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Science and Social Studies, and Transitions

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0 The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction
By Margo A. Mastropieri Thomas E. Scruggs Blanche Jackson Glimps, Contributor The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

1 Science and Social Studies, and Transitions
Chapter 16 The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Objectives Describe and apply strategies for adapting textbook/content-oriented approaches in science and social studies. Identify criteria for selecting and adopting textbooks for your class or school district. Evaluate and implement strategy instruction for using content-area textbooks. Describe and evaluate methods for adapting textbook materials to accommodate diverse learners in the classroom Discuss considerations and adaptations to science activities and ways to make appropriate adaptations for teaching process skills. The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Objectives (cont.) Provide methods and strategies for adapting activities in specific science content areas. Describe and apply methods for adapting social studies instruction for students with special needs. Discuss ways for adapting inquiry-oriented approaches in science and social studies. Identify the meaning of transition and the purpose of planning and designing transition programs for students with disabilities. Gain understanding of the significance of teaching self-advocacy and self-determination skills toward promoting assertiveness and advocacy. Understand the importance of planning and transition for graduation, future education, job opportunities, and independent living. The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 Types of Adaptations Adaptations for students with special needs must reflect the approach to instruction being used in the class Textbook-oriented Content–oriented Students are taught and learn content information about science and social studies Adaptations may focus on teacher presentations and student independent learning from textbooks Activities-oriented Students undertake specific projects, experiments, or other activities to enhance their understanding of the subject Adaptations may focus on physical activities as well as reading and writing requirements The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 Inquiry-Based Learning
Using a textbook-oriented or activities-oriented approach, teachers may emphasize an inquiry-based model of learning Students use their knowledge or experiences to invent, discover, or construct new knowledge Adaptations may focus on supports or enhancements to promote the thinking and reasoning process The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

6 Adapting Science and Social Studies Instruction
Use effective teaching strategies Organize content around “big ideas” Highlight important information Actively model excitement Speak clearly Repeat unfamiliar vocabulary Provide multiple instances of new concepts Use mnemonics Promote the use of systematic note-taking The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 Effective Teaching Strategies
Provide content enhancement strategies Incorporate effective instructional design and graphic organizers SMARTER (selecting important content, mapping the organization of the content, analyzing learning problems, reaching decisions about enhancement, teaching according to decisions, evaluating, and reteaching based upon the evaluation) Use lesson organizer and concept mastery routines The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 Lesson Organizer Routines
Visual advanced organizer frame to organize a lesson so students can see the main ideas and how they relate to each other and prior knowledge Introduce the topic Change difficult vocabulary to familiar Teach students relationships between concepts Identify appropriate strategies for learning Graphically demonstrate relationships of lessons to unit Graphically display organization of content Provide self-testing questions The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 Concept Mastery Routine
Addresses teaching of difficult concepts Developed interactively with students as they share ideas, knowledge, and questions Designed around a concept diagram, a visual devise that includes: Concept name Class or category of concept Important information associated with concept Instances and non-instances of concept Blank space for additions to diagram Concept definition The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 Effective Teaching Strategies
Use Mnemonic strategies Keyword, pegword, and letter strategies can be useful Use with the most important content that students have the most difficulty remembering Modify worksheet activities Reduce amount of reading and writing, while covering the same major concepts Use differentiated instruction The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 Promoting Independent Learning from Textbooks
Science and Social Studies textbooks are complex, with high readability levels and many formats, and introduce a significant number of new vocabulary Criteria for selecting textbooks that promote comprehension Readability Language Vocabulary Organization Illustrations and diagrams The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 Teach Study Skills Strategies
Students with special needs may require explicit instruction in the use of strategies such as: How to predict text structures How to highlight or outline essential information How to use text enhancements such as lesson organizers, spatial organizers, illustrations, charts, graphs, and diagrams Organizational and study skills Reading comprehension strategies The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 Text Organization Familiarize students with text organization
Overall parts of the text Organizational system of text Specific features within chapters or units Features associated with supplemental materials The use of text structures How to identify essential information in content texts Highlighting and outlining Introduce study guides The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 Learning Strategies Teach learning strategies Multipass
Should be implemented slowly over time Goal for students to become independent at implementing strategies in their own studying Multipass A useful learning strategy for reading science and social studies textbooks Similar to SQ3R (survey, question, read, recite, and review) Students are taught to review textbook reading materials three times to: “survey” -familiarize themselves with chapter’s organization “size up” -identify highlighted information, read questions at the end of the chapter, skim text to find answers to questions, paraphrase answers, and “sort out” -test themselves on the information in the chapter The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 IT FITS Strategy Helps students remember important information from science textbooks Identify the term Tell the definition of the term Find a keyword Imagine the definition doing something with the keyword Think about the definition doing something with the keyword Study what you imagined until you know the definition The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 TRAVEL Strategy Taught to students to develop cognitive organizers to improve comprehension and recall Topic: Write down the topic and circle it Read: Read a paragraph Ask: Ask what the main idea and three details are and write them down Verify: Verify the main idea by circling it and linking its details Examine: Examine the next paragraph and Ask and Verify again Link: When finished with the story, link all circles The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 Self-Monitoring Strategies
Use as students encounter headings and subheadings in content textbooks Turn to the heading and ask “Can I answer the question?” If the answer is no, find the answer by Rereading the text Checking their vocabulary understanding Examining illustrations, tables, or figures Writing down questions to ask the teacher The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 Adapting Textbook Materials
Promote prereading and postreading strategies Prereading Explain the purpose of the assignment Provide organizers Construct timelines Present difficult concepts/vocabulary before reading independently Postreading Provide additional assistance to ensure mastery The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments or Severe Reading Problems
Written texts available in alternative formats Taped versions, computerized versions containing audio components, larger print versions, or Braille The Kurzweil Reader for reading and interacting with the text Use classwide peer tutoring Can be an excellent way for all students to gain extra practice on the most important content Can be used with a variety of subject areas The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

20 Differentiated Curriculum Enhancements
All students proceed through the same materials, implemented differently depending on learner needs Allows for differentiation without providing qualitatively different materials for different students Create activities of different difficulty levels Use tutoring pairs Use game-like formats on two levels Choose a variety of reading materials The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

21 Adapting Activities-Oriented Approaches
Rely on the execution of various activities and projects to develop conceptual understanding Advantages De-emphasize vocabulary learning and learning dependent on the reading of textbooks Areas of relative difficulty for many students with special needs Provide direct interaction with concrete, meaningful materials Areas of relative strength for many students with special needs The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 Activities-Oriented Approaches
Disadvantage Difficulty adjusting to the less-structured atmosphere Some students may exhibit difficulty with the inductive thinking often associated with such instruction Students with special needs may require adaptations and support when undertaking this approach The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 Adapting Science Activities
Develop general laboratory procedures and precautions List rules Ensure safety Give clear directions Enhance stimulus value e.g., closed circuit television to ensure that students with vision problems can see all phenomena being observed in labs Use video recordings to reinforce relevance concepts and provide redundancy Prepare for spills The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 Adaptations for Lab Skills
Measuring and pouring Obtain adaptive equipment Balancing and weighing Obtain simpler and larger scales and balances Charting/graphing and recording data Prefamiliarize students with various types of charts and graphs (graph paper, bar charts, histograms) The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Adapting Life Science Activities
Adapt plant growth and development activities Adapt activities involving animals Adapt anatomy activities Adapt microscope activities Consider health issues Students who have asthma or serious allergies Health needs of all students The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 Adapting Earth and Physical Sciences
Earth Science Adapt weather activities Adapt rocks and mineral activities Physical Science Adapt physics of sound activities Adapt magnetism and electricity activities Adapt force and motion activities Adapt powders, mixtures, and solutions activities The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

27 Social Studies Adaptations
General recommendations Supplement textbook-based instruction Use a variety of resources for viewing and other interactions Plan disability awareness issues as a component of the social studies curriculum Make adaptations for specific social studies activities Use multimedia for presentations and project-based activities Use a variety of structured role-play activities, simulations, and manipulative materials to reinforce important concepts Make adaptations for special needs for field trips The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 Field Trips Call facility in advance
Inform staff of any special needs students may have Students with visual impairments may require modifications or adaptations in lighting, printed materials, seating arrangements Considerations for students with hearing impairments may include seating, distance from the speaker, interpreters Students with cognitive or intellectual impairments may need preparation for trip, onsite support of paraprofessionals or peers Students with attention disorders may need assistance focusing on relevant exhibits The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 Inquiry Learning in Science and Social Studies
Involves the presentation of questions and problems to students with less direct guidance during the problem solution stages Can also be a significant component of activities-oriented and textbook-based learning Promotes critical thinking skills and increased content knowledge The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

30 Adapting Inquiry Learning Activities
Promote active thinking with inquiry and debate Use cooperative groups Promote reasoning with guided questioning Help students actively reason through new information Adapt instruction for developmental differences Some students may have more difficulty with inductive reasoning tasks Promote deductive reasoning as well as inductive reasoning The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 Transitions Transitions are natural passages in life that happen continually as we move to new schools, jobs, and organizations Students with special needs often have more difficulty adjusting to transitions Planning for transitions by making instructional accommodations can promote smoother and more successful transitions for students with disabilities The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

32 Planning for Transition
The process of planning for changes throughout a student’s life Transition programs help prepare students for changes from grade to grade and from high school to life after high school May include: career and technical education, and directions to manage employment, supported living, or independent living arrangements Transitions, while exciting and challenging, can be traumatic events The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

33 IDEA and Transition Services
Defined as coordinating services for students that promote the change from school to post-school Based on student preferences, interests, and abilities Includes instruction, experience in the community, and development of employment, postsecondary, daily living, and vocational objectives Prepares students for the expected changes in their lives The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

34 Promoting Transitions
Preparatory actions can be undertaken to help ease transitions, including: Establishing a transition timeline Preparing all individuals Establishing communication procedures Allowing time to explore the new setting Reviewing new procedures and explaining what the student can expect in the new environment Preparing new teachers and students for the new student Scheduling follow-up evaluation times The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

35 Transitions to Adulthood
ITP (individual transition plans) required when student reaches the age of 14 Planning and instruction includes: Self-advocacy and self-determination skills Planning for future education Planning for future employment objectives Preparing for independent living situations The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

36 Self- Advocacy and Self-Determination
Self-advocacy- being able to speak for oneself Self-determination- right to participate in decisions and influence one’s own future Both refer to the attitudes and abilities students need to make choices and decisions about their lives and to assume greater responsibility for their quality of life The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

37 Self- Advocacy Knowing legal rights and responsibilities
Requesting accommodations Requesting assistance from doctors and social security offices Having job-related social skills Thinking about and planning for the future Making informed choices Seeking assistance when necessary The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

38 Conceptual Framework for Self-Advocacy
All components lead to an overall sense of self-advocacy Knowledge of self (e.g., strengths, support needs, goals) Knowledge of rights (e.g., personal rights, educational rights, steps to advocate for change) Communication (e.g., assertiveness, negotiation, compromise) Leadership (e.g., knowledge of group’s rights, political action) The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

39 Strategies for Transitions
PLAN Provide the inventory to teachers Listen and respond to the comments Ask relevant questions Name your goals SHARE Sit up straight Have a nice tone of voice Activate your thinking Relax and remain calm Engage in eye contact The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

40 Teach Assertiveness Skills
Many students need explicit instruction in how to request assistance, ask for clarification, and negotiate changes Provide instruction and role-play situations for practice Provide opportunities to practice generalizing the skills in a variety of settings Encourage students to explain their learning needs to others The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

41 Transition Implement transition curriculum
Promote transitions with assessment Collect information on students from all available sources Use current IEPs, school permanent records, school guidance counselor, formal/informal interviews, transition planning and occupational surveys Compile and evaluate information for ITP recommendations Implement transition curriculum Life skills and life-centered career objective The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

42 Graduation Many states are requiring more demanding coursework and passing state competency tests for graduation Some students with disabilities are finding it difficult to pass these courses even with modifications More basic and career-oriented courses are being phased out Determine whether a substitute course could be included on the IEP that would count toward the diploma State policies toward awarding diplomas vary Differentiated, tiered, or advanced diplomas IDEA allows students with disabilities to continue schooling until age 22 The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

43 Transitioning for the Future
Plan for future education Provide additional assistance to students to encourage them to pursue further education Plan for future employment opportunities Provide opportunities to discuss future job options Relate course content to employment options and opportunities Plan for independent living situations Provide information on selecting, managing, and maintaining a home The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.


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