Presentation on theme: "16 Methods of Persuasion Slide No. Title Title Slide"— Presentation transcript:
1 16 Methods of Persuasion Slide No. Title Title Slide CredibilityEthosFactors of CredibilityTypes of CredibilityTips for Enhancing CredibilityCompetenceCharacterEstablishing Credibility (video)LogosEvidenceTips for Using EvidenceUsing EvidenceReasoningFour Types of ReasoningReasoning from Specific InstancesGuidelines for Reasoning from Specific InstancesReasoning from PrincipleGuidelines for Reasoning from PrincipleCausal ReasoningGuidelines for Causal ReasoningAnalogical ReasoningFallaciesHasty GeneralizationFalse CauseInvalid AnalogyRed HerringAd HominemEither-OrBandwagonSlippery SlopePathosEmotional AppealsTips for Generating Emotional AppealUsing Emotional Appeal (video)BlankMethods of Persuasion
2 Methods of Persuasion Building credibility Using evidence Reasoning Appealing to emotions
3 CredibilityThe audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.
4 EthosThe name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.
9 Initial CredibilityThe credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.
10 Derived CredibilityThe credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.
11 Terminal CredibilityThe credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.
12 Tips for Enhancing Credibility Explain your competenceEstablish common ground with your audienceDeliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction
13 LogosThe name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.
14 EvidenceSupporting materials used to prove or disprove something.
15 Tips for Using Evidence Use specific evidenceUse novel evidenceUse evidence from credible sourcesMake clear the point of your evidence
16 ReasoningThe process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.
17 Four Types of Reasoning Reasoning from specific instancesReasoning from principleCausal reasoningAnalogical reasoning
18 Reasoning from Specific Instances Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.
19 Guidelines for Reasoning from Specific Instances Avoid hasty generalizationsIf your evidence does not justify a sweeping conclusion, qualify your argumentReinforce your argument with statistics or testimony
20 Reasoning from Principle Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
21 Guidelines for Reasoning from Principle Make sure listeners will accept your general principleProvide evidence to support your minor premise
22 Causal ReasoningReasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
23 Guidelines for Causal Reasoning Avoid the fallacy of false causeDo not assume that events have only a single cause
24 Analogical ReasoningReasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.
25 Guidelines for Analogical Reasoning Above all, make sure the two cases being compared are essentially alike
29 Hasty GeneralizationA fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.
30 Hasty Generalization“Last year alone three members of our state legislature were convicted of corruption. We can conclude, then, that all of our state's politicians are corrupt.”
31 False CauseA fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second.
32 False Cause“I'm sure the stock market will rise this year. It usually goes up when the American League wins the World Series.”
33 Invalid AnalogyAn analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike.
34 Invalid Analogy“Of course Lisheng can prepare great Italian food; his Chinese cooking is fabulous.”
35 Red HerringA fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
36 Red Herring“Why should we worry about endangered animal species when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents each year?”
37 Ad HominemA fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.
38 Ad Hominem“The governor has a number of interesting economic proposals, but let’s not forget that she comes from a very wealthy family.”
39 Either-OrA fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
40 Either-Or“The government must either raise taxes or reduce services for the poor.”
41 BandwagonA fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
42 Bandwagon“The President must be correct in his approach to domestic policy; after all, polls show that 60 percent of the people support him.”
43 Slippery SlopeA fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
44 Slippery Slope“Passing federal laws to control the amount of violence on television is the first step in a process that will result in absolute government control of the media and total censorship over all forms of artistic expression.”
45 Emotional AppealsAppeals that are intended to make listeners feel sad, angry, guilty, afraid, happy, proud, sympathetic, reverent, or the like.
46 PathosThe name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.
47 Tips for Generating Emotional Appeal Use emotional languageDevelop vivid examplesSpeak with sincerity and conviction
48 Using Emotional Appeal Ethically Make sure emotional appeal is appropriate to the speech topicDo not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning