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Chapter 16 Section 3 Voyages of Portugal and Spain.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Section 3 Voyages of Portugal and Spain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Section 3 Voyages of Portugal and Spain

2 Chapter Review ► People could make $ by sharing in other businesses through what kind of companies? ► Mercantilism states that a country’s government should do they could to increase their country’s ______ ► The government would show its support of domestic industry by providing subsidies which are what? ► Why did Colonization appealed to Europeans? ► Ptolemy stated the universe was geocentric _____ ________ ► heliocentric is where the universe is centered around the ___

3 Portugal’s First Explorers ► Portugal and Spain were the first nations to make voyages into unknown waters ► {Portugal’s explorations were inspired by Prince Henry} aka “The Navigator” ► Henry inspirations for exploration were gold, the spice trade and the spread of Christianity ► Henry, with the help of Europe's finest geographers and navigators, funded explorations of the Atlantic westward and southward down the coast of Africa where they traded for slaves gold and ivory

4 Prince Henry His voyages are in this color

5 Continued…. ► Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa. Although he had to turn back he had found the route to the Indian Ocean ► Vasco da Gama sailed eastward along the Indian Ocean and landed in India in 1498 ► Thanks to these explorers trade routes were now open between Europe, India and the East Indies ► This was good because in many cases it was cheaper and easier to carry goods by ship rather than on land ► Plus merchants could not be blocked or charged high tolls by competing powers that controlled other routes

6 Bartolomeu Dias

7 Vasco da Gama And one of his maps

8 Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus ► Christopher Columbus, having studied the writings of Ptolemy on the Earth being round, insisted there was a quicker path to get to India by sailing westward ► King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain funded his expedition ► In August of 1492 Columbus set sail from Palos, Spain with the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria across the Atlantic ► They landed at a tiny island that Columbus named San Salvador on October 12, 1492. ► After exploring the surrounding islands, Columbus returned to Spain in 1493. Believing he had been to the Islands off the east coast of India, he named the islands the Indies ► Columbus made three more voyages to the “Indies” between 1493 and 1504. ► He died not knowing that he had actually “discovered*” the Americas ► *The Viking explorations were unknown at that time

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10 The Impact of Columbus’s Voyages ► {Trade between America and Europe became known as the Columbian Exchange} ► Products, plants, animals and disease passed between the Eastern and Western hemispheres ► Many changes were brought about due to the Columbian Exchange ► American foods such as potatoes, tomatoes, beans and corn were brought to Europe. ► Horses were brought to the Americas, changing life for the Native Americans ► Not all the changes were good. {The Columbian Exchange had a deadly effect on people of the Americas} ► European sailors brought with them small pox and other diseases resulting in the death of millions

11 = Columbian Exchange

12 Dividing the New Lands ► At this time there were conflicts over who discovered what between Spain and Portugal ► In 1493, Pope Alexander VI issued an edict that drew a line from N to S through the middle of the Atlantic ► Spain got rights to all newly discovered lands to the west of that line, Portugal got the east side ► One year later, the {Treaty of Tordesillas moved the dividing line of trade between Spain and Portugal further west} ► Over time Spain controlled most of Central and South America and Portugal got Brazil and lands on the eastern and western coasts of Africa as well as lands in Asia and the East Indies

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14 Vespucci, Balboa and Magellan Vespucci, Balboa and Magellan ► In his several expeditions across the Atlantic, {Amerigo Vespucci believed that Columbus did not land in Asia} ► Later a German mapmaker, impressed with Vespucci’s theory, named the land America. ► In 1513 Nunez Balboa of Spain, crossed the Isthmus of Panama (overland) proving that the New World was not a part of Asia ► Ferdinand Magellan set out form Spain in 1519 with 5 ships and sailed southward down the eastern shore to the tip of South America. ► After passing through the isthmus there (and naming it after himself) he found in self in a vast ocean, which he named the Pacific Ocean because it was so calm ► He sailed on to the Philippines, where he died. ► His crew sailed on and in 1522 returned to Spain making the first round the world journey.

15 ► Magellan died in the Philippines on his way back to Spain in a battle with the natives

16 The Slave Trade ► The Portuguese went to Africa to trade. At first maintaining friendly relations with Africans ► Friendly relations soon crumbled when the actual interests of the Portuguese (gold and over time, slaves) became obvious ► The slave trade grew quickly when Portuguese set up sugar plantations off the coast of Africa ► Later the Dutch, English and French also became active in the slave trade ► By the early 1600’s that was the chief focus of relations with Africa ► Europeans also tried to enslave Native Americans, but it did not work well because the Europeans kept killing them with disease

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18 Triangular Trade ► {The selling of slaves from Africa for goods, became known as the triangular trade} ► The Middle Passage was the shipment of slaves from Africa to the Americas where they were sold for goods the plantations produced ► To complete the triangle merchants sent the plantations products to Europe ► The Middle Passage was brutal and degrading. Slaves were chained in the crowded hold of the ship. This was done so the slaves could not jump overboard ► They had little food or water and no sanitary facilities. Many died before reaching the mainland ► It has been estimated that 10 million Africans were brought to America by way of the Middle Passage

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20 African Kingdoms and Slavery ► During the 1400’s and 1500’s strong states began to rise in West Africa ► Though not all participated, {some African tribes participated in slave trade with Europe} ► African societies practiced slavery far before the arrival of the Europeans ► BUT.. slaves in Africa could gain freedom and had a distinct role in society ► Europeans on the other hand viewed slaves as property and treated them accordingly ► As demand for slaves increased, population and losses had horrible effects on Africa’s development and progress

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22 The Portuguese Empire Weakens ► The Portuguese empire declines as fast as it grew ► They did not have the financial means to hold and support such a vast empire ► Thousand of soldiers and sailors were needed to maintain and expand an empire. But due to shipwrecks and battles many never returned from overseas ► With its small population Portugal could not replace the losses ► In 1580 Spain annexed Portugal. They did not regain their independence until 1640 ► Only Brazil and Angola survived as major Portuguese colonies

23 Section Review ► Who inspired Portugal’s exploration? ► What did the Trade between America and Europe became known as? ► What affect did the Colombian exchange have on the Americas? ► What explorer believed that Columbus did not land in Asia ► What did the selling of slaves from Africa for goods, became known as?

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