# Chapter 16 - Pointers and Structures. BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures2 Pointers What is the difference sptr and ssptr? char* sptr[ ] = { "One", "Two", "Three"

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Chapter 16 - Pointers and Structures

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures2 Pointers What is the difference sptr and ssptr? char* sptr[ ] = { "One", "Two", "Three" }; char** xsptr = sptr; xsptr sptr "One\0" "Two\0" "Three\0"

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures3 Concepts to Learn… enum Structures typedef’s structs in structs Array of structs struct Pointers Union Bit Fields Dynamic Memory Allocation Linked List

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures4 enum Closely related to the #define preprocessor. Define a list of aliases which represent integer numbers. The advantage of enum over #define is that it has scope. Only visible within the block it was declared. Two types: Named: enum greekType { ALPHA, BETA, GAMMA }; Unnamed: enum { HOMER, MARGE, BART, LISA }; Values start at zero, unless specified. enum

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures5 enum Examples enum numbers { zero, one, two, three }; enum animals { cat=1, dog, cow=9, sheep, }; enum plants { grass, roses, cabbages, oaktree }; enum diseases { heart, skin, brain, circulatory }; enum quarks { charmed, strange, truth, beauty }; enum treasures { rubies, sapphires, gold, silver }; enum

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures6 A structure is a collection of variables, possibly of different types, grouped together under a single name (tag). Structures help organize complicated data. A structure must be defined prior to a structure variable being declared. Structure definitions include a tag, member elements, and a variable definition. The variable definition is optional. Structures

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures7 Structure definitions inform the compiler what the structure will look like. struct flightType { char flightNum[7];/* max 6 characters */ int altitude;/* in meters */ int longitude;/* in tenths of degrees */ int latitude;/* in tenths of degrees */ int heading;/* in tenths of degrees */ double airSpeed;/* in km/hr */ }; Structure definition does not allocate memory. Structures

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures8 To allocate memory for a struct, we declare a variable using the new structure definition type. struct flightType plane; Structure members are laid out in the order specified by the definition. Memory is now allocated, and can be accessed as individual members of this variable with the “dot” operator: plane.altitude = 10000; plane.heading = 800; plane.flightNum[0]0x0000(SP) plane.flightNum[1]0x0002(SP) plane.flightNum[2]0x0004(SP) plane.flightNum[3]0x0006(SP) plane.flightNum[4]0x0008(SP) plane.flightNum[5]0x000a(SP) plane.flightNum[6]0x000c(SP) plane.altitude0x000e(SP) plane.longitude0x0010(SP) plane.latitude0x0012(SP) plane.heading0x0014(SP) plane.airspeed0x0016(SP) Structures

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures9 Structure Example #include struct person { char name[80]; int ssn; }; struct person barney, fred; int main() { strcpy(barney.name, "Rubble, Barney"); barney.ssn = 555234561; strcpy(fred.name, "Flintstone, Fred"); fred.ssn = 123451234; printf(“\n%s %d", fred.name, fred.ssn); printf(“\n%s %d", barney.name, barney.ssn); } Does not allocate memory Allocates two memory structs Structures

Typedef’s Using Naturally Named Data Types typedef’s

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures11 Why typedef? You use variables with logical names. Why not use data types with logical names? Is an “int” 8-bits, 16-bits, 32-bits? What’s a “long”? Better question: why memorize it? Most integer data types are platform dependent!!! typedef’s make your code more portable. Syntax: typedef ; typedef’s

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures12 How To Use typedef’s 1)Create a logical data type scheme.  A signed 8-bit number could be "s8"  An unsigned 16-bit number could be "u16" 2)Create a “typedef.h” file for each microcontroller platform you use. 3)#include "typedef.h" in each of your files. 4)Use your new data type names. typedef unsigned int u16; typedef unsigned char u8; u16 number; typedef’s

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures13 typedef.h Example typedef unsigned char u8; typedef signed char s8; typedef unsigned short u16; typedef signed short s16; typedef unsigned long u32; typedef signed long s32; Replace: unsigned char variable; with: u8 variable; typedef’s

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures14 typedef’s Typedef declarations provide no additional functionality. Makes code more readable by giving application- specific names to variable types. typedef int Color; typedef struct flightType Flight; Color pixels[500]; Flight plane1, plane2; typedef’s

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures15 Structures in Structures One field of a struct can be another structure struct addressStruct {char street[80]; char city[32]; int zipCode; }; struct person {char initials[4]; int ssn; int height; int weight; struct addressStruct address; } tom; int main() {tom.ssn = 555123456; tom.weight = 150; tom.address.zipCode = 84062; … initials ssn height weight address street city zipCode person structs in structs

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures16 Arrays of Structures Can declare an array of structs: typedef struct flightType { char flightNum[7];/* max 6 characters */ int altitude;/* in meters */ int longitude;/* in tenths of degrees */ int latitude;/* in tenths of degrees */ int heading;/* in tenths of degrees */ double airSpeed;/* in km/hr */ } Flight planes[100]; Each array element is a structure. To access a member of a particular element in the array you can use the “.” dot operator: planes[34].altitude = 10000; Array of structs

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures17 Pointers and Structures Pointers can point at structures struct person {char name[80]; int ssn; } barney, *rubble; int main() { rubble = &barney; strcpy((*rubble).name, “Rubble, Barney”); (*rubble).ssn = 555234561; printf(“%s %d\n”, (*rubble).name, (*rubble).ssn); } strcpy(rubble->name, “Rubble, Barney”); rubble->ssn = 555234561; printf(“%s %d\n”, rubble->name, rubble->ssn); Not Common More Common How Much Memory? struct Pointers

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures18 Pointers and Structures Since pointers can point to structures, then it’s easy to make links between structures. struct person {char initials[2]; int ssn; int height; struct person *father; struct person *mother; }; /* Declare variables and initialize them at the same time */ struct person tom = { "tj", 555235512, 74, NULL, NULL }; struct person bill = { "wj", 351003232, 75, NULL, NULL }; struct person susan = { "sd", 980332153, 70, NULL, NULL }; int main() {/* Set tom's parents pointers */ tom.father = &bill; tom.mother = &susan; printf(“\nTom's mother's height is: %d in", tom.mother->height); } tom susan mother bill father tom is a struct and mother is a field in that struct, thus tom.mother is correct. mother is a pointer to a struct and thus mother->height is correct. Combine them for tom.mother->height struct Pointers

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures19 Memory Usage + Heaps Variable memory is allocated in three areas: Global data section Run-time stack Dynamically allocated - heap Global variables are allocated in the global data section and are accessible after declaration. Local variables are allocated during execution on the stack. Dynamically allocated variables are items created during run- time and are allocated on the heap. malloc() – allocates memory free() – frees memory Heap 0xffff Interrupt Vectors SFR’s 0x0000 Global Data Section 0x0100 SP Run-time stack 0x0600 Program (Flash) PC 0x8000 Dynamic Memory Allocation

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures20 Dynamic Memory Allocation The sizeof() function determines how much space is necessary for allocation. #include int main() {int *dynArray; double *ddynArray; /* Allocate space for 16 ints */ dynArray = (int *)malloc( 16 * sizeof(int) ); dynArray[6] = 65; dynArray[12] = 2; /* Allocate space for 20 doubles */ ddynArray = (double *)malloc( 20 * sizeof(double) ); } Dynamic Memory Allocation

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures21 Dynamic Memory Allocation Dynamic memory allocation using malloc() is used for many kinds of programs. When data size is unknown or variable. When building abstract structures like trees and linked lists. A NULL pointer returned from malloc() means it failed and you are likely out of memory. Dynamic allocation can be a source of bugs in C code. Memory leak - allocating memory and forgetting to free it during program execution. Dynamic Memory Allocation

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures22 Dynamic Memory Allocation Once allocated, the memory belongs to your program until it terminates or is free()’d. #include main() { int *dynArray; /* Allocate space for 16 ints */ dynArray = (int *)malloc( 16 * sizeof(int) ); dynArray[6] = 65; dynArray[12] = 2; doSomething( dynArray ); free( dynArray ); } Dynamic Memory Allocation

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures23 Pointers, Structures, & malloc() Common to let malloc() create space for structures struct person {char initials[2]; int ssn; int height; struct person *father; struct person *mother; } *tom, *bill, *susan; int main() {tom = (struct person *)malloc( sizeof( struct person ) ); bill = (struct person *)malloc( sizeof( struct person ) ); susan = (struct person *)malloc( sizeof( struct person ) ); strncpy(tom->initials, "tj“, 2); tom->ssn = 555235512; tom->father = bill; tom->mother = susan; susan->height = 68; /* Since tom is now a pointer, tom->mother->height is correct. */ printf(“\nTom's mother's height is: %d", tom->mother->height); } Dynamic Memory Allocation

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures24 union A union is a value that may have any of several representations or formats; or a data structure that consists of a variable which may hold such a value. Unions are defined like structures (structs), except that each data member begins at the same location in memory. The union object occupies as much space as the largest member. union

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures25 union Example #include union { char c; int i; } x; int main() { int i; char* c = &x.c; x.i = 0x12345678; printf("\ni = %08x\n", x.i); for (i=0; i<4; i++) printf(" %02x", c[i]); } union

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures26 union Example union { char c; int i; float f; double d; } x; x.c = 'z'; x.i = 5180; x.f = 3.14; x.d = 3.141592653589793; char* c = &x.c; int* i = &x.i; float* f = &x.f; double* d = &x.d; printf("\nc = %p", c); printf("\ni = %p", i); printf("\nf = %p", f); printf("\nd = %p", d); union

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures27 Bit Fields Allow specification of some very small objects of a given number of bits in length. Allow specification of fields within some externally produced data files. Can only be declared inside a structure or a union. No guarantee of the ordering of fields within machine words, so programs will be non-portable and compiler- dependent. Be careful using them. It can require a surprising amount of run-time code to manipulate these things and you can end up using more space than they save. Bit fields do not have addresses—you can't have pointers to them or arrays of them. Bit Fields

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures28 Bit Fields Example #pragma pack(push,1)// BYTE align in memory (no padding) typedef struct {// (total 16 bits--a unsigned short) unsigned short sec: 5;// low-order 5 bits are the seconds unsigned short min: 6;// next 6 bits are the minutes unsigned short hour: 5;// high-order 5 bits are the hour } FATTime; #pragma pack(pop)// End of strict alignment #pragma pack(push,1)// BYTE align in memory (no padding) typedef struct {// (total 16 bits--a unsigned short) unsigned short day: 5;// low-order 5 bits are the day unsigned short month: 4;// next 4 bits are the month unsigned short year: 7;// high-order 7 bits are the year } FATDate; #pragma pack(pop)// End of strict alignment Bit Fields

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures29 Bit Fields Example typedef struct { FATTime time; FATDate date; } DirEntry; void setTimeDate(DirEntry* dir) { time_t a; struct tm *b; time(&a); b = localtime(&a); dir->date.year = b->tm_year + 1900 - 1980; dir->date.month = b->tm_mon; dir->date.day = b->tm_wday; dir->time.hour = b->tm_hour; dir->time.min = b->tm_min; dir->time.sec = b->tm_sec; return; } // end setDirTimeDate Bit Fields

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures30 Linked List Data Structure A linked list is an collection of nodes, each of which contains data and is connected using pointers. Each node points to the next node in the list. The first node in the list is called the head. The last node in the list is called the tail. list 507599 NULL Linked List

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures31 typedef struct element {int value; struct element* next; } Element; Element *list; Element* newElement(int v) {Element* tmp; tmp = (Element*)malloc( sizeof(Element) ); tmp->value = v; tmp->next = NULL; return tmp; } int main() {/* Create linked list */ list = newElement(50); list->next = newElement(75); list->next->next = newElement(99); } Simple Linked List Example list 50 75 99 NULL Linked List

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures33 Linked List Creation There are three steps required to create a linked list - Allocate space for predefined structure. Fill in the structure fields. Link the structure into the list using pointers. struct element* newElement(int v) { struct element* tmp; tmp = (struct element*)malloc( sizeof(struct element) ); tmp->value = v; tmp->next = NULL; return tmp; } Linked List

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures34 Pre-pending Items to a Linked List /* Prepend an item to start of oldList, returning ptr to new list */ struct element* prepend(struct element* item, struct element* oldList) { item->next = oldList; return item; } int main() { struct element* tmp; list = newElement(45); /* Prepend item to list */ tmp = newElement(30); list = prepend(tmp, list); /* Can prepend in one statement */ list = prepend(newElement(10), list); printList(list); } 10 30 45 NULL list Linked List

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures35 Appending Items to a Linked List /* Append an item to the end of oldList, returning ptr to list */ struct element* append(struct element* item, struct element* oldList) { struct element* tmp; if (oldList == NULL) return item; /* oldList is empty */ tmp = oldList; while (tmp->next != NULL) tmp = tmp->next; /* Search for end of list */ tmp->next = item; return oldList; } int main() { /* Append some items to end of list */ list = append(newElement(200), list); list = append(newElement(201), list); list = append(newElement(202), list); printList(list); } 200 201 202 NULL list Linked List

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures36 Inserting Items into a Linked List Search to find the proper location link the new record into it’s proper place. multiple cases to consider list is empty item belongs at front of existing list item belongs somewhere in middle of existing list item belongs at end of existing list Linked List

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures37 Inserting Items into a Linked List struct element* insert(struct element* item, struct element* oldList) { struct element* tmp; /* oldList is empty */ if (oldList == NULL) return item; /* The new item goes first (pre-pend) */ if (item->value value) {item->next = oldList; return item; } /* Search for proper location */ tmp = oldList; while ((tmp->next != NULL) && (tmp->next->value value)) tmp = tmp->next; item->next = tmp->next; tmp->next = item; return oldList; } Linked List

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures38 Inserting Items into a Linked List struct element* insert(struct element* item, struct element* oldList) int main() { /* Insert some items into list */ list = insert(newElement(65), list); list = insert(newElement(2), list); list = insert(newElement(97), list); list = insert(newElement(3), list); list = insert(newElement(300), list); printList(list); } 2 NULL list 3 6597300 Linked List

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures39 Freeing Items in a Linked List Elements in a linked list need to be “freed” or you will have a memory leak. When “freeing” items in a linked list, be careful not to “saw off the limb you’re standing on”. int main() { /* Create a linked list */ list = newElement(50); list->next = newElement(75); list->next->next = newElement(99); free(list->next->next); free(list->next); free(list); } Linked List

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures40 Printing Items in a Linked List Use a temporary pointer to walk down the list print values as you go end up with a newline void printList(struct element *ptr) { if (ptr == NULL) printf("\n"); else { printf(" %d", ptr->value); printList(ptr->next); } void printList(struct element *ptr) { struct element *tmp; tmp = ptr; while (tmp != NULL) { printf(“ %d”, tmp->value); tmp = tmp->next; } printf("\n"); } Linked List

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures41 Example 2 Thermostat temperature entry: Example 2 link date high low typedef unsigned int u16; typedef unsigned char u8; enum { SUN, MON, TUE, WED, THUR, FRI, SAT }; typedef struct Setting_struct { struct Setting_struct* link; union { u16 time; // day:hour/minute struct { u8 day:3; // day of week (0-6) u8 hour:5; // hour (0-23) u8 minute; // minute (0-59) } times; } date; u8 high; u8 low; } Setting; NULL

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures42 // create a new entry Setting* newSetting(u8 day, u8 hour, u8 minute, u8 high, u8 low) { // malloc a new node Setting* temp = (Setting*)malloc(sizeof(Setting)); // store entries temp->date.times.day = day; temp->date.times.hour = hour; temp->date.times.minute = minute; temp->high = high; temp->low = low; // null link temp->link = NULL; return temp; } // end newSetting Create New Node Example 2

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures43 enum { SUN=0, MON, TUE, WED, THUR, FRI, SAT }; int main() { Setting *list = NULL; // Create linked list list = newSetting(MON, 6, 30, 22<<1, 20<<1); list->link = newSetting(WED, 20, 30, 17<<1, 15<<1); list->link->link = newSetting(FRI, 8, 30, 22<<1, 20<<1); list->link->link->link = newSetting(SAT, 18, 30, 20<<1, 18<<1); } main 28 2c 1e45 026e0256 241e28 222c 1e961ea31e31 00000266025e Example 2

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures44 Setting* insertSetting(Setting* setting, Setting* oldList) { Setting* temp; if (oldList == NULL) return setting; // oldList is empty // The new item goes first (pre-pend) if (setting->date.time date.time) { setting->link = oldList; return setting; } // Search for proper location temp = oldList; while (temp->link != NULL) { if (temp->date.time == setting->date.time) { // replace temp->high = setting->high; temp->low = setting->low; free(setting); return oldList; } if (temp->link->date.time > setting->date.time) break; temp = temp->link; // next } setting->link = temp->link; // insert temp->link = setting; return oldList; } // end insertSetting Insert Setting Example 2

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures45 char* days[] = { "Sun", "Mon", "Tue", "Wed", "Thu", "Fri", "Sat" }; void printList(Setting* ptr) { Setting* temp; temp = ptr; while (temp != NULL) { printf("\n%s %02d:%02d %4.1f-%4.1f", days[temp->date.times.day], temp->date.times.hour, temp->date.times.minute, (float)temp->high / 2.0, (float)temp->low / 2.0 ); temp = temp->link; } printf("\n"); } // end printList Print Setting Example 2

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures46 void main(void) { Setting *list = NULL; eZ430X_init(CALDCO_1MHZ);// init board lcd_init();// init LCD lcd_backlight(ON); // Create linked list list = newSetting(MON, 6, 30, 22<<1, 20<<1); list->link = newSetting(WED, 20, 30, 17<<1, 15<<1); list->link->link = newSetting(FRI, 8, 30, 22<<1, 20<<1); list->link->link->link = newSetting(SAT, 18, 30, 20<<1, 18<<1); // Insert some items into list list = insertSetting(newSetting(MON, 6, 30, 24<<1, 18<<1), list); list = insertSetting(newSetting(SUN, 6, 30, 22<<1, 20<<1), list); list = insertSetting(newSetting(TUE, 6, 30, 22<<1, 20<<1), list); list = insertSetting(newSetting(MON, 6, 30, 20<<1, 10<<1), list); list = insertSetting(newSetting(SAT, 20, 30, 22<<1, 20<<1), list); printList(list); return; } Final Test Example 2

BYU CS/ECEn 124Structures47

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