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Rob Horner University of Oregon

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1 Rob Horner University of Oregon
Using Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS/ PB4L) to Make Schools more Effective and Equitable Currently using PBIS? Elem, Middle, High? Rob Horner University of Oregon

2 Goals Define purpose of PBIS Define core features of PBIS
Define how PBIS helps schools be more effective learning environments Define how PBIS helps schools be more equitable learning environments.

3 Why SWPBIS/ PB4L? The fundamental purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective and equitable learning environments. Predictable Positive Consistent Safe

4 Main Messages Supporting social behavior is central to achieving academic gains. School-wide PB4L is an evidence-based practice for building a positive social culture that will promote both social and academic success. Implementation of any evidence-based practice requires a more coordinated focus than typically expected. PBIS/PB4L will improve the equity within schools.

5 Main Messages PBIS makes schools more effective, equitable, efficient.
Effective (academic, behavior) Equitable (all students succeed) Efficient (time, cost)

6 Experimental Research on SWPBIS
SWPBIS Experimentally Related to: Reduction in problem behavior Increased academic performance Increased attendance Improved perception of safety Reduction in bullying behaviors Improved organizational efficiency Reduction in staff turnover Increased perception of teacher efficacy Improved Social Emotional competence Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Ross, S. W., Endrulat, N. R., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Adult outcomes of school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 14(2) Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2): Bradshaw, Pas, Goldweber, Rosenberg, & Leaf, 2012 Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., McCoach D.B., Sugai, G., Lombardi, A., & Horner, ( submitted) Implementation Effects of School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports on Academic, Attendance, and Behavior Outcomes in High Schools.

7 PBIS is Efficient (Avg. 45 minutes per incident for student 30 min for Admin 15 min for Teacher)
1000 Referrals/yr 2000 Referrals/yr Administrator Time 500 Hours 1000 Hours Teacher Time 250 Hours Student Time 750 Hours 1500 Hours Totals 3000 Hours

8 Pre PBIS Year Year Year 3

9 29, 8-hour days 121, 6-hour school days
What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and 25 suspensions mean? Kennedy Middle School Savings in Administrative time ODR = 15 min Suspension = 45 min 13,875 minutes 231 hours 29, 8-hour days Savings in Student Instructional time ODR = 45 min Suspension = 216 min 43,650 minutes 728 hours 121, 6-hour school days

10 What is School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS/PB4L)?
School-wide PBIS/ PB4L is: A multi-tiered framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to achieve behavioral and academic outcomes for all students. Evidence-based features of SWPBIS/ PB4L Prevention Define and teach positive social expectations Acknowledge positive behavior Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior On-going collection and use of data for decision-making Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. Implementation of the systems that support effective practices

11 Establishing a School-wide, Positive Social Culture
Common Language Establishing a School-wide, Positive Social Culture Common Experience Common Vision/Values

12 School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS/ PB4L)
The social culture of a school matters. A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families. Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainability Multiple tiers of intensity

13 Invest in prevention first Multiple tiers of support intensity
SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT/ PB4L Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% ~15% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Main Ideas: Invest in prevention first Multiple tiers of support intensity Early/rapid access to support ~80% of Students 27

14 Math Remember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students. Avoid creating a new disability labeling system. Behavior Health Reading

15 Schools using PBIS in the U.S. August , 2014

16 New Zealand Data Implementing PB4L

17 Using PBIS to Achieve Quality, Equity and Efficiency
QUALITY: Using what works; Linking Academic and Behavior Supports North Carolina (valued outcomes) Michigan (behavior and literacy supports) Commitment to Fidelity Measures Building functional logic/ theory/ practice (Sanford) EQUITY: Making schools work for all Scott Ross Russ Skiba Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin Bully prevention EFFICIENCY: Working Smarter: Building implementation science into large scale adoption. Using teacher and student time better. Dean Fixsen/ Oregon Dept of Education

18 Define School-wide Expectations for Social Behavior
Identify 3-5 Expectations Short statements Positive Statements (what to do, not what to avoid doing) Memorable Examples: Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Be Safe, Be Kind, Be a Friend, Be-there-be-ready, Hands and feet to self, Respect self, others, property, Do your best, Follow directions of adults

19 Tier I: PBIS Team Rewards Expectations Family Corrective Consequences
Classroom Systems Decision System Expectations Family Bully Prevention

20 Classroom Systems Classroom Expectations Classroom Routines
See work of Brandi Simonson Tim Lewis Terry Scott Effective Instruction Opportunities to Respond Constructive Feedback Active Supervision High rate of positives Functional Consequences Physical Space matches Function

21 Designing Classroom Routines
School-wide Expectations Signal Entering Class Walk in, sit down, start work Instruction on board Obtaining class attention Orient to teacher, be quiet ? Getting Help during seat work

22 Family Engagement

23 Students Families School Academic Engagement

24 Families Families Partnership with families
What three things could most families do that would make the biggest positive impact on student educational success? Options Show interest (ask how the day went) Help with homework (time, place, support, knowing) Communication with school (events, needs, what is working, and what is not working)

25 Families Academic Engagement Team Activity:
How can your school engage families: What are 1-3 reasonable things families can do that would make a difference? What would be the best way to share this information with families? How would we know if we had been successful? Academic Engagement

26 Bully Prevention Scott Ross

27 Available at

28 Whole school implementation of SWPBIS
Ross, S. W., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Bully prevention in positive behavior support. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(4), Three Schools Six students identified for high rates of verbal and physical aggression toward others. Whole school implementation of SWPBIS Whole school addition of Stop-Walk-Talk Direct observation of problem behavior on playground.

29 72% 3.14 1.88 .88

30 28% increase 19% decrease BP-PBS, Scott Ross

31 21% increase 22% decrease Recipients of bullying said “stop” 30% of the time (a 28% increase from baseline), helped the victim “walk” away 13% of the time (a 10% increase), delivered a positive response 8% of the time (an 11% decrease), delivered a negative response 15% of the time (a 19% decrease), and delivered no response 34% of the time (a 9% decrease). Bystanders of bullying said “stop” 22% of the time (a 21% increase), helped the victim “walk” away 13% of the time (an 11% increase), delivered a positive response 17% of the time (a 22% decrease), delivered a negative response 8% of the time (a 10% decrease), and delivered no response 41% of the time (a 1% increase). BP-PBS, Scott Ross

32 Discipline Disproportionality
A central element affecting the equity and effectiveness of education

33 Elementary Schools: Compare proportion of students enrolled to proportion of students with an ODR
Risk Ratio = 1.81 % Enrolled % with an ODR

34 Preliminary Evidence: When PBIS is linked to reduction in ODRs does reduction occur for students from all ethnic groups? From: Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin, 2009

35 1. Effective Instruction 2. Implement PBIS
Recommendations for Addressing Discipline Disproportionality in Education Kent McIntosh, Erik J. Girvan, Robert H. Horner, & Keith Smolkowski 1. Effective Instruction Curriculum, Explicit presentation, Opportunity to respond, Timely and contingent feedback 2. Implement PBIS 3. Collect and use disaggregated discipline data 4. Address “explicit bias” with clear policies, regulations and accountability. 5. Address “implicit bias” with neutralizing routines. Identify times / situations when untended bias may occur Teach self-direction routines when these times/situations occur

36 Measuring Fidelity of PBIS
Very important for initial and sustained implementation To date… too many tools New Fidelity Tool …. Combination of Best Features Strong technical validity Done with Coach and Team Can be done in 15 min per Tier Can be used for initial assessment, progress monitoring and identification of exemplars Results in action plan

37 Other PBIS Fidelity Measures
Available October 2014 at or or Strong Technical Adequacy 15 min per tier Done with Coach and Team Useful for: Initial Assessment Progress Monitoring (by Tier) Identification of Exemplars Other PBIS Fidelity Measures School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) Team Implementation Checklist (TIC) Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ)

38 PBIS Implementation Inventory



41 TFI Item report

42 Tiers II and III: PBIS Team Elevated Rewards
Prevent rewards for problem behavior Emphasis on Prevention Team safety Increased structure Decision System Assessment used to tailor / individualize support Family/ Wrap around Teaching

43 Fidelity Measures at Tier III
Sarah Pinkelman

44 Summary PBIS is a framework for improving the effectiveness and equity of schools PBIS is evidence-based Building a cohesive and clear social culture matters Invest in prevention Use data to BOTH guide implementation and improve student outcomes.

45 PBIS PB4L Effective Efficient Equitable Practices that work
Practices that are practical, durable and available PBIS PB4L Equitable Practices that benefit all

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