Presentation on theme: "Rob Horner University of Oregon"— Presentation transcript:
1 Rob Horner University of Oregon www.pbis.org Using Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS/ PB4L) to Make Schools more Effective and EquitableCurrently using PBIS?Elem, Middle, High?Rob HornerUniversity of Oregon
2 Goals Define purpose of PBIS Define core features of PBIS Define how PBIS helps schools be more effective learning environmentsDefine how PBIS helps schools be more equitable learning environments.
3 Why SWPBIS/ PB4L?The fundamental purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective and equitable learning environments.PredictablePositiveConsistentSafe
4 Main MessagesSupporting social behavior is central to achieving academic gains.School-wide PB4L is an evidence-based practice for building a positive social culture that will promote both social and academic success.Implementation of any evidence-based practice requires a more coordinated focus than typically expected.PBIS/PB4L will improve the equity within schools.
5 Main Messages PBIS makes schools more effective, equitable, efficient. Effective (academic, behavior)Equitable (all students succeed) Efficient (time, cost)
6 Experimental Research on SWPBIS SWPBIS Experimentally Related to:Reduction in problem behaviorIncreased academic performanceIncreased attendanceImproved perception of safetyReduction in bullying behaviorsImproved organizational efficiencyReduction in staff turnoverIncreased perception of teacher efficacyImproved Social Emotional competenceBradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Ross, S. W., Endrulat, N. R., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Adult outcomes of school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 14(2) Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2): Bradshaw, Pas, Goldweber, Rosenberg, & Leaf, 2012 Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., McCoach D.B., Sugai, G., Lombardi, A., & Horner, ( submitted) Implementation Effects of School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports on Academic, Attendance, and Behavior Outcomes in High Schools.
7 PBIS is Efficient (Avg. 45 minutes per incident for student 30 min for Admin 15 min for Teacher) 1000 Referrals/yr2000 Referrals/yrAdministrator Time500 Hours1000 HoursTeacher Time250 HoursStudent Time750 Hours1500 HoursTotals3000 Hours
9 29, 8-hour days 121, 6-hour school days What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and 25 suspensions mean? Kennedy Middle SchoolSavings in Administrative timeODR = 15 minSuspension = 45 min13,875 minutes231 hours29, 8-hour daysSavings in Student Instructional timeODR = 45 minSuspension = 216 min43,650 minutes728 hours121, 6-hour school days
10 What is School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS/PB4L)? School-wide PBIS/ PB4L is:A multi-tiered framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to achieve behavioral and academic outcomes for all students.Evidence-based features of SWPBIS/ PB4LPreventionDefine and teach positive social expectationsAcknowledge positive behaviorArrange consistent consequences for problem behaviorOn-going collection and use of data for decision-makingContinuum of intensive, individual intervention supports.Implementation of the systems that support effective practices
11 Establishing a School-wide, Positive Social Culture Common LanguageEstablishing a School-wide, Positive Social CultureCommon ExperienceCommon Vision/Values
12 School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS/ PB4L) The social culture of a school matters.A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families.Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainabilityMultiple tiers of intensity
13 Invest in prevention first Multiple tiers of support intensity SCHOOL-WIDEPOSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORT/ PB4LTertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk Behavior~5%~15%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk BehaviorPrimary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & SettingsMain Ideas:Invest in prevention firstMultiple tiers of support intensityEarly/rapid access to support~80% of Students27
14 MathRemember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students.Avoid creating a new disability labeling system.BehaviorHealthReading
15 Schools using PBIS in the U.S. August , 2014 21,611
17 Using PBIS to Achieve Quality, Equity and Efficiency QUALITY: Using what works; Linking Academic and Behavior SupportsNorth Carolina (valued outcomes)Michigan (behavior and literacy supports)Commitment to Fidelity MeasuresBuilding functional logic/ theory/ practice (Sanford)EQUITY: Making schools work for allScott RossRuss SkibaVincent, Cartledge, May & TobinBully preventionEFFICIENCY: Working Smarter: Building implementation science into large scale adoption.Using teacher and student time better.Dean Fixsen/ Oregon Dept of Education
18 Define School-wide Expectations for Social Behavior Identify 3-5 ExpectationsShort statementsPositive Statements (what to do, not what to avoid doing)MemorableExamples:Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Be Safe, Be Kind, Be a Friend, Be-there-be-ready, Hands and feet to self, Respect self, others, property, Do your best, Follow directions of adults
19 Tier I: PBIS Team Rewards Expectations Family Corrective Consequences ClassroomSystemsDecision SystemExpectationsFamilyBully Prevention
20 Classroom Systems Classroom Expectations Classroom Routines See work ofBrandi SimonsonTim LewisTerry ScottEffective InstructionOpportunities to RespondConstructive FeedbackActive SupervisionHigh rate of positivesFunctional ConsequencesPhysical Space matches Function
21 Designing Classroom Routines School-wide ExpectationsSignalEntering ClassWalk in, sit down, start workInstruction on boardObtaining class attentionOrient to teacher, be quiet?Getting Help during seat work
24 Families Families Partnership with families What three things could most families do that would make the biggest positive impact on student educational success?OptionsShow interest(ask how the day went)Help with homework(time, place, support, knowing)Communication with school(events, needs, what is working, and what is not working)
25 Families Academic Engagement Team Activity: How can your school engage families:What are 1-3 reasonable things families can do that would make a difference?What would be the best way to share this information with families? How would we know if we had been successful?Academic Engagement
28 Whole school implementation of SWPBIS Ross, S. W., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Bully prevention in positive behavior support. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(4),Three SchoolsSix students identified for high rates of verbal and physical aggression toward others.Whole school implementation of SWPBISWhole school addition of Stop-Walk-TalkDirect observation of problem behavior on playground.
31 21% increase22% decreaseRecipients of bullying said “stop” 30% of the time (a 28% increase from baseline),helped the victim “walk” away 13% of the time (a 10% increase),delivered a positive response 8% of the time (an 11% decrease),delivered a negative response 15% of the time (a 19% decrease),and delivered no response 34% of the time (a 9% decrease).Bystanders of bullying said “stop” 22% of the time (a 21% increase),helped the victim “walk” away 13% of the time (an 11% increase),delivered a positive response 17% of the time (a 22% decrease),delivered a negative response 8% of the time (a 10% decrease),and delivered no response 41% of the time (a 1% increase).BP-PBS, Scott Ross
32 Discipline Disproportionality A central element affecting the equity and effectiveness of education
33 Elementary Schools: Compare proportion of students enrolled to proportion of students with an ODR Risk Ratio = 1.81% Enrolled% with an ODR
34 Preliminary Evidence: When PBIS is linked to reduction in ODRs does reduction occur for students from all ethnic groups?From: Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin, 2009
35 1. Effective Instruction 2. Implement PBIS Recommendations for Addressing Discipline Disproportionality in Education Kent McIntosh, Erik J. Girvan, Robert H. Horner, & Keith Smolkowski1. Effective InstructionCurriculum, Explicit presentation, Opportunity to respond, Timely and contingent feedback2. Implement PBIS3. Collect and use disaggregated discipline data4. Address “explicit bias” with clear policies, regulations and accountability.5. Address “implicit bias” with neutralizing routines.Identify times / situations when untended bias may occurTeach self-direction routines when these times/situations occur
36 Measuring Fidelity of PBIS Very important for initial and sustained implementationTo date… too many toolsNew Fidelity Tool …. Combination of Best FeaturesStrong technical validityDone with Coach and TeamCan be done in 15 min per TierCan be used for initial assessment, progress monitoring and identification of exemplarsResults in action plan
37 Other PBIS Fidelity Measures Available October 2014 atororStrong Technical Adequacy15 min per tierDone with Coach and TeamUseful for:Initial AssessmentProgress Monitoring (by Tier)Identification of ExemplarsOther PBIS Fidelity MeasuresSchool-wide Evaluation Tool (SET)Team Implementation Checklist (TIC)Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ)
42 Tiers II and III: PBIS Team Elevated Rewards Prevent rewards for problem behaviorEmphasis onPreventionTeamsafetyIncreased structureDecision SystemAssessment used to tailor / individualize supportFamily/ Wrap aroundTeaching
44 SummaryPBIS is a framework for improving the effectiveness and equity of schoolsPBIS is evidence-basedBuilding a cohesive and clear social culture mattersInvest in preventionUse data to BOTH guide implementation and improve student outcomes.
45 PBIS PB4L Effective Efficient Equitable Practices that work Practices that are practical, durable and availablePBISPB4LEquitablePractices that benefit all