2Chapter Overview Questions What are the advantages and disadvantages of conventional oil and nonconventional heavy oils?What are the advantages and disadvantages of natural gas?What are the advantages and disadvantages of coal and the conversion of coal to gaseous and liquid fuels?
3Chapter Overview Questions (cont’d) What are the advantages and disadvantages of conventional nuclear fission, breeder nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion?
4Core Case Study: How Long Will the Oil Party Last? Saudi Arabia - 10 year oil supplyAlaska’s North Slope - 6 months (U.S.: 3 years).Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) months (U.S.: 7-25 months).
5Core Case Study: How Long Will the Oil Party Last? Three options:Look for moreUse or waste lessUse something else.Figure 16-1
6TYPES OF ENERGY RESOURCES 99% of the energy warms us comes from the sun and the other 1% comes mostly from burning fossil fuels.Solar energy indirectly supports wind power, hydropower, and biomass.76% of commercial energy comes from nonrenewable fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal)The remainder comes from renewable
7TYPES OF ENERGY RESOURCES Nonrenewable energy resources and geothermal energy in the earth’s crust.
8TYPES OF ENERGY RESOURCES Commercial energy use by source for the world and the U.S.
10TYPES OF ENERGY RESOURCES Net energy = the amount of high-quality usable energy available from a resource (minus) the energy needed to make it available
11Net Energy RatiosThe higher the net energy ratio, the greater the net energy available.Ratios < 1 indicate a net energy loss.
12OIL Crude oil (petroleum): thick liquid containing hydrocarbons extracted from underground depositsseparated through FRACTIONAL DISTILLATIONOnly 35-50% can be economically recovered from a deposit.About 10-25% more can be recovered from expensive secondary extraction techniques.This lowers the net energy yield.Only done when prices rise
13OIL Refining crude oil: Based on boiling points The most volatile components with the lowest boiling points are removed at the top.Fractional Distillation
14OILEleven OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) have 78% of the world’s proven oil reserves and most of the world’s unproven reserves.After global production peaks and begins to decline, oil prices will rise and could threaten the economies of countries that have not shifted to new energy alternatives.
16Case Study: U.S. Oil Supplies U.S. – world’s largest oil user – has only 2.9% of the world’s proven oil reserves.U.S oil production peaked in 1974 (halfway production point).About 60% of U.S oil imports goes through refineries in hurricane-prone regions of the Gulf Coast.
18OILBurning oil for transportation accounts for 43% of global CO2 emissions.Figure 16-7
19CO2 EmissionsCO2 emissions per unit of energy produced for various energy resources.Figure 16-8
20Oil sand and oil shale could supplement conventional oil Heavy Oils from Oil Sand and Oil Shale: Will Sticky Black Gold Save Us?Oil sand and oil shale could supplement conventional oilEnvironmental problems.High sulfur content.Extracting and processing:Toxic sludgeUses and contaminates larges volumes of waterRequires large inputs of natural gas (reduces net energy yield)
21Oil ShalesOil shales contain a solid combustible mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogen.
22Heavy OilsIt takes about 1.8 metric tons of oil sand to produce one barrel of oil.
23NATURAL GASNatural gas (mostly methane), is often found above reservoirs of crude oil.When a natural gas-field is tapped, gasses are liquefied and removed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).Coal beds and bubbles of methane trapped in ice crystals deep under the arctic permafrost and beneath deep-ocean sediments are unconventional sources of natural gas.
24NATURAL GAS Russia and Iran Natural gas: Almost half of the world’s reserves of conventional gasGlobal reserves should last years.Natural gas:Versatile and clean-burning fuelReleases the carbon dioxide (when burned) and methane (from leaks) into the troposphere.
25NATURAL GASBest fuel to help make the transition to improved energy efficiency and greater use of renewable energy.
26COAL Solid fossil fuel Formed in several stages Buried remains of land plants ( mya)
27Cooling tower transfers waste heat to atmosphere Coal bunker Turbine The largest coal-burning power plant in the United States in Indiana burns 23 metric tons (25 tons) of coal per minute or three 100-car trainloads of coal per day and produces 50% more electric power than the Hoover Dam.Waste heatCooling tower transfers waste heat to atmosphereCoal bunkerTurbineGeneratorCooling loopStackPulverizing millCondenserFilterFigure 16.13Science: Coal-burning power plant. Heat produced by burning pulverized coal in a furnace boils water to produce steam that spins a turbine to produce electricity. The steam is cooled, condensed, and returned to the furnace for reuse. A large cooling tower transfers waste heat to the troposphere. The largest coal-burning power plant in the United States in Indiana burns 23 metric tons (25 tons) of coal per minute or three 100-car trainloads of coal per day and produces 50% more electric power than the Hoover Dam. QUESTION: Is there a coal-burning power plant near where you live or go to school?BoilerToxic ash disposalFig , p. 369
28COAL Coal reserves in the US, Russia, and China Hundreds to over a thousand yearsProven coal reserves:U.S. (27%)Russia (17%)China (13%)2005, China & U.S. = 53% global coal consumption
29COAL Most abundant fossil fuel Compared to oil and natural gas it is not as versatileHigh environmental impactReleases much more CO2 into the troposphere.
30How Would You Vote?Should coal use be phased out over the next 20 years?a. No. Coal is an abundant energy source and we should continue to develop clean ways to use it.b. Yes. Mining and combusting coal create serious environmental impacts.
31COALCan be converted into synthetic natural gas (SNG or syngas) and liquid fuels (methanol or synthetic gasoline) that burn cleaner than coal.Costs are high.They add more CO2 to the troposphere than burning coal.
32COALSince CO2 is not regulated as an air pollutant and costs are high, U.S. coal-burning plants are unlikely to invest in coal gasification.Figure 16-15
33NUCLEAR ENERGYIsotopes of uranium and plutonium undergo controlled nuclear fissionResulting heat produces steam that spins turbines to generate electricity.The uranium oxide consists of about 97% nonfissionable uranium-238 and 3% fissionable uranium-235.The concentration of uranium-235 is increased through an enrichment process.
35Small amounts of radioactive gases Uranium fuel input (reactor core)Control rodsContainment shellHeat exchangerSteamTurbineGeneratorElectric powerWaste heatHot coolantUseful energy 25%–30%Hot water outputPumpPumpCoolantPumpPumpCool water inputWaste heatFigure 16.16Science: light-water–moderated and –cooled nuclear power plant with a pressurized water reactor. QUESTION: How does this plant differ from the coal-burning plant in Figure 16-13?ModeratorCoolant passageShieldingPressure vesselWaterCondenserPeriodic removal and storage of radioactive wastes and spent fuel assembliesPeriodic removal and storage of radioactive liquid wastesWater source (river, lake, ocean)Fig , p. 372
36NUCLEAR ENERGYAfter three or four years in a reactor, spent fuel rods are removed and stored in a deep pool of water contained in a steel-lined concrete container.
37NUCLEAR ENERGYAfter spent fuel rods are cooled, they are sometimes moved to dry-storage containers made of steel or concrete.Figure 16-17
38Decommissioning of reactor Fuel assemblies Enrichment of UF6Fuel fabrication(conversion of enriched UF6 to UO2 and fabrication of fuel assemblies)Temporary storage of spent fuel assemblies underwater or in dry casksConversion of U3O8 to UF6Uranium-235 as UF6 Plutonium-239 as PuO2Spent fuel reprocessingLow-level radiation with long half-lifeFigure 16.18Science: the nuclear fuel cycle. QUESTION: Are any parts of the nuclear fuel cycle within 27 kilometers (17 miles) of where you live or go to school?Geologic disposal of moderate & high-level radioactive wastesOpen fuel cycle today“Closed” end fuel cycleFig , p. 373
39What Happened to Nuclear Power? More than 50 years of developmentEnormous government subsidiesStill not lived up to its promiseMulti billion-dollar construction costs.Higher operation costs and more malfunctions than expected.Poor management.Public concerns about safety and stricter government safety regulations.
40Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident World’s worst nuclear power plant accident occurred in 1986 in Ukraine.Caused by poor reactor design and human error.By 2005, 56 people had died from radiation released.4,000 more are expected from thyroid cancer and leukemia.
42NUCLEAR ENERGYWorld Bank (‘95) said nuclear power is too costly and risky.In 2006, it was found that several U.S. reactors were leaking radioactive tritium into groundwater.Figure 16-19
43NUCLEAR ENERGYA 1,000 megawatt nuclear plant is refueled once a year, whereas a coal plant requires 80 rail cars a day.Figure 16-20
44NUCLEAR ENERGY Terrorists could attack nuclear power plants (especially poorly protected pools and casks that store spent nuclear fuel rods.)could wrap explosives around small amounts of radioactive materials that are fairly easy to get, detonate such bombs, and contaminate large areas for decades.
45NUCLEAR ENERGY Decommissioning – When a nuclear reactor reaches the end of its useful lifehighly radioactive materials must be kept from reaching the environment for thousands of years.At least 228 large commercial reactors worldwide (20 in the U.S.) are scheduled for retirement by 2012.Many applying to extend 40-yr license to 60 yrsAging reactors - embrittlement and corrosion.
46NUCLEAR ENERGY Does not lessen dependence on imported oil Will not reduce CO2 emissions as much as othersThe nuclear fuel cycle contributes to CO2 emissions.Wind turbines, solar cells, geothermal energy, and hydrogen contributes much less to CO2 emissions.
47NUCLEAR ENERGYScientists disagree about the best methods for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste:Bury it deep underground.Shoot it into space.Bury it in the Antarctic ice sheet.Bury it in the deep-ocean floor that is geologically stable.Change it into harmless or less harmful isotopes.
48New and Safer ReactorsPebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) are smaller reactors that minimize the chances of runaway chain reactions.Figure 16-21
49New and Safer Reactors Some oppose the pebble reactor due to : A crack in the reactor could release radioactivity.The design has been rejected by UK and Germany for safety reasons.Lack of containment shell would make it easier for terrorists to blow it up or steal radioactive material.Creates higher amount of nuclear waste and increases waste storage expenses.
50NUCLEAR ENERGYNuclear fusion is a nuclear change in which two isotopes are forced together.No risk of meltdown or radioactive releases.May also be used to breakdown toxic material.Still in laboratory stages.There is a disagreement over whether to phase out nuclear power or keep this option open in case other alternatives do not pan out.
51How Would You Vote?Should nuclear power be phased out in the country where you live over the next 20 to 30 years?a. No. In many countries, there are no suitable energy alternatives to nuclear fission.b. Yes. Nuclear fission is too expensive and produces large quantities of very dangerous radioactive wastes.