tension in central cities Consumers’ demands for single-family homes on individual lots

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Cities Today Many edge cities exist. wealthy living areas that are not dependent on central cities Increasing Megalopolis: Continuous concentration of 2 or more cities and their suburbs that have grown until they form an interconnected urban area. East coast of U.S.

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Urban Problems Fiscal Crisis: Causes of financial problems- People and businesses have moved to the suburbs Central cities are left with shrinking sources of revenue Many remaining residents are poor, unemployed, or older on fixed incomes; cities must still provide services for them Suburbanites who use city services do not pay taxes to the city

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Health Care Crisis Medical facilities are subject to cutbacks when cities face economic problems People in impoverished sections are more likely to become ill or injured Drug-related problems and HIV/AIDS create an added burden Managed care plans and hospital chains streamline services to create a profit

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Housing Problems Housing shortage: Lack of safe, livable, low-income housing Empty buildings increase fear Places for drug dealers and fugitives to hide Federal housing aid has been unsuccessful at helping those in need get affordable housing Gentrification, which is the process of restoring older properties in central cities, depletes the stock of affordable housing

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Homelessness Data on the actual number of homeless is unavailable U.S. Conference of Mayors surveys show People of color are over-represented (2007) 42% African Americans 39% Whites 13% Latinos/as 4% Native Americans 2% Asian Americans Families and children are the fastest growing segment Homeless people are from all walks of life and have varied backgrounds.

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Racial and Ethnic Segregation 1968 Federal Fair Housing Act has only slight decreased segregation in U.S. Custom steering people of color to different neighborhoods by landlords, homeowners, and realtors African Americans have experienced the greatest level of residential segregation than any other minority group Unequal property taxation on comparable homes African Americans are likely to move to suburbs with a declining tax base “White Flight” occurs as African Americans move in

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Problems in Global Cities Current urban problems include: Overcrowding Environmental pollution Disappearance of farmland Natural increases in population account for 2/3 of new urban growth Migration has also caused rapid increases in population

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15 Problems, cont. As global urbanization increases, nations occupy different positions Core nations are dominant capitalist centers Referred to as global and post-industrial cities Peripheral nations depend on core nations for capital Most countries in S. America and the Caribbean Semi-peripheral nations are more developed than peripheral nations but less so than core nations India, Iran, and Mexico Difficult for peripheral and semi peripheral nations to change position due to exploitation by core nations.

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Perspectives Functionalist: Urban problems are the result of 3 processes: Mass migration during the Industrial Revolution lead to social disorganization Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and 20th centuries Mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity Mass suburbanization Solution: Create metropolitan or regional governments

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Perspectives, cont. Conflict: Cities grow or decline according to decisions made by capitalists and the political elite Uneven development is product political economy model of urban development and reflects inequalities of wealth and power in our society. Solution: Other than major changes to the political economy, the solution lies in political activism and organized resistance to oppressive conditions

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Perspectives, cont. Interactionist: Urban living is experienced differently according to how people subjectively experience it Georg Simmel thought urban life is so stimulating that people become insensitive to those around them Urban living gives people opportunities for individualism and autonomy Louis Wirth thought that urbanism produces feelings of alienation and powerlessness Solution: The way to avoid alienation is to develop sub- cultural ties

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