Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Beneath the exterior of leading European power, discontent was growing within French society among the aristocracy and the middle class, both."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 16Beneath the exterior of leading European power, discontent was growing within French society among the aristocracy and the middle class, both of which wanted more rights and political power, and a long-suffering peasantry.
3 “A Great Ferment:” Trouble Brewing in France The Financial Crisis Weakens the MonarchyThe Taxation SystemFrance lacked an adequate banking systemReform EffortsLouis XVI appointed Jacques Turgot as his minister of finance in 1774He was dismissed and his reform measures were rescindedThe Underlying Causes of the RevolutionRevolt of the NobilityThe nobility was the monarchy’s chief rival for powerMiddle Class Demands
4 “A Great Ferment:” Trouble Brewing in France Enlightenment Ideas and LanguageSalon meetings and new publications spread key ideas of the EnlightenmentNobles often used language and ideas that attacked monarchical absolutistsDisappointed ExpectationsIn 1788 the countryside suffered unusually bad harvests, and in May and July hailstorms wiped out crops throughout France, then the price of bread soared.Demands for Political ParticipationIn Poland, independence from Russia influence surfaced between 1772 and 1792American RevolutionThe Dutch Republic erupted into open revolt in 1787, and the Austrian Netherlands elites rose against reforms by Joseph II
5 “A Great Ferment:” Trouble Brewing in France Unpopular KingsKings Louis XV and Louis XVI had no alliance with the nobility, nor did they succeed being “enlightened” monarchsThe “Tennis Court Oath”The Estates GeneralLouis XVI summoned the Estates General in 1788, and the delegates met in Versailles on May 5The first estate; the clergy, the second estate; the nobility, the third estate; commonersAll men age 25 who paid taxes could voteThe National AssemblyThe third estate took action and declared itself the National Assembly of France on June 17
6 “A Great Ferment:” Trouble Brewing in France Storming the BastillePeasant RevoltsJuly and August, peasants throughout France revolted against their lordsThe “Great Fear”Many nobles fled France and became known as the emigresThe End of the Old OrderDeclaration of Rights of Man and CitizenOn August 26, the Assembly proclaimed the Declaration of Rights of Man and CitizenMarch to VersaillesParisian women infuriated by high bread prices and food shortages, marched to Versailles, surrounded the palace, and forced the king back to Paris
7 Chapter 16When the old regime fell, the French National Assembly, guided by Enlightenment principles, created a new central government and enacted widespread reforms.
8 The Constitutional Monarchy: Establishing a New Order Liberty, Equality, FraternityLiberty meant freedom from arbitrary authority and freedom of speech, press, conscience, assembly, and professionEquality meant equal treatment under the law and equality of economic opportunityFraternity meant comradeship as citizens of the nationsConstitutional MonarchyThe National Assembly served as legislature, and the king its chief executive officerCivil Constitution of the ClergyThe Assembly dissolved all convents and monasteries and people would elect the clergy and the state would pay their salaries
10 The Constitutional Monarchy: Establishing a New Order The King DiscreditedFlight of the Royal FamilyOn June 20, 1791, the royal family escaped from Paris and headed by coach to France’s northeastern frontier.Officials arrested the royal family and returned them to ParisReactions Outside FranceEdmund Burke – Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)
11 Chapter 16Although the bourgeoisie and peasantry had gained much from the revolution, the urban populace, or sans-culottes, pushed for a more radical turn in the revolution under the leadership of the Jacobins.
12 To the Radical Republic and Back Sans-CulottesThe most politically active came to be known as the sans-culottes because they wore long pantsThe Jacobin ClubFormed to debate and plan political mattersMost important political organizationWar and the Breakdown of OrderPanic and MassacreFrightened and enraged people began murdering members of the nonjuring clergy and nobles held in the prisons of ParisNational ConventionRepublicans won a sweeping victory
13 To the Radical Republic and Back Radical Republicans Struggle for PowerGirondins and JacobinsThe Girondins had come to be known as “the Left”Jacobins came to be called “the Mountain”The RepublicOn September 22, 1792, the National Convention declared France a republicExecution of the KingInternal and External EnemiesBritain, the Dutch Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, and Naples joined Austria and Prussia against FranceThe peasants of the Vendee region in western France rebelled against the republican government
14 To the Radical Republic and Back The TerrorCommittee of Public SafetyTwo main tasks: to secure the Republic against its enemies, and to carry out a radical republican programReign of TerrorTo protect the Republic from its internal enemies and to satisfy demands from the sans-culottes for immediate action, the Committee of Public Safety instituted a Reign of Terror.Levee en masseGeneral call-up of all men, women, and children to serve the nation
15 To the Radical Republic and Back The Republic of VirtueAttacking the Catholic ChurchRepresented the worst of the Old Regime, the Catholic ChurchAngry radicals disfigured religious statuesFamily Life and EducationThe National Convention took the rules governing family life and education away from the church and placed them in state handsRevolutionary SymbolsThe figure of Liberty replaced royal symbols on everything from coins and statues to plates and postersOfficials promoted festivals that featured revolutionary symbols
16 To the Radical Republic and Back The Revolution Spreads Outside of FranceSister RepublicsHolland, Switzerland, and ItalyOutside OpinionMany intellectuals and liberal political groups continued to uphold the ideals of the Revolution, until 1793 when the Revolution took a more Radical TurnUprisingsIrelandThe Caribbean slaves in St. Domingue revoltedResistance to the Republic Rises
17 Chapter 16 Reaction: The “White” Terror and the Directory Thermidorian ReactionOn July 27, 1794 the Convention overthrew RobespierreReaction: The “White” Terror and the DirectoryThis ambitious and skilled military officer utilized the opportunities opened by the revolution to become emperor of France and spread French and spread French revolutionary ideals throughout the world.
18 Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon’s Rise to Power Italian Campaign Napoleon used his growing prominence to secure command of the French armyNapoleon’s successes in Italy established his reputation as a brilliant military leader and able statesmanExpedition to EgyptThe expedition failed, Admiral Nelson destroyed the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile on August 1, 1798Coup d’etatAbbe Sieyes conspired with him to overthrow the Directory on November 9, 1799
20 Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Consolidates Control Reforming France First ConsulNapoleon named himself “first consul” and assumed the powers necessary to ruleThe ConcordatDeclared the Catholic religion the religion of the majority of the French people, but ensured freedom for ProtestantsReforming FranceNapoleonic CodeAffirmed the Enlightenment-inspired legal reforms that the early French revolutionaries had sought
21 Napoleon Bonaparte Creating the Empire War and Conquest Finance and EducationNapoleon established the Bank of France to handle governmental funds and issue moneyHe created a long-lasting system of secondary schools tied to the University of France, and actively supported scientific researchCreating the EmpireEmperor NapoleonNapoleon formally established France as an empire and then crowned himself emperorNeed for ConquestsWar and Conquest
22 Napoleon Bonaparte The Impact Overseas Battle of Trafalgar Nelson annihilated the combined French and Spanish fleets off Cape TrafalgarMilitary StrengthsHis success stemmed from his independent units that could move quickly and then join in a mass attackThe Continental SystemPreventing the importation of British goods into continental EuropeThe New European OrderThe Impact Overseas
24 Napoleon Bonaparte Decline and Fall Revolt in Latin America By 1810, many Spanish colonists were in revoltEngland’s Overseas ExpansionSea power enabled it to capture and take over French and Dutch colonies in Africa, Asia, and AmericaAdopting the Napoleonic CodeSome of the ideals of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution would be translated to many areas around the globeDecline and FallFlawed PoliciesThe Continental System was not working well enough
26 Napoleon Bonaparte Growing Resistance Overextension Invasion of Russia On May 3, 1808 unwilling subjects rose up against Joseph BonaparteOverextensionNapoleon overextended his imperial reachInvasion of RussiaNapoleon decided to invade RussiaThe French army may have won the battle, but it failed to destroy Russia’s forcesOf the original 600,000 who marched into Russia, fewer than 100,000 struggled home
27 Napoleon Bonaparte Defeat at Leipzig Waterloo At Leipzig in October 1813, allied armies defeated NapoleonNapoleon escaped back to FranceWaterlooHe was defeated in June 1815 by British and Prussian forces at Waterloo