Presentation on theme: "16 Methods of Persuasion Slide No. Title Title Slide"— Presentation transcript:
116 Methods of Persuasion Slide No. Title Title Slide CredibilityEthosFactors of CredibilityTypes of CredibilityTips for Enhancing CredibilityCompetenceCharacterEstablishing Credibility (video)LogosEvidenceTips for Using EvidenceUsing EvidenceReasoningFour Types of ReasoningReasoning from Specific InstancesGuidelines for Reasoning from Specific InstancesReasoning from PrincipleGuidelines for Reasoning from PrincipleCausal ReasoningGuidelines for Causal ReasoningAnalogical ReasoningFallaciesHasty GeneralizationFalse CauseInvalid AnalogyRed HerringAd HominemEither-OrBandwagonSlippery SlopePathosEmotional AppealsTips for Generating Emotional AppealUsing Emotional Appeal (video)BlankMethods of Persuasion
2Methods of Persuasion Building credibility Using evidence Reasoning Appealing to emotions
3CredibilityThe audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.
4EthosThe name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.
9Initial CredibilityThe credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.
10Derived CredibilityThe credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.
11Terminal CredibilityThe credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.
12Tips for Enhancing Credibility Explain your competenceEstablish common ground with your audienceDeliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction
13LogosThe name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.
14EvidenceSupporting materials used to prove or disprove something.
15Tips for Using Evidence Use specific evidenceUse novel evidenceUse evidence from credible sourcesMake clear the point of your evidence
16ReasoningThe process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.
17Four Types of Reasoning Reasoning from specific instancesReasoning from principleCausal reasoningAnalogical reasoning
18Reasoning from Specific Instances Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.
19Guidelines for Reasoning from Specific Instances Avoid hasty generalizationsIf your evidence does not justify a sweeping conclusion, qualify your argumentReinforce your argument with statistics or testimony
20Reasoning from Principle Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
21Guidelines for Reasoning from Principle Make sure listeners will accept your general principleProvide evidence to support your minor premise
22Causal ReasoningReasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
23Guidelines for Causal Reasoning Avoid the fallacy of false causeDo not assume that events have only a single cause
24Analogical ReasoningReasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.
25Guidelines for Analogical Reasoning Above all, make sure the two cases being compared are essentially alike
29Hasty GeneralizationA fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.
30Hasty Generalization“Last year alone three members of our state legislature were convicted of corruption. We can conclude, then, that all of our state's politicians are corrupt.”
31False CauseA fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second.
32False Cause“I'm sure the stock market will rise this year. It usually goes up when the American League wins the World Series.”
33Invalid AnalogyAn analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike.
34Invalid Analogy“Of course Lisheng can prepare great Italian food; his Chinese cooking is fabulous.”
35Red HerringA fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
36Red Herring“Why should we worry about endangered animal species when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents each year?”
37Ad HominemA fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.
38Ad Hominem“The governor has a number of interesting economic proposals, but let’s not forget that she comes from a very wealthy family.”
39Either-OrA fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
40Either-Or“The government must either raise taxes or reduce services for the poor.”
41BandwagonA fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
42Bandwagon“The President must be correct in his approach to domestic policy; after all, polls show that 60 percent of the people support him.”
43Slippery SlopeA fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
44Slippery Slope“Passing federal laws to control the amount of violence on television is the first step in a process that will result in absolute government control of the media and total censorship over all forms of artistic expression.”
45Emotional AppealsAppeals that are intended to make listeners feel sad, angry, guilty, afraid, happy, proud, sympathetic, reverent, or the like.
46PathosThe name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.
47Tips for Generating Emotional Appeal Use emotional languageDevelop vivid examplesSpeak with sincerity and conviction
48Using Emotional Appeal Ethically Make sure emotional appeal is appropriate to the speech topicDo not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning