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Chapter 16 Integumentary Disorders Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Integumentary Disorders Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Integumentary Disorders Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

2 Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Description –An infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth caused by the fungus Candida –Breastfeeding can transfer infection to mother’s nipples if good hygiene is not followed Signs and symptoms –White patches that resemble milk curds are visible on the tongue, the inner lips, the gums, and the oral mucosa –Anorexia may be present due to discomfort –Infection can pass along mucous membranes into the GI tract, causing inflammation of esophagus and stomach Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-2

3 Thrush Treatment and nursing care –Local application of antibiotic suspensions –Nystatin swish and swallow –Individual feeding equipment is necessary, and the equipment should be sterile –Effective handwashing is necessary to prevent reinfection from the mother –Prevention: mothers with Candida infection can be treated during the prenatal period Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-3

4 Diaper Dermatitis (Diaper Rash) Inflammation caused by prolonged contact with an irritant such as urine or feces Signs and symptoms –Red, irritated skin, sometimes accompanied by blistering –Beefy red rash is generally indicative of Candidiasis Treatment and nursing care –Zinc oxide ointments –Petroleum jelly can help prevent diaper dermatitis Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-4

5 Atopic Dermatitis (Infantile Eczema) Description –Inflammation of genetically hypersensitive skin to allergens Signs and symptoms –Lesions form vesicles that weep and develop a dry crust –Worse in winter than summer, periods of temporary remission occur –Itching is constant, and lesions are easily infected Treatment –Maintain skin integrity/hydration, decrease pruritus, identify and avoid triggers –Topical corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, antihistamines Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-5

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7 Atopic Dermatitis Nursing care –Patients may need to be restrained if they are scratching the affected area –Medicated baths may be part of the treatment –Wet dressings are applied to reduce itching and in some cases to remove crusts –Infantile eczema is associated with development of asthma later in life Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-7

8 Impetigo Description –An infectious disease of the skin caused by staphylococci or by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci –Two classifications: bullous and nonbullous Signs and symptoms –The first symptoms of a nonbullous lesion are red papules; become small vesicles or pustules surrounded by redness –Bullous lesions are first seen as vesicles that become fluid-filled; eventually rupture, collapse, and leave a base with a peeling rim Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-8

9 Impetigo Treatment and nursing care –Lesions may be cleaned 3 or 4 times a day with soap and water to remove crusts –Cleansing is followed by the application of topical antibiotic ointment –Oral antibiotics may also be given –Nurses should prevent this disease with proper aseptic methods Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-9

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11 Staphylococcus aureus Infection Description –The bacterial genus staphylococcus is comprised of common bacteria that are found in dust and on the skin –Normally does not present a problem to healthy body defenses, but if the number of organisms increases in infants whose general resistance is low, skin infections may occur Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-11

12 Staphylococcus aureus Infection Treatment and nursing care –Antibiotics effective against the particular strain are administered –Ointments may be applied locally –Washing hands before and after touching each patient and before and after handling equipment is essential Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-12

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15 Cellulitis Bacterial infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue Caused by streptococcus, staphylococcus, or Haemophilus influenzae Signs and symptoms –Edematous, tender red skin is warm to the touch –Can progress to abscess formation, fever –Septicemia may result Treatment and nursing care –Oral antibiotics (parenteral antibiotics in extreme cases) –Warm, moist compresses –Handwashing is important Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-15

16 Pediculosis Description –The three types of pediculosis are pediculosis capitis, or head lice; pediculosis corporis, or body lice; and pediculosis pubis—“crabs”—or pubic lice –The adult attaches numerous eggs, known as nits, to the hair shafts approximately 1/8 inch from the scalp Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-16

17 Pediculosis Signs and symptoms –Severe itching of the scalp –The hair may become matted –Occasionally pustules and excoriations are seen about the face Treatment and nursing care –Permethrin (Nix), pyrethrin shampoos, or lindane (Kwell) are used –Nits on the head are removed by combing the hair with a fine-tooth comb (dipped in vinegar) –Repeat in 3-7 days Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-17

18 Burns Description –Categorized as thermal, radiation, electrical, or chemical –Severe burns cause fluid and electrolyte imbalances and can affect every body system –Infection, scarring, and functional disabilities are major complications of severe burns Signs and symptoms –The burn wound is classified according to percentage of body surface involved, the depth and location of the injury, and association with other injuries Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-18

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21 Burns Treatment and nursing care –ABCs Oxygen is administered, and oxygenation is monitored closely An endotracheal tube is inserted if the child is in respiratory distress An intravenous (IV) infusion is started, and fluid volume restoration is initiated A Foley catheter is placed to monitor urine output Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-21

22 Burns Treatment and nursing care (continued) –Wound management Cool compresses/soothing lotions for superficial burns Antimicrobial agent (i.e., bacitracin) for superficial partial-thickness burns expected to heal within 2 to 3 weeks Silvadene is commonly used on partial- and full- thickness burns to prevent wound sepsis Burn wounds may be treated as open (wound uncovered) or may be covered with a range of thin gauze to bulky gauze Range-of-motion exercises, hydrotherapy, and débridement are used in treatment Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-22

23 Burns Treatment and nursing care (continued) –Wound management (continued) Skin grafts may be necessary in full-thickness burns where re-epithelialization does not take place Allograft: Skin obtained from human cadavers Autograft: Obtained from an undamaged area of the patient’s body Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-23

24 Burns Treatment and nursing care (continued) –Infection prevention Eschar (burned tissue) must be removed to prevent infection Penicillin or erythromycin Antibiotics are only ordered if infection occurs –Watch carefully for signs of infection –Pain control Morphine sulfate is the drug of choice for severely burned patients –It should be given intravenously –Special attention should be given to respiratory rates when morphine is given Acetaminophen with codeine may be given for less severe pain Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-24

25 Burns Treatment and nursing care (continued) –Nutritional management The child may be on nothing by mouth (NPO) restriction for the first hours if the burn is severe and bowel sounds are absent The child requires a high-protein, high-calorie diet Oral feedings are preferred, although it may be necessary to supplement with nasogastric feedings Small, frequent feedings of favorite foods should be provided Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-25

26 Burns Treatment and nursing care (continued) –Social and emotional issues Families may be dealing with guilt, anger, grief, denial, and fear Body image concerns become paramount for the older child as recovery progresses Encourage the child to help with bathing, dressing change, feeding, and other self-care activities Provide opportunities for family and child to talk about feelings and changes in body appearance Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-26

27 Acne Vulgaris Description –An inflammation of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles in the skin Signs and symptoms –A comedo is a plug of keratin, sebum, and bacteria Open comedo, or blackhead—the surface is darkened by melanin Closed comedones, or whiteheads—responsible for the inflammatory process of acne Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-27

28 Acne Vulgaris Treatment and nursing care –A regular well-balanced diet is encouraged –Patients who are not taking tetracycline or vitamin A benefit from sunshine –General hygienic measures of cleanliness, rest, and avoidance of emotional stress may help prevent exacerbations –Over-the-counter benzoyl peroxide lotions or prescription-strength gels act to dry and peel the skin and suppress fatty acid growth –Change the pillow case frequently Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-28

29 Acne Vulgaris Treatment and nursing care (continued) –Topical retinoic acid derivative (Retin-A) aids in the elimination of keratinous plugs –Tetracycline, doxycycline, or erythromycin may be given in conjunction with topical medications in more serious cases –Accutane (13-cis-retinoic acid) is now being used for patients with severe pustulocystic acne (Must be on 2 forms of birth control) Copyright © 2012 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.16-29


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