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Stephen E. Lucas C H A P T E R McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Methods of Persuasion 16.

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Presentation on theme: "Stephen E. Lucas C H A P T E R McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Methods of Persuasion 16."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stephen E. Lucas C H A P T E R McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Methods of Persuasion 16

2 Slide 2 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Methods of Persuasion Building credibility Using evidence Reasoning Appealing to emotions Building credibility Using evidence Reasoning Appealing to emotions

3 Slide 3 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Credibility The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.

4 Slide 4 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Ethos The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.

5 Slide 5 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Factors of Credibility Competence Character Competence Character

6 Slide 6 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Competence How an audience regards a speaker’s intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject.

7 Slide 7 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Character How an audience regards a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.

8 Slide 8 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Types of Credibility Initial Derived Terminal Initial Derived Terminal

9 Slide 9 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Initial Credibility The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.

10 Slide 10 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Derived Credibility The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.

11 Slide 11 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Terminal Credibility The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.

12 Slide 12 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Tips for Enhancing Credibility Explain your competence Establish common ground with your audience Deliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction Explain your competence Establish common ground with your audience Deliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction

13 Slide 13 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Logos The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.

14 Slide 14 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Evidence Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something.

15 Slide 15 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Tips for Using Evidence Use specific evidence Use novel evidence Use evidence from credible sources Make clear the point of your evidence Use specific evidence Use novel evidence Use evidence from credible sources Make clear the point of your evidence

16 Slide 16 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Reasoning The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.

17 Slide 17 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Four Types of Reasoning Reasoning from specific instances Reasoning from principle Causal reasoning Analogical reasoning Reasoning from specific instances Reasoning from principle Causal reasoning Analogical reasoning

18 Slide 18 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Reasoning from Specific Instances Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.

19 Slide 19 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Guidelines for Reasoning from Specific Instances Avoid hasty generalizations If your evidence does not justify a sweeping conclusion, qualify your argument Reinforce your argument with statistics or testimony Avoid hasty generalizations If your evidence does not justify a sweeping conclusion, qualify your argument Reinforce your argument with statistics or testimony

20 Slide 20 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Reasoning from Principle Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.

21 Slide 21 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Guidelines for Reasoning from Principle Make sure listeners will accept your general principle Provide evidence to support your minor premise Make sure listeners will accept your general principle Provide evidence to support your minor premise

22 Slide 22 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Causal Reasoning Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.

23 Slide 23 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Guidelines for Causal Reasoning Avoid the fallacy of false cause Do not assume that events have only a single cause Avoid the fallacy of false cause Do not assume that events have only a single cause

24 Slide 24 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Analogical Reasoning Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.

25 Slide 25 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Guidelines for Analogical Reasoning Above all, make sure the two cases being compared are essentially alike

26 Slide 26 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Fallacy An error in reasoning.

27 Slide 27 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Fallacies Hasty generalization False cause Invalid analogy Red herring Hasty generalization False cause Invalid analogy Red herring

28 Slide 28 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Fallacies Ad hominem Either-or Bandwagon Slippery slope Ad hominem Either-or Bandwagon Slippery slope

29 Slide 29 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Hasty Generalization A fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.

30 Slide 30 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Hasty Generalization “Last year alone three members of our state legislature were convicted of corruption. We can conclude, then, that all of our state's politicians are corrupt.”

31 Slide 31 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. False Cause A fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second.

32 Slide 32 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. False Cause “I'm sure the stock market will rise this year. It usually goes up when the American League wins the World Series.”

33 Slide 33 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Invalid Analogy An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike.

34 Slide 34 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Invalid Analogy “Of course Lisheng can prepare great Italian food; his Chinese cooking is fabulous.”

35 Slide 35 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Red Herring A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.

36 Slide 36 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Red Herring “Why should we worry about endangered animal species when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents each year?”

37 Slide 37 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Ad Hominem A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.

38 Slide 38 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Ad Hominem “The governor has a number of interesting economic proposals, but let’s not forget that she comes from a very wealthy family.”

39 Slide 39 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Either-Or A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.

40 Slide 40 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Either-Or “The government must either raise taxes or reduce services for the poor.”

41 Slide 41 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Bandwagon A fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.

42 Slide 42 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Bandwagon “The President must be correct in his approach to domestic policy; after all, polls show that 60 percent of the people support him.”

43 Slide 43 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Slippery Slope A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.

44 Slide 44 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Slippery Slope “Passing federal laws to control the amount of violence on television is the first step in a process that will result in absolute government control of the media and total censorship over all forms of artistic expression.”

45 Slide 45 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Emotional Appeals Appeals that are intended to make listeners feel sad, angry, guilty, afraid, happy, proud, sympathetic, reverent, or the like.

46 Slide 46 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Pathos The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.

47 Slide 47 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Tips for Generating Emotional Appeal Use emotional language Develop vivid examples Speak with sincerity and conviction Use emotional language Develop vivid examples Speak with sincerity and conviction

48 Slide 48 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Using Emotional Appeal Ethically Make sure emotional appeal is appropriate to the speech topic Do not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning Make sure emotional appeal is appropriate to the speech topic Do not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning

49 Slide 49 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.


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