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Using Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS/ PB4L) to Make Schools more Effective and Equitable Rob Horner University of Oregon www.pbis.org.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS/ PB4L) to Make Schools more Effective and Equitable Rob Horner University of Oregon www.pbis.org."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS/ PB4L) to Make Schools more Effective and Equitable Rob Horner University of Oregon Currently using PBIS? Elem, Middle, High?

2 Goals Define purpose of PBIS Define core features of PBIS Define how PBIS helps schools be more effective learning environments Define how PBIS helps schools be more equitable learning environments.

3 Why SWPBIS/ PB4L? The fundamental purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective and equitable learning environments. Predictable Consistent Positive Safe

4 Main Messages Supporting social behavior is central to achieving academic gains. School-wide PB4L is an evidence-based practice for building a positive social culture that will promote both social and academic success. Implementation of any evidence-based practice requires a more coordinated focus than typically expected. PBIS/PB4L will improve the equity within schools.

5 Main Messages PBIS makes schools more effective, equitable, efficient. Effective (academic, behavior) Equitable (all students succeed) Efficient (time, cost)

6 Experimental Research on SWPBIS Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Ross, S. W., Endrulat, N. R., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Adult outcomes of school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 14(2) Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf, P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2): Bradshaw, Pas, Goldweber, Rosenberg, & Leaf, 2012 Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., McCoach D.B., Sugai, G., Lombardi, A., & Horner, ( submitted) Implementation Effects of School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports on Academic, Attendance, and Behavior Outcomes in High Schools. SWPBIS Experimentally Related to: 1.Reduction in problem behavior 2.Increased academic performance 3.Increased attendance 4.Improved perception of safety 5.Reduction in bullying behaviors 6.Improved organizational efficiency 7.Reduction in staff turnover 8.Increased perception of teacher efficacy 9.Improved Social Emotional competence SWPBIS Experimentally Related to: 1.Reduction in problem behavior 2.Increased academic performance 3.Increased attendance 4.Improved perception of safety 5.Reduction in bullying behaviors 6.Improved organizational efficiency 7.Reduction in staff turnover 8.Increased perception of teacher efficacy 9.Improved Social Emotional competence

7 PBIS is Efficient (Avg. 45 minutes per incident for student 30 min for Admin 15 min for Teacher) 1000 Referrals/yr2000 Referrals/yr Administrator Time500 Hours1000 Hours Teacher Time250 Hours500 Hours Student Time750 Hours1500 Hours Totals1500 Hours3000 Hours

8 Pre PBIS Year 1 Year 2 Year 3

9 What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and 25 suspensions mean? Kennedy Middle School Savings in Administrative time ODR = 15 min Suspension = 45 min 13,875 minutes 231 hours 29, 8-hour days Savings in Student Instructional time ODR = 45 min Suspension = 216 min 43,650 minutes 728 hours 121, 6-hour school days

10 What is School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS/PB4L)? School-wide PBIS/ PB4L is: o A multi-tiered framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to achieve behavioral and academic outcomes for all students. Evidence-based features of SWPBIS/ PB4L o Prevention o Define and teach positive social expectations o Acknowledge positive behavior o Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior o On-going collection and use of data for decision-making o Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. o Implementation of the systems that support effective practices

11 Establishing a School-wide, Positive Social Culture Common Vision/Values Common Language Common Experience

12 School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS/ PB4L) The social culture of a school matters. A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families. Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainability Multiple tiers of intensity

13 Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At- Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT/ PB4L 27 Main Ideas: 1.Invest in prevention first 2.Multiple tiers of support intensity 3.Early/rapid access to support

14 Remember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students. Avoid creating a new disability labeling system. Reading Behavior Math Health

15 Schools using PBIS in the U.S. August, ,611

16 New Zealand Data Implementing PB4L

17 Using PBIS to Achieve Quality, Equity and Efficiency QUALITY : Using what works; Linking Academic and Behavior Supports o North Carolina (valued outcomes) o Michigan (behavior and literacy supports) o Commitment to Fidelity Measures o Building functional logic/ theory/ practice (Sanford) EQUITY : Making schools work for all o Scott Ross o Russ Skiba o Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin o Bully prevention EFFICIENCY : Working Smarter: Building implementation science into large scale adoption. o Using teacher and student time better. o Dean Fixsen/ Oregon Dept of Education

18 Define School-wide Expectations for Social Behavior Identify 3-5 Expectations Short statements Positive Statements (what to do, not what to avoid doing) Memorable Examples: Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Be Safe, Be Kind, Be a Friend, Be-there-be-ready, Hands and feet to self, Respect self, others, property, Do your best, Follow directions of adults

19 Tier I: PBIS Team Expectations Rewards Corrective Consequences Classroom Systems Family Bully Prevention Decision System

20 Classroom Systems Classroom Expectations Classroom Routines Effective Instruction Opportunities to Respond Constructive Feedback Active Supervision High rate of positives Functional Consequences Physical Space matches Function See work of Brandi Simonson Tim Lewis Terry Scott

21 Designing Cla ssroom Routines RoutineSchool-wide Expectations Signal Entering ClassWalk in, sit down, start work Instruction on board Obtaining class attention Orient to teacher, be quiet ? Getting Help during seat work ??

22 Family Engagement

23 Academic Engagement

24 Families Partnership with families What three things could most families do that would make the biggest positive impact on student educational success? Options Show interest (ask how the day went) Help with homework (time, place, support, knowing) Communication with school (events, needs, what is working, and what is not working) Families

25 Academic Engagement Team Activity: How can your school engage families: 1)What are 1-3 reasonable things families can do that would make a difference? 2)What would be the best way to share this information with families? How would we know if we had been successful?

26 Bully Prevention Scott Ross

27 Available at

28 Ross, S. W., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Bully prevention in positive behavior support. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(4), Three Schools Six students identified for high rates of verbal and physical aggression toward others. Whole school implementation of SWPBIS Whole school addition of Stop-Walk-Talk Direct observation of problem behavior on playground. 28

29 %

30 BP-PBS, Scott Ross30 28% increase 19% decrease

31 BP-PBS, Scott Ross31 21% increase 22% decrease

32 Discipline Disproportionality A central element affecting the equity and effectiveness of education

33 Elementary Schools: Compare proportion of students enrolled to proportion of students with an ODR % Enrolled % with an ODR Risk Ratio = 1.81

34 Preliminary Evidence: When PBIS is linked to reduction in ODRs does reduction occur for students from all ethnic groups? From: Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin, 2009

35 Recommendations for Addressing Discipline Disproportionality in Education Kent McIntosh, Erik J. Girvan, Robert H. Horner, & Keith Smolkowski 1. Effective Instruction Curriculum, Explicit presentation, Opportunity to respond, Timely and contingent feedback 2. Implement PBIS 3. Collect and use disaggregated discipline data 4. Address “explicit bias” with clear policies, regulations and accountability. 5. Address “implicit bias” with neutralizing routines. Identify times / situations when untended bias may occur Teach self-direction routines when these times/situations occur

36 Measuring Fidelity of PBIS Very important for initial and sustained implementation To date… too many tools New Fidelity Tool …. Combination of Best Features o Strong technical validity o Done with Coach and Team o Can be done in 15 min per Tier o Can be used for initial assessment, progress monitoring and identification of exemplars o Results in action plan

37 Available October 2014 at or orgwww.fieldtest.pbisassessment. org or Other PBIS Fidelity Measures School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) Team Implementation Checklist (TIC) Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) Strong Technical Adequacy 15 min per tier Done with Coach and Team Useful for: Initial Assessment Progress Monitoring (by Tier) Identification of Exemplars

38 PBIS Implementation Inventory

39

40

41 TFI Item report

42 Tiers II and III: PBIS Team Increased structure Elevated Rewards Prevent rewards for problem behavior safety Family/ Wrap around Teaching Decision System Assessment used to tailor / individualize support Emphasis on Prevention

43 Fidelity Measures at Tier III Sarah Pinkelman

44 Summary PBIS is a framework for improving the effectiveness and equity of schools PBIS is evidence-based Building a cohesive and clear social culture matters Invest in prevention Use data to BOTH guide implementation and improve student outcomes.

45 PBIS PB4L Effective Efficient Practices that work Practices that are practical, durable and available Equitable Practices that benefit all


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