Presentation on theme: "1 NASA Vision and Mission NASA’s Mission To understand and protect our home planet To explore the Universe and search for life To inspire the next generation."— Presentation transcript:
1 NASA Vision and Mission NASA’s Mission To understand and protect our home planet To explore the Universe and search for life To inspire the next generation of explorers …as only NASA can.
2 NASA Headquarters Organization Education Code N NASA ADMINISTRATOR - Sean O’Keefe Deputy Administrator Chief of Staff Chief Engineer Chief Financial Officer Chief Scientist - John Grunsfeld Chief Technologist Chief Health and Medical Officer - Rich Williams OBPR Biological and Physical Research Code U Aerospace Technology Code R Space Flight Code M Earth Science Code Y Space Science Code S Safety and Mission Assurance Code Q
3 7 Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR)
OBPR Research Plan ReMAP NASA Strategic Plan Then OBPR Enterprise Strategy How can we educate and inspire the next generations to take the journey? How does life respond to gravity and space environments? What new opportunities can our research bring to expand our understanding of the laws of nature and enrich lives on Earth? What technology must we create to enable the next explorers to go beyond where we have been? How can we assure the survival of humans traveling far from Earth? The Organizing Questions …The OBPR Mission Humans will extend the exploration of space. To prepare for and hasten the journey, OBPR must answer these questions through its research, principally on the ISS: NASA Advisory Council (NAC), September, 2002: “NASA’s Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) made good use of the ReMaP report. OBPR further prioritized the high priority research programs defined by ReMaP, as NAC had requested…The process by which OBPR did this was clear and credible.” 10 years 25 years
5 How can we educate and inspire the next generation to take the journey? How does life respond to gravity and space environments? What new opportunities can our research bring to expand our understanding of the laws of nature and enrich lives on Earth? What technology must we create to enable the next explorers to go beyond where we have been? How can we assure the survival of humans traveling far from earth? OBPR’s Organizing Questions Humans will extend the exploration of space. To prepare for and hasten the journey, OBPR must answer these questions through its research: (http://spaceresearch.nasa.gov/general_info/strat_lite.html)
6 Organizing Question 1. How can we assure the survival of humans traveling far from Earth? Research Targets Mitigate and manage human adaptation risks 55 risks identified for outcome-driven research Today Promising countermeasures identified and studied Knowledge obtained using ground-based mechanistic studies Characterize and assess critical risks Advance understanding of mechanisms Develop and test candidate countermeasures w/ ground analogs and space flight Evaluate and validate system- targeted countermeasures to prevent or reduce risks Complete initial in-flight testing of optimized set of countermeasures (artificial gravity with other countermeasures) Reduce uncertainties and prevent exposure to space radiation environments Maintain behavioral health and optimal function of crews Develop autonomous medical care capabilities Uncertainties exist in estimating radiation risks Study of mechanistic effects in work Exposure mitigated using EVA scheduling and dose limits Reduce uncertainty by one-half Expand mechanistic understanding using other models Develop and test new countermeasures Psychosocial functioning and behavioral health status studied for individuals Sleep protocols implemented Psychosocial function and performance studied for small groups in remote settings Assure at a 95-percent confidence interval crewmembers will not exceed radiation risk limits for longer-duration missions Test and evaluate biomedical and operational countermeasures Identify key psychosocial and psychological stressors Develop and test assessment methods, tools, and models Develop and test optimized countermeasures through ground and space research Identification and increased understanding of psychosocial and behavioral health issues Validate assessment methods and tools Verify and validate countermeasure strategies Stabilize and return medical care model developed Screening and select-in criteria in place for current mission scenarios Develop standardized approach to track health status Determine clinical trends and define acceptable levels of risk Perform research to enhance medical capabilities, including screening, countermeasures, and treatment regimens Determine acceptable levels of risk for longer-duration missions, and test and validate countermeasures Identify and assess crew screening and certification for longer-duration missions Demonstrate autonomous medical care capabilities Research Capabilities Ground labs including analogs, Shuttle, ISS Ground labs including analogs and integrated testing, Shuttle, ISS, free flyers Ability of humans to retain function and remain healthy during and after long- duration missions beyond low- Earth orbit OUTCOMEOUTCOME
7 1)How does the human body adapt to space flight and what are the most effective/efficient ways to counteract those adaptive affects when hazardous? 2)How can we limit the risk of harmful health effects associated with exposure of human space explorers to the space radiation environments? 3)How can we provide an optimal environment to support behavioral health and human performance of the crew before, during, and after space flight? 4)How can we enable autonomous medical care in space?
8 Past and current areas of NASA/NIH collaboration Flight - NIH missions, Neurolab, STS-95, physiological effects of sex differences Ground - Spaceline with NLM, joint NSCORTs and jointly-funded RFPs in a variety of disciplines, NIH AO, NASA shared use of NIH GCRCs Potential areas for NASA/NIH collaboration Research to develop therapeutics, procedures, techniques, and equipment needed to address flight medical, safety, and performance issues. Examples of specific topic areas of possible mutual interest for ground- based or flight research Improved strategies to prevent bone and muscle loss and other physiological “pathologies” in space Prediction, understanding and treatment of radiation damage New technology for quickly and accurately monitoring crew health Technologies for autonomous medical diagnosis and treatment in remote locations Behavioral health of isolated small groups working under stressful conditions
9 Organizing Question 2. How does life respond to gravity and space environments? Research Targets Determine how genomes and cells respond to gravity Data on various cell types collected in short- term studies Today Develop physical and genetic models of cellular responses to space environments for at least two cell types Develop cell-based model assays to identify cellular systems affected by space; Integrate biological effects with cell communications Determine how gravity affects organisms at critical stages of development and maturation Understand interactions among groups of simple and complex organisms Determine how Earth- based life can best adapt to different space environments through multiple generations Incomplete life cycle and ground-based data gathered from short- duration flights Use ground-based simulators, nanosatellites and ISS to determine gravity responses for a wide variety of organisms Ground-based virulence studies performed, lack systems supporting mixed organisms in space Determine gravity thresholds and developmental responses in space using centrifuges on ISS Model effects of space environments on pathogenic and cooperative interactions among species Identify microorganisms that become pathogenic or otherwise alter function in space environments Preliminary multi- generation flight research performed on plants Raise species from multiple kingdoms through several generations in flight; focus on reproductive success Raise mammals through multiple generations in flight; investigate developmental adaptations and critical issues Research Capabilities Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS, nanosatellites Ground labs including analogs and integrated testing, Shuttle, ISS, free flyers Ability to predict the responses of cells, molecules, organisms, and ecosystems to space environments OUTCOMEOUTCOME
10 1)How do space environments affect life at molecular and cellular levels? 2)How do space environments affect organisms throughout their lives? 3)How do space environments influence interactions between organisms? 4)How can life be sustained and thrive in space across generations?
11 Potential areas for NASA/NIH collaboration Research to elucidate fundamental mechanisms underlying molecular, cellular, developmental, and physiological responses to gravity, radiation, other environmental stresses. Examples of specific topic areas of possible mutual interest for ground-based or flight research Genomics research Mechanistic understanding of bone and muscle loss, vertigo, neurological disorders, virulence and pathogenicity, cancer, blood cell regeneration, and altered immune responsiveness. Molecular and cellular basis of radiation damage and repair Cell structure formation and adaptation Microbial ecology, evolution, pharmaceutical production New technologies for in situ biological research –Development of handheld biodetection devices –Nanosatellites.
12 Organizing Question 3. What new opportunities can our research bring to expand understanding of the laws of nature and enrich lives on Earth? Research Targets Determine how space environments change physical and chemical processes Research hampered by gravity-driven effects; gravity effects not understood in many technologies Today Conduct ground and flight research to develop and validate models for fluid, thermal, combustion, and solidification processes Test extended range models for heat transfer and microfluidic control, turbulent and high-pressure combustion validation; nanotechnology- based materials with enhanced and adaptive properties Understand how structure and complexity arise in nature Understand the fundamental laws governing time and matter Identify the biophysical mechanisms that control the cellular and physiological behavior observed in the space environment Limited experimental data collected on self-assembly, self-organization, and structure development processes Conduct ground and space research in solidification dynamics, colloidal photonics, carbon nanostructures Data of unprecedented accuracy obtained in microgravity Research new technologies for advanced photonic materials Conduct research in dynamics of quantum liquids, atomic clock reference for space Test Bose-Einstein condensates atom laser theories Results obtained from Earth-based bioreactor and space-based tissue culture need validation; space- based improvements in protein crystal structures need validation Conduct tissue-based research and engineering in space test models for fluid- stress and cellular response mechanisms Test control strategies for cellular response to fluid stresses Research Capabilities Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS, KC-135 aircraft Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS, KC-135 aircraft, free flyers Application of physical knowledge to new technologies and processes, particularly in areas of power, materials, manufacturing, fire safety New insights into theories on fundamental physics, physical/ chemical processes, and self-organization in structure OUTCOMEOUTCOME Test solidification models using industrial systems Conduct flight investigations in turbulent combustion, granular material systems, and flows Develop technology for nanogravity satellite relativity experiments Use satellite experiments to test second-order models of general relativity Quantify key physiological signals Complete space-based flight research and establish validation of impact on structural biology Integrate NASA technologies and research with biomedical needs
13 Organizing Question 3. What new opportunities can our research bring to expand understanding of the laws of nature and enrich lives on Earth? Research Targets How can research partnerships-both market-driven and interagency-support national goals, such as contributing to economic growth and sustaining human capital in science and technology RPC-built hardware flying; research spans broad range relevant to Earth-based industrial applications Today Increase focus on NASA needs, while maintaining industrial partnership Direct research towards Earth- and Space-based applications Apply capabilities and experience of RPCs in building space fllight hardware to new ISS facilities Achieve backing by industrial partnerships towards exploration opportunities Apply RPC approach to new flight opportunities in LEO and beyond Research Capabilities Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS, KC-135 aircraft Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS, KC-135 aircraft, free flyers Application of physical knowledge to new technologies and processes, particularly in areas of power, materials, manufacturing, fire safety New insights into theories on fundamental physics, physical/ chemical processes, and self-organization in structure OUTCOMEOUTCOME
14 NASA-OBPR Strategic Question 3: What new opportunities can research bring to expand understanding of the laws of nature and enrich lives on Earth? a)How do space environments change physical, chemical, and biophysical processes, the essential building blocks of many critical technologies? b)How do structure and complexity arise in nature? c)Where can our research advance our knowledge of the fundamental laws governing time and matter? d)What biophysical mechanisms control the cellular and physiological behavior observed in the space environment? e)How can research partnerships-both market-driven and interagency- support national goals, such as contributing to the economic growth and sustaining human capital in science and technology? Interdisciplinary Research Program for Space Exploration The output of research in Question 3 impacts other OBPR research questions through the acquisition of knowledge and the development of new technology
15 NASA-OBPR Strategic Question 3 Relevance to NIH NASA/OBPR focused strategic research sub-question addressed: What biophysical mechanisms control the cellular and physiological behavior observed in the space environment? The program pursues scientific answers and develops focused technologies required for the implementation of human space exploration missions The program uniquely leverages advances in physical sciences and engineering to enable progress in space biomedical care and life support capabilities The research program has three primary elements: 1.Cellular Biotechnology: Space-based research 2.Technology Development: Biomedical Engineering and Biomolecular Physics and Chemistry 3.Private Sector Teaming and Academic Research: NASA Research Partnership Centers and NASA Bioscience and Engineering Institute
16 PRIVATE SECTOR PARTNERSHIP RESEARCH SUPPORTING ORGANIZING QUESTIONS 1.How can we assure the survival of humans traveling far from earth? Research in osteoprotegerin to mitigate bone loss in astronauts and terrestrial application for patient populations Pathogen detection and mitigation Remote medical diagnostic capability Closed environment system development and advances –Plant growth research –Environmental monitoring including food and water quality 2.How does life respond to gravity and the space environment? Genomics research Protein crystal growth and structure based drug design Cell structure formation and adaptation Microbial research including bacterial growth patterns, with terrestrial application in pharmaceutical production 3. What new opportunities can research bring to expand understanding of the laws of nature and enrich lives on Earth? Improved ceramic materials for hip and knee transplants Fire suppression technology for spacecraft systems and environmentally safer fire suppression capabilities Zeolite crystal growth research for chemical and refining industries and potential medical applications Research in thermophysical and metallurgical properties towards improved alloys and casting processes. Adaptation of remote sensing technology for hyperspectral scanning to identify early stages of skin disease or wound severity 4. What technology must we create to enable the next explorers to go beyond where we have been? Communication technology development Spacecraft systems development Power and propulsion High definition, space-hardened communication systems
17 Organizing Question 4. What technology must we create to enable the next explorers to go beyond where we have been? Research Targets Increase efficiency through life-support system closure Current ISS baseline is a 90-day resupply Today Components with improved efficiency are the focus Develop technologies that lower Equivalent System Mass (ESM) Perform integrated testing of lower ESM life-support technologies and subsystems in relevant environments Perform on-orbit validation of critical components and certification of life-support technologies for missions beyond LEO Enable engineering systems and advanced materials for safe and efficient space travel Enable self- supporting and autonomous human-systems for performance in habitable environments Develop advanced environmental monitoring and control systems High-mass/cost, low- performance materials used Understanding of low- and partial-gravity issues incomplete Develop and test low- and partial-gravity fluid and thermal engineering systems Develop and test design tools for advanced materials and in- space fabrication, and validate on ISS Predictive methods and models limited for habitability analysis, information management, crew training, multi-agent team task analysis, integrated human systems engineering ISS experiments to test prototype engineering systems Complete development of advanced materials for radiation-shielding solutions Validate prototype low- and partial-gravity resource- generation technologies Define and develop habitats that optimize human performance Develop tools and models for human-systems integration Validate habitat designs for multiple missions Validate human-system design simulation Deliver validated design require- ments and integrated simulation tools for multiple missions Technologies exist for partial monitoring of ISS environment Individual sensors developed Develop sensing capabilities for 90% of existing air Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) Develop miniaturized, reali-time, efficient sensing capabilities for air and water Validate integrated systems Research Capabilities Ground facilities, simulators, Shuttle, ISS, KC-135 aircraft Ground facilities, Shuttle, ISS, KC-135 aircraft Integrated ground test facilities, Shuttle, ISS, KC-135 aircraft, free flyers New technologies that provide for more efficient, reliable, and autonomous systems for sustainable human presence beyond low- Earth orbit OUTCOMEOUTCOME Develop sensing capabilities and SMACs to monitor water Develop autonomous controls architecture design Perform integrated testing of life-support systems with humans in the loop
18 1.How can we enable the next generation of autonomous, reliable spacecraft human support subsystems? 2.What new reduced-gravity engineering systems and advanced materials are required to enable efficient and safe deep-space travel? 3.How can we enable optimum human performance and productivity during extended isolation from Earth? 4.What automated sensing and control systems must we create to ensure that the crew is living in a safe and healthy environment?
19 Potential areas for NASA/NIH collaboration Examples of specific topic areas of possible mutual interest Advanced Environmental Sensor technologies –Monitoring the microbial environment –Near term example: Lambert group at JPL creating multiplexed quantum dot lateral flow assays for pathogens in water –Longer term example: Sayler of U. Tennessee developing bioluminescent detection of pathogens by genetic modification of bacteriophages –Related work: AEMC has funded Allen(PSI Inc, past) and Tittel(Rice U., past and present) for optical monitoring of trace gases in air. They are also a team, near the end of their funding by NASA/NCI for optical monitoring of trace gases in exhaled breath as a minimally invasive diagnostic tool. Plant growth research Environmental monitoring including food and water quality