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Chapter 16 Haircutting NOTE: This chapter of the Instructor Support Slides combines the content contained in Milady’s Cosmetology Course Management Guide.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Haircutting NOTE: This chapter of the Instructor Support Slides combines the content contained in Milady’s Cosmetology Course Management Guide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Haircutting NOTE: This chapter of the Instructor Support Slides combines the content contained in Milady’s Cosmetology Course Management Guide Lesson Plans 16.0, 16.1, and Instructors should use their discretion in deciding how the slides are presented to cover both the underlying theory of haircutting as well as the procedures covered in Chapter 16 of the textbook.

2 “Although fate presents the circumstances, how you react depends on your character.” – Anonymous

3 Objectives Identify reference points on the head form and understand their role in haircutting. Define angles, elevations, and guidelines. List the factors involved in a successful client consultation. Explain the use of the various tools of haircutting. Name three things you can do to ensure good posture and body position while cutting hair. LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?) Haircutting is the single most important service you must master as a professional cosmetologist. Why? Because a good haircut serves as the foundation of most every other service offered in the salon. Compare it to building your dream home. You envision the finished product. You imagine the style you will use to furnish it. You then hire an architect (the stylist) to create the floor plan. Then you contract with a builder (the stylist) to construct the home. Now, if the builder establishes a weak foundation made of sand or clay, the home will not stand. A solid foundation, however, like the haircut, will serve as the sound base for the beautifully created home (or hairstyle)! In addition, every member of the family avails themselves of regular haircuts. Therefore, it is a tremendous source of revenue and repeat business. You will begin with the basics in haircutting. You will need to learn the purpose and safe use of each haircutting implement. There are some basics in the anatomy of the head that will impact your skills in haircutting as well. Also, a review of some of the basic elements of design, including form, balance, and wave pattern, will be beneficial as you design a haircut. If a quality, well-blended haircut is not achieved, you will have difficulty in completing other services such as styling or chemical texture services. So it will serve you well to master your haircutting skills before entering the salon. As with any other service, the client’s desires, personality, and lifestyle will all impact the techniques used and the end result of the haircut.

4 Anatomy of the Skull Reference points –Parietal ridge –Occipital bone
REFERENCE POINTS: Understanding the head's reference points will help ensure balance within the design; allow you to re-create the haircut again and again; and allow you to know where and when to change technique to make up for irregularities, such as a flat crown. (Figure 16–1) Parietal ridge: The widest area of the head, starting at the temples and ending at the bottom of the crown. It is found by placing a comb flat on the head at the sides; the parietal ridge lies where the head starts to curve away from the comb. Also referred to as the crest. (Figure 16–2) Occipital bone: The bone that protrudes at the base of the skull. Found by feeling the skull or placing a comb flat against the nape area and observing where the comb leaves the head. (Figure 16–3)

5 Anatomy of the Skull (continued)
Apex Four corners Apex: The highest point on the top of the head. Located by placing a comb flat on the top of the head; the apex rests on that highest point. (Figure 16–4) Four corners: Can be located in two ways: 1. Place two combs flat against side and back of head, locating the back corner at the point where the two combs meet. (Figure 16–5) Make two diagonal lines crossing the apex of the head, pointing directly to the front and back corners. (Figure 16–6)

6 Areas of the Head Top Front Sides Crown Nape Back Fringe
AREAS OF THE HEAD: Determined by the reference points. (Figure 16–7) Top: Locate by parting the hair at the parietal ridge, continuing all the way around head. The hair in the top area lies on the head, while hair everywhere else hangs due to gravity. Front: Locate by parting from the apex to back of ear. The hair that falls in front of the ear is considered the front (some side hair will be included here). Sides: The area from the back of the ear forward, and below the parietal ridge. Crown: The area between the apex and the back of the parietal ridge. Nape: The area at the back part of the neck and below the occipital bone. Locate by parting horizontally across the back of the head at the occipital bone. Back: Locate by parting from the apex to the back of the ear. The hair that falls naturally behind the ear (located at the same time you locate the front section). Fringe: Also called the bang area. The triangular section that begins at the apex and ends at the front corners. Locate by placing a comb on top of the head so that the middle of the comb is balanced on the apex. (Figure 16–8) The spot at which the comb leaves the head in front of the apex is where the fringe begins. When combed into a natural falling position, it falls no farther than the outer corners of the eyes. (Figure 16–9)

7 Lines and Angles Straight lines Angles STRAIGHT LINES AND ANGLES
STRAIGHT LINES: Thin, continuous marks used as guides. There are three types. (Figure 16–11) Horizontal lines: Parallel to horizon or floor. Level and opposite of vertical; they direct the eye from one side to the other and build weight. Used in one-length and low-elevation haircuts. (Figure 16–12) Vertical lines: Up and down rather than left and right. They are perpendicular to the floor and remove weight. Used with higher elevations and to create graduated or layered haircut. (Figure 16–13) Diagonal lines: Lines between horizontal and vertical. They have a slanting or sloping direction and are used to create beveling (a technique for creating fullness by cutting the ends at a slight taper). Also used to create stacking and to blend long layers to short layers. (Figure 16–16) ANGLES: The space between lines or surfaces that intersect at a given point. The head is made up of curved and straight lines or surfaces. (Figure 16–10) Basic geometry is important to haircutting because this is how shapes are created. Angles are important in elevation and the cutting line. (Figure 16–15)

8 Lines and Angles (continued)
Straight Lines Horizontal Vertical Diagonal

9 Lines and Angles (continued)
Angles: beveling, stacking

10 Elevation Elevation: angle at which hair is held from head
Sections: uniform working areas Subsections: smaller partings Graduation: layers described in degrees ELEVATION For control during haircutting, the hair is parted (divided at the scalp) into uniform working areas called sections. Each section may be divided into smaller partings called subsections. Elevation is the angle or degree at which a subsection of hair is held, or elevated, from the head when cutting. Sometimes the term elevation is replaced with projection or simply lifting. Elevation creates graduation and layers, and is usually described in degrees (Figure 16–15). In a blunt or one-length haircut, there is no elevation (0 degrees). Elevation occurs when you lift any section of hair above 0 degrees. If a haircut is not a single length, you can be sure that elevation was used.

11 Graduation Below 90 degrees: builds weight
Above 90 degrees: removes weight GRADUATION: Layers created by elevation; usually described in degrees. The more you elevate the hair, the more graduation you create. Below 90 degrees: Builds weight. Above 90 degrees: Removes weight or layers the hair. You will usually need to use less elevation on curly hair than on straighter textures. Leave curly a bit longer because of shrinkage, which occurs when hair contracts or lifts when drying.

12 Cutting Line Cutting line: angle at which fingers are held when cutting CUTTING LINE: The angle at which the fingers are held when cutting and the actual line of hair that is cut. It is also called finger angle, finger position, cutting position, cutting angle, and shears angle.

13 Guidelines Stationary guide (does not move)
Traveling guide (moves as haircut progresses) GUIDELINES: Also called a guide. The section of hair that determines the length the hair will be cut; located at either the perimeter (outer line) or the interior of the cut. It is usually the first section cut. Stationary guide: Does not move. All other sections are combed to this guide and cut at the same angle or length. A blunt cut is an example. Traveling guide: Also called a movable guide. Moves as the haircut progresses; used often in layered and graduated haircuts. When using this type of guide, you take a small slice of the previously cut section and move it to the next subsection, where it becomes the new guide.

14 Elevation Examples Blunt, one-length cut 90-degree elevation

15 Elevation Examples (continued)
45-degree with 90-degree Overdirection OVERDIRECTION: Occurs when hair is combed away from its natural falling position rather than straight out from the head, toward a guide. It is used in graduated and layered haircuts.

16 Client Consultation What does client want? How much time is available?
What is lifestyle? What is preferred look (classic or trendy)? CLIENT CONSULTATION: A conversation between you and the client to find out what the client is looking for, offer suggestions and professional advice, and come to a decision about the most suitable haircut.

17 Identifying Face Shape
Pull hair back or wrap with towel. Note length and width of face. Note balance of features. Weight and volume Profiles IDENTIFYING FACE SHAPE 1. Pull hair away with clip or wrap with towel. 2. Note length and width. 3. Note balance of features. Look for the features you want to emphasize and those you want to minimize. (See Chapter 9 for more information.) Weight and volume draw attention to an area. (Figures 16–38 and 16–39) Profiles: Pull hair away from face and up from neck. Look for features to emphasize or minimize such as a nice jaw line, or a prominent or receding chin. (Figures 16–40 and 16–41)

18 Hairlines and Growth Patterns
Hairline: the outermost perimeter along face, around ears, and on neck Growth pattern: direction hair grows from scalp HAIRLINES AND GROWTH PATTERNS: Cowlicks, whorls, and other growth patterns affect where the hair ends up once it is dry. Less tension may be needed when cutting these areas to compensate for hair being pushed up when it dries.

19 Hair Analysis Hairlines and growth patterns
Density (hairs per square inch) Texture (diameter of a hair strand) Wave pattern (amount of movement in the hair strand) HAIR ANALYSIS (See Chapter 8 for more information.) HAIRLINES AND GROWTH PATTERNS: The hairline is the hair that grows at the outermost perimeter along the face, around the ears, and on the neck. The growth pattern is the direction in which the hair grows from the scalp. DENSITY: Number of individual hairs per square inch on scalp. (Is client’s hair thin, medium, or thick?) TEXTURE: The general quality and feel of the hair, based on the thickness or diameter of each hair strand. (Is client’s hair fine, medium, or coarse?) WAVE PATTERN: The amount of movement in the hair strand. (Is client’s hair straight, wavy, curly, or extremely curly?)

20 Tools Haircutting shears Straight razor TOOLS
Use superior haircutting tools properly and take good care of them. HAIRCUTTING SHEARS: Used to cut blunt or straight lines as well as to perform other texturizing techniques. The terms shears and scissors may be used interchangeably. TEXTURIZING SHEARS: Used to remove bulk from hair; sometimes referred to as thinning shears, tapering shears, or notching shears. STRAIGHT RAZOR: Used when a softer effect is desired on hair ends. Can be used with or without guards for entire haircut to thin hair, and to texturize areas. Also known as a razor shaper.

21 Tools (continued) Clippers Trimmers Sectioning clips Wide-tooth comb
Tail comb Barber comb Styling/cutting comb CLIPPERS: Used for creating short tapers, short haircuts, fades, and flattops or to shave hair off close to the scalp. TRIMMERS: A smaller version of clippers; mainly used to remove excess or unwanted hair at the neckline and around ears. SECTIONING CLIPS: Come in a variety of shapes, styles, and sizes. Jaw clips Duckbill clips WIDE-TOOTH COMB: Mainly used to detangle hair; rarely used when cutting. BARBER COMB: Used for close tapers on the nape and sides when using the shears- over-comb technique. The narrow end allows the shears to get very close to the head. STYLING OR CUTTING COMB: Also referred to as all-purpose comb. It can be from 6 to 8 inches in length and has fine teeth on one end and wider teeth on the other end.

22 All About Shears Steel Gauging hardness Rockwell hardness Cast shears
Forged shears SHEARS STEEL: All professional haircutting shears are made of steel. Three countries – Japan, Germany, and the United States – are primarily responsible for manufacturing the steel used to make professional shears. Gauging hardness is how you determine if the shear can hold a sharp edge for an extended period of time. If the metal is too soft, the shear will not hold a sharp edge and will need to be sharpened more often than a shear made with a harder metal. The gauge is called the Rockwell hardness. Generally, a shear with a Rockwell hardness of at least 56 or 57 is ideal. A hardness higher than 63 can make the shear too brittle to work with; the shear could even break if dropped. There are many different grades of steel available. As the strength or hardness of the steel increases, so does the shear’s ability to retain a sharp edge, which means less frequent sharpening and maintenance. CAST SHEARS: Cast shears are made by a process whereby molten steel is poured into a mold. Once the metal is cooled, it takes on the shape of the mold. One disadvantage of a cast shear is that sometimes the casting process can create tiny pinhole bubbles that create holes or voids. If a shear with a void is dropped, it could shatter. Also, if a cast shear is bent, it cannot be bent back into shape without the risk of breaking it because cast shears are often brittle. Cast shears are less expensive to produce than forged shears and usually less expensive to purchase. FORGED SHEARS: Forged shears are made by a process of working metal to a finished shape by hammering or pressing. The metal is heated to temperatures between 2,100o F and 2,300o F, which expands the molecular structure of the steel so that when it is struck by a heavy object, the molecules move. After the hammering or pressing is completed, the metal is cooled in water, causing the molecules to compress. The process is repeated until the desired structure of the metal is achieved, thus making the metal much denser and harder than metal that goes through the casting process. The forging process creates a more durable shear than the casting process. Forged shears are easier to repair if dropped or bent. With new technology in the manufacturing process, a forged shear is similar in price to a cast shear but is of much higher quality, lasting significantly longer than a cast shear. Some forged shears have handles that are welded to the blades. These shears undergo the same forging process, but the blades are usually made with a harder metal than the handles. The benefit of this construction is that the shears can be repaired and adjusted easily by a certified technician if they are dropped or become dull.

23 Parts of a Shear Cutting edge Pivot Adjustment knob Finger tang
Ring-finger hole Thumb hole See Figure 16–47 in textbook.

24 Shear Maintenance Daily cleaning and lubrication
Daily tension adjustment and balancing Weekly cleaning and lubrication Disinfecting shears Sharpening shears SHEAR MAINTENANCE: Shears should be cleaned and maintained regularly. Daily cleaning and lubrication: Use cloth saturated with scissor oil and wipe inside of blades after every client. Lubricate swivel joint as needed. Daily tension adjustment and balancing: This is important for correct shear function and best results. Weekly cleaning and lubrication: Loosen adjustment knob and push out hair particles and debris. Place with one or two drops of scissor oil in space between blades. Disinfecting shears: Disinfect after each client by cleaning with soap and water and then using an EPA-registered disinfectant spray. Dry thoroughly and relubricate. Sharpening shears: Sharpen only as needed, usually every year or so. Use only factory-certified technicians for sharpening.

25 Purchasing Shears Consider dominant hand design Know how manufactured
Learn about steel quality Decide on correct blade edge Select best handle design Be sure of fit PURCHASING SHEARS You will purchase shears several times throughout your career, and the purchase will very likely require a substantial expenditure. Buying high-quality shears is an investment in your career. Here are some things to look for in shears you are considering for purchase: Know how the shears were manufactured. Remember that forged shears are of higher quality than cast shears. Even though forged shears may cost a little more, they are more structurally sound and generally last longer. Ask about the steel quality. Be sure that you know the quality of the steel that the shears are made from, as well as the Rockwell hardness. You will want at least a 440A steel or higher; as you go up the scale from 440A to 440C the steel gets harder, which means that the edges will last longer. Decide on the right blade edge. A full convex edge will give you the smoothest cut and is the sharpest edge possible. (See Table 16–2 for the differences in blade edges.) Decide on the best handle design. Shears have one of three types of handle grips. Shears with an opposing grip force the thumb underneath the ring finger and can create stress and pressure on the nerves and tendons of the hand. An offset grip moves the thumb forward so that it rests below the ring and middle finger. A full offset or crane grip is the most anatomically correct handle design because it positions the thumb grip under the index finger, which is the position of your hand when relaxed. This position releases the pressure and stress put on the nerves and tendons of the hand and thumb. Be sure the shears fit properly. Since you will be working with your shears almost constantly, consider purchasing shears that come with a finger-fitting system so that they are custom fitted to the exact size of your ring finger and thumb diameter. A proper fit will ensure maximum performance, comfort, and control.

26 Purchasing Shears (continued)
Hold shears in hand. Swivel thumb shears. Learn about service agreement. Ask about warranty. Analyze cost. Determine how many needed. Hold the shears in your hand. Since purchasing shears is a very personal thing, you need to feel them in your hand before you buy them. When you are ready to purchase your shears, select a vendor that has plenty of samples for you to try and a representative who will allow you all the time you need to make the right choice. Swivel thumb shears. The swivel shear provides great comfort and control. It allows you to lower your shoulder and elbow and straighten the wrist while cutting for a more relaxed working posture. Learn about the service agreement. Regardless of the type of shears you decide to purchase, be sure that the company you buy from can service them in a timely and convenient manner. Be sure that they have a person who is certified to sharpen their shears in your area. Otherwise, you may have to send your shears away to be sharpened, which means you can't use them for a period of time. Ask about the warranty. Since every company offers a different warranty for its shears, make sure you know what the warranty period is and exactly what the warranty covers before you buy the shears. Make sure you are satisfied with the company’s warranty policy, should you have an issue with your shears, before you decide to buy them. Also make sure that the manufacturer offers a trial period, so that if you are not satisfied with the performance of the shears, you can exchange or return them for a full refund. Analyze the cost of the shears. A pair of shears made from high quality steel (forged instead of cast) and with the kind of warranty you need should cost between $250 and $350. If you are buying cast shears, you should not pay more than $200. Determine how many pairs of shears you need. A good rule of thumb is to have two sets of cutting shears and one set of thinning or blending shears available at all times. Your second set of cutting shears is necessary so that if anything happens to your main set, you can continue to service your clients while the damaged set is being repaired.

27 Fitting Shears Fitting ring finger Fitting thumb Relaxing grip
Correct finger position and alignment FITTING SHEARS Fitting shears correctly to your hand entails four components: Fitting the ring finger. Properly fitted shears have a ring-finger hole that rests between the first and second knuckle, far enough back on the ring finger so that your pinky is resting comfortably on the finger tang. Once you have the shears in that position, there should be only a slight bit of extra space around your finger and the finger hole. The ring finger should be centered in the middle of the finger hole. Fitting the thumb. When your shears are properly fitted, the thumb hole will rest at or slightly over the cuticle area of your thumb, but not up to or over the knuckle. Once you have the shear at that location on your thumb, there can be a little extra space around your thumb and the thumb hole. A proper fit centers your cuticle underneath the center of the thumb ring guard. Relaxing your grip. A relaxed grip allows you to cut without any thumb pressure, so the blades are not being forced together. It reduces the amount of pressure on the nerves and tendons in your hand, which can result in damage, and allows the shears to do the work of cutting. Correct finger position and alignment. Correct nerve and tendon alignment while cutting hair is crucial to having a healthy career as a professional cosmetologist. Correct finger position allows your finger to stay properly aligned, which not only gives you correct nerve and tendon alignment in your hand, but also reduces the likelihood of developing hand health issues caused by improperly fitted shears. Look for a handle design that cradles your middle finger, which guarantees correct finger placement in the shears.

1. Gives most control and best results. 2. Avoids muscle strain in hands, arms, neck, and back. HOLDING SHEARS 1. Open dominant hand and place ring finger in finger grip of still blade and little finger in finger brace (tang). 2. Place thumb in finger grip of moving blade. 3. Practice opening and closing. Concentrate on moving thumb only.

29 Palming the Shears

30 Holding the Razor Method A Open razor so handle is higher than shank.
Place thumb on thumb grip. Place index, middle, and ring fingers on shank. Place little finger in tang. Position razor on top of subsection HOLDING THE RAZOR (METHOD A) Open the razor so that the handle is higher than the shank. Place the thumb on the thumb grip. Place the index, middle, and ring fingers on the shank. Place the little finger in the tang, underneath the handle. When cutting, position the razor on top of the subsection (the part facing you) for maximum control.

31 Holding the Razor (continued)
Method B Open razor so handle and shank form a straight line. Place thumb on grip and wrap fingers around handle. Palm razor by curling ring finger and little finger around razor. Hold comb between razor and index and middle fingers. HOLDING THE RAZOR (METHOD B) Open the razor so the handle and shank form a straight line. Place the thumb on the grip and wrap your fingers around the handle. Palm the razor by curling your ring finger and little finger around it. Hold the comb between the thumb and the index and middle fingers. Practice keeping a firm grip on the razor with the ring and little fingers while combing the hair.

32 Posture and Body Position
Position the client. Sitting straight Legs not crossed Center your weight. Knees slightly bent, not locked Bend one knee to lean slightly Stand in front of section being cut. POSTURE AND BODY POSITION: Posture is how you stand. Body position is how you hold your body when cutting hair. Good posture and body position will help you avoid back problems in the future and ensure better haircutting results. 1. Position the client. Sitting straight Legs not crossed 2. Center your weight. Knees slightly bent, not locked. Bend one knee to lean slightly. 3. Stand in front of section being cut.

33 Positions for Cutting Angles
Cutting over fingers Cutting below fingers Cutting palm-to-palm POSITIONS FOR CUTTING ANGLES Cutting over your fingers: Stand to the side. (Figure 16–56) Cutting below your fingers (or inside your knuckles): Used for blunt cut or bob. (Figure 16–57) Cutting palm-to-palm: Used for a vertical or diagonal cutting position or cutting line. This is the best way to maintain control of the subsection. (Figures 16–67 through 16–70)

34 Safety in Haircutting Palm shears. Do not cut past second knuckle.
Take care around ears. Balance shears and place knuckles. Use razor guard. Dispose of blades carefully. SAFETY IN HAIRCUTTING Always palm shears and razor when combing or parting hair. This keeps points closed and pointed away from client. Palming shears also reduces strain on index finger and thumb while combing hair. Do not cut past second knuckle. (NOTE: Conduct discussion by asking senior students if they have ever cut the soft, fleshy skin between the fingers when they have cut past the second knuckle. They will clearly make the connection.) Take extra care cutting around the ears. When cutting bangs or any area close to skin, balance shears by placing tip of index finger of dominant hand on the pivot screw and the knuckles of the nondominant hand against the skin. This prevents the client from being accidentally poked due to a sudden move. Always use a razor guard. (NOTE: Provide guidance based on the school’s policy regarding using a razor without a guard.) Dispose of razor blades carefully. Wrap in original sleeve or paper towel to protect anyone from getting cut.

35 Cutting Curly Hair Shrinks more than straight hair
Minimal tension (wide-tooth comb) Naturally “graduates” itself Expands more than straight hair No razor Texturizing techniques CUTTING CURLY HAIR Curly hair shrinks more than straight hair when it dries. Every 1/4-inch you cut when the hair is wet will shrink up to 1 inch when dry. Use minimal tension and/or the wide teeth of a comb. Too much tension will stretch the hair more and cause more shrinkage. Curly hair naturally “graduates” itself. If you want to create strong angles, you need to elevate less than when working with straight hair. Curly hair expands more than straight hair. Leave lengths longer, which ultimately helps weigh the hair down and keeps the shape from shrinking or ending up too short. Don’t use a razor. Doing so can weaken the cuticle and cause hair to frizz. Choose texturizing techniques carefully. Use point cutting and free-hand notching to remove bulk and weight.

36 Curly Haircut Also see Figures 16–95 and 16–96.

37 Cutting Fringe Can use stationary guide
Short bangs make strong statement. Slide cut long fringe. Cut small portion of fringe. To blend or not to blend CUTTING FRINGE (BANGS). Fringe is the hair that lies between the two front corners (approximately between the outer corners of the eyes). Fringe can be cut using stationary guide. Elevate hair to 90 degrees straight up from head form to create the fringe. Short bangs make a strong statement. They can be combined with a shorter layered haircut with a curved line. Cut with a low elevation so that it remains more solid-looking and not too heavy. Use slide cutting for long fringe. This creates a wispy effect that blends with long layers. Cutting a small portion of fringe area keeps hair out of face; you might even use a razor. To blend or not to blend: If working with a blunt haircut, bangs are usually one length. If working with layered or graduated shapes, the length of the fringe is usually blended into the sides and/or top. Refer students to Figures 16–101 through 16–107.

38 Razor Cutting Razor parallel to subsection at 45-degree angle
Razor held at 45-degree angle. Effective with blonde hair Guide above fingers RAZOR CUTTING: Generally lends a softer appearance than cuts with shears. Hair is cut with one fine blade; with shears, two blades are used. Razor parallel to subsection at a 45-degree angle Good for medium to fine textures Effective with blonde hair, which shows the cutting line more readily when shears are used Guide above fingers (below fingers when cutting with shears) Refer students to Figures 16–110 through 16–113.

39 Razor-Cutting Tips Avoid using on coarse, wiry, or damaged hair.
Always use a guard. Always use a new blade. Keep hair wet. Hold razor at an angle; never force. RAZOR-CUTTING TIPS Avoid using on coarse, wiry, curly, or damaged hair. Always use a guard. Always use a new blade. A dull blade is painful for the client plus adds stress on hair. Keep hair wet. If hair is dry, the process can be painful and cause frizzing. Work with the razor at an angle. Never force razor through the hair.

40 Slide Cutting Used to cut or thin hair Blends shorter hair to longer
Useful in texturizing Only on wet hair SLIDE CUTTING Method of cutting or thinning the hair. Fingers and shears glide along edge of hair to remove length. Blends shorter lengths to longer lengths. Useful in texturizing. Perfect for layering very long hair and keeping weight at the perimeter. Shears are kept partially open as you slide along the edge of the section. Perform only on wet hair with razor-sharp shears.

41 Scissors-Over-Comb Hair held in place with comb.
Shear tips remove length. Method used to create short tapers. Works best on dry hair. Lift hair with comb; comb acts as guide. SHEARS-OVER-COMBS: Shears-over-comb is also known as scissors-over-comb; it is a barbering technique that has crossed over into cosmetology.

42 Scissors-Over-Comb (continued)
Do not hold hair between fingers. Shears and comb move up head together. Strive for continual motion.

43 Scissors-Over-Comb Steps
Stand in front of client. Place comb. Move comb up head. Angle comb to blend with longer hair. SHEARS-OVER-COMB STEPS Stand directly in front of section. The area being cut should be on eye level. Place comb into hairline teeth first and then turn comb so that the teeth are angled away from head. Move comb up the head with the still blade parallel to the spine of the comb. Continually open and close the thumb blade smoothly and quickly. Angle comb to blend with longer hair. As you reach the area you are blending, you will angle comb farther and farther away from the head to avoid cutting the length (weight).

44 More Tips Work with small areas. Start at hairline and work up.
Cross-check work diagonally. Use barber comb for close areas. SHEARS-OVER-COMB TIPS Work with small areas no wider than blade. Start at hairline and work up. Cross-check work diagonally. Use barber comb for close areas such as sideburns and hairlines. Switch to a regular cutting comb as you work up into the longer lengths.

45 Texturizing with Shears
Point-cutting and notching TEXTURIZING: The process of removing excess bulk without shortening the length. To cut for effect within the hair length, causing wispy or spiky effects. Can be used to add volume, remove volume, make hair “move,” and blend one area into another. Also used to compensate for different densities that exist within the same head of hair. Can be done with cutting shears, thinning shears, or razor. TEXTURIZING WITH SHEARS POINT-CUTTING: A technique performed on the ends of the hair using the tips, or points, of the shears. Do on wet or dry hair. Hold hair 1 to 2 inches from ends. Point tips into ends with palm facing away from you. A more vertical shears angle removes less hair. The more diagonal the shears angle, the more hair is removed and the chunkier the effect. NOTCHING: Another version of point-cutting. More aggressive and creates a chunkier effect than point-cutting. Hold section about 3 inches from ends. Place tips about 2 inches from ends. Close shears while moving quickly toward ends. If hair is very thick, repeat the motion every 1/8 inch. On medium to fine hair, place your “notches” farther apart. Also can be done on wet or dry hair.

46 Texturizing with Shears (continued)
Free-hand notching Slithering or effilating Slicing Carving Carving the ends FREE-HAND NOTCHING: Also uses tips of shears. Shears are not slid. Pieces are snipped out randomly. Generally used throughout interior, rather than at ends. Works well on curly hair. SLITHERING OR EFFILATING: The process of thinning the hair to graduated lengths with shears. Hair strand is cut by a sliding movement of the shears, with the blade keptpartially opened. It reduces volume and creates movement. SLICING: Removes bulk and adds movement through the lengths of the hair. Shears are never closed completely. Use only blade near pivot. CARVING: Creates a visual separation in the hair. Works best on short hair. Place still blade into the hair and rest it on the scalp. Move shears through the hair; gently open and partially close shears as you move. CARVING THE ENDS: Adds texture and separation to the perimeter of a haircut by holding the ends of a small piece between your thumb and index fingers and carving a surface of that piece. Begin carving 3 inches from ends toward your fingers.

47 Texturizing with a Razor
Removing weight Free-hand slicing Razor-over-comb TEXTURIZING WITH A RAZOR REMOVING WEIGHT: Always use on damp hair. Hold section out from head. Place razor flat on hair 2 to 3 inches away from fingers. Gently stroke razor, removing a thin “sheet” of hair from the area. FREE-HAND SLICING: Can be used throughout the section or at the ends and should be done on wet hair. Working mid-shaft, comb hair out from head. Hold with fingers close to ends. With razor tip, slide out pieces of hair. The more vertical the movement, the less hair you remove. The more horizontal the movement, the more hair you remove. Can be used on ends to produce a softer perimeter or to create separation throughout the shape. Beginning about 3 inches from your fingers, slide down one side of the piece toward your fingers. RAZOR-OVER-COMB: Both comb and razor are used on hair surface. Softens weight lines and causes the area to lie closer to the head. Used mainly on shorter haircuts. Method One: Place comb into hair with teeth pointing down, a few inches above the area you will be working on. Make small, gentle strokes on the surface of the hair with the razor. Move comb down along with razor. Method Two: Also called razor rotation, similar to razor-over-comb. Place razor on surface of hair and make small circular. Refer students to Figure 16–130.

48 Texturizing with Thinning Shears and Razor
Remove bulk or weight. Section as for haircut. Comb subsection from head. Cut 4 to 5 inches from scalp. Stay farther from scalp for coarse hair. Remove weight from ends. TEXTURIZING WITH THINNING SHEARS REMOVE BULK OR WEIGHT (THINNING): Section as for a haircut. Comb subsection out from head. Cut 4 to 5 inches from scalp. On coarse hair, stay farther from scalp. For blunt cuts, avoid cutting on top. REMOVE WEIGHT FROM ENDS: Can be used on thin and thick hair. It helps taper the perimeter of both graduated and blunt haircuts.

49 Texturizing with Thinning Shears and Razor (continued)
Thinning shears-over-comb Other thinning shears techniques Free-hand slicing with razor Razor-over-comb Razor rotation THINNING SHEARS-OVER-COMB: Useful for blending weight lines on finer textures of hair. Can also be used on thick and coarse haircuts that are very short. HELPFUL HINT: Practicing this technique with thinning shears is an effective way to master the shears-over-comb procedure. OTHER THINNING SHEARS TECHNIQUES: Any texturizing technique that can be done with shears can also be done with thinning shears. FREE-HAND SLICING WITH RAZOR: Used on hair ends to produce a softer perimeter or to create separation throughout the shape. RAZOR ROTATION: Using small, circular motions, the comb follows the razor through the area just cut.

50 Tips for Clipper Cutting
Work against natural growth pattern. Work in small sections (no wider than 3 inches). Determine comb angle.

51 Trimming Facial Hair Using tool-over-comb method Cutting against comb
Using length guard Brow and ear hair

52 General Haircutting Tips
Take consistent, clean partings. Be aware of potential danger zones. Use consistent tension. Pay attention to head position. Maintain even moisture. GENERAL HAIRCUTTING TIPS Always take consistent and clean partings, which will give an even amount of hair in each subsection and produce more precise results. Take extra care when working along the crown and neckline, which sometimes have very strong growth patterns. Another danger zone is the hair that grows around the ear or hangs over the ear in a finished haircut. Allow for the ear sticking out by either keeping more weight in this area or cutting with minimal tension. Always use consistent tension for the entire section of hair. Tension may range from maximum to minimum. You can maintain light tension by using the wide teeth of the comb, and by not pulling the subsection too tightly. Pay attention to head position. If the head is not upright, it may alter the amount of elevation and overdirection. Maintain an even amount of moisture in the hair. Dry hair responds to cutting differently than wet hair and may give you uneven results in the finished haircut.

53 Basic Haircuts Blunt haircut Weight line Stationary guide used
Graduated haircut Visual buildup of weight Ends appear stacked Traveling guide used BASIC HAIRCUTS The art of haircutting is made up of variations on four basic haircuts: blunt, graduated, layers, and long layers. An understanding of these basic haircuts is essential before you can begin experimenting with other cuts and effects. BLUNT HAIRCUT: In a blunt haircut, also known as a one-length haircut, all the hair comes to a single hanging level, forming a weight line. (The weight line is a visual line in the haircut where the ends of the hair hang together.) The blunt cut is also referred to as a zero-elevation or no-elevation cut because it has no elevation or overdirection. It is cut with a stationary guide. The cutting line can be horizontal, diagonal, or rounded. Blunt haircuts are excellent for finer and thinner hair types because all the hair is cut to one length, therefore making it appear thicker. GRADUATED HAIRCUT: A graduated haircut is a graduated shape, or wedge, caused by cutting the hair with tension, low to medium elevation, or overdirection. The most common elevation is 45 degrees. In a graduated haircut, there is a visual buildup of weight in a given area. The ends of the hair appear to be stacked. There are many variations and effects you can create with graduation simply by adjusting the degree of elevation, the amount of overdirection, or your cutting line.

54 More Basic Haircuts Layered haircut Less weight than graduated cuts
Creates movement and volume Long layered haircut Gives volume to styles Can be combined with other cuts Layers increase form; short to longer toward perimeter Men’s basic clipper cut

55 Procedures – Practical Class
Pre-Service Procedure Post-Service Procedure NOTE: If you have not already presented LP 15.0, which includes the standard Pre- and Post-Service procedures, hand out the procedure sheets from LP 15.0 now and review the procedures with the students. Even though these procedures are repeated in each of the practical chapters in the textbook, they are not repeated in each of the lesson plans as handouts. You will use the handouts from LP 15.0 whenever covering this material.

56 The Blunt Haircut Blunt haircut
NOTE: See Notes to Educator 9–11 at the beginning of LP 16.1 regarding practical procedures. Announce that the actual procedures covered in today’s lesson will be presented during the practical class (which may take place now), at which time you will hand out the applicable procedure sheet and have students follow along as you review the procedures or demonstrate using Milady’s DVD series. ACTIVITY: Following the activity found in the textbook, hold a telephone book by the spine with the pages hanging down. Point out how the edges of the pages make a straight line, just like in the blunt haircut they have already learned. Then turn the book the other way, open it in the middle, and let the pages flop down on either side. Point out how the edges of the pages create a beveled line. Compare this to the line they are about to learn in the graduated haircut. After demonstrating the blunt haircut, have students return the demonstration at the earliest opportunity.

57 The Graduated Haircut Graduated haircut Classic graduated bob Wedge
Shorter shape with rounded weight

58 Tips for Graduated Cuts
Keep elevation below 45 degrees with coarse textures and curly hair. Fine hair responds well to graduation. Check neckline carefully before cutting short. Always use fine teeth of comb and maintain even tension to ensure a precise line. After demonstrating each of the graduated haircuts, have students return the demonstration at the earliest opportunity.

59 Layered Haircuts Uniformed layered haircut Long-layered haircut
Men’s basic clipper cut After demonstrating each of the layered haircuts, have students return the demonstration at the earliest opportunity.

60 Layer Cut Examples Pixie, cro, Caesar Squared layers Shag
Refer students to Figures 16–90 through 16–93.

61 Tips for Layered Haircuts
Cut the interior first. Do not cut thin hair too short. Do not cut coarse hair shorter than 3 inches in length. Do not cut top layers too short. Use slide cutting to connect top sections to lengths.

62 Tips for Layered Haircuts (continued)
Work with guideline. Cross-check haircut. Use mirror to see elevation. Check both sides by standing in front. Leave curly hair longer. TIPS FOR LAYERED HAIRCUTS Always work with your guideline. If you cannot see the guide, your subsection is too thick. Go back and take a smaller subsection before cutting. Using a subsection that is too big can result in a mistake that may be too big to fix. If a mistake is made while using a smaller subsection, the mistake is also smaller and therefore easier to correct. Always cross-check the haircut. Cross-checking is parting the haircut in the opposite way that you cut it to check for precision of line and shape. For example, if you use vertical partings in a haircut, cross-check the lengths with horizontal partings Use the mirror to see your elevation. You can also turn the client sideways so that you can see one side in the mirror while working on the opposite side. This helps create even lines and maintains visual balance while working. Check both sides. Always make sure that both sides are even by standing in front of your client. Leave curly hair longer than desired end result. Remember that curly hair shrinks anywhere from 1/2 to 2 inches (1.25 to 5 centimeters) more than straight hair.

63 Men’s Basic Clipper Cut

64 Summary and Review What are reference points and what is their function? What are angles, elevations, and guidelines? What are important considerations to discuss with a client during a haircutting consultation? SUMMARY AND REVIEW This lesson discusses how important it is to develop strong haircutting skills, since a good haircut serves as the foundation for numerous other services. The more familiar you become with basic haircutting and shaping techniques and with haircutting implements, the more solid that foundation will be. Understanding the anatomy of the head, elevations, angles degrees is also important, as is the requisite client consultation before every haircut service; understanding the client’s desires, needs, and lifestyle will impact the choices made. In addition, the five characteristics of hair (density, texture, wave pattern, hairlines, and growth pattern) also play an important role in your ability to create a quality haircut. There is much more to learning how to cut hair. In our next lesson, we will continue with basic haircutting procedures. What are reference points and what is their function? Answer: Ears, jawline, occipital bone or apex, parietal ridge. Reference points help ensure balance within the design, so that both sides of the haircut will turn out the same. They also allow the stylist to re-create the same style again and again. In addition, reference points tell the stylist where and when it is necessary to change techniques in order to make up for irregularities in the head form.  What are angles, elevations, and guidelines? Answer: An angle is the space between two lines or surfaces that intersects at a given point. Elevation is the angle or degree at which a subsection of hair is held, or lifted, from the head when cutting. Guidelines are sections of hair, located either at the perimeter or the interior of the cut, that determine the length the hair will be cut; also referred to as a guide and usually the first section that is cut to create a shape.  What are important considerations to discuss with a client during a haircutting consultation? Answer: What the client wants; how much time he or she is willing to spend on hair; the client's lifestyle; whether classic or trendy is more appropriate; the shape of the face; what hair analysis reveals.

65 Summary and Review (continued)
What are the uses for a razor, haircutting shears, styling or cutting comb, and texturizing shears? Name three steps to ensuring good posture and body position while cutting hair. Name and describe four basic haircut types. What are the uses for a razor, haircutting shears, styling or cutting comb, and texturizing shears? Answer: Razors are used to cut the hair when a softer effect is desired on the ends of the hair. Haircutting shears are used to cut blunt or straight lines into the hair. A styling or cutting comb is used to control the hair in haircutting procedures. Name three steps to ensuring good posture and body position while cutting hair. Answer: Position the client to sit straight up, with legs uncrossed. Center your weight; when standing, keep your knees slightly bent, rather than locked. Instead of bending at the waist, try bending one knee if you need to lean slightly one way or the other. Work in front of your section by standing or sitting directly in front of the area you are cutting. Keep your body weight centered and move around the head during a haircut. Name and describe four basic haircut types. Answer: The four basic haircuts are: The blunt haircut, also known as a one-length haircut. All the hair comes to a single hanging level, forming a weight line. The graduated haircut, which has a graduated shape or wedge. This effect results from cutting the hair with tension, low to medium elevation, or overdirection. The layered haircut, which has a graduated effect achieved by cutting the hair with elevation or overdirection. The hair is cut at higher elevations, usually 90 degrees and above. Layered haircuts generally have less weight than graduated haircuts. The long layered haircut is cut at a 180-degree angle. It gives more volume to hairstyles, and the resulting shape will have shorter layers at the top and increasingly longer layers toward the perimeter.

66 Summary and Review (continued)
Name and describe at least three different texturizing techniques performed with shears. What is a clipper cut? How is a trimmer used? Name and describe at least three different texturizing techniques performed with shears. Answer: Point cutting: A technique performed on the ends of the hair using the tips, or points, of the shears. Notching: Another version of point cutting, but more aggressive and creating a chunkier effect. Slicing: Removes bulk and adds movement through the lengths of the hair. Slithering or effilating: The process of thinning the hair to graduated lengths with shears. Hair strand is cut by a sliding movement of the shears, with the blade kept partially opened. It reduces volume and creates movement. Carving: Creates a visual separation in the hair. Carving the ends: Adds texture and separation to the perimeter of a haircut by holding the ends of a small piece between your thumb and index fingers, and carving a surface of that piece. What is a clipper cut? Answer: A clipper cut is a haircut performed with a clipper and is where the hair is cropped close along the bottom and sides and becomes longer as you travel up the head. The distance between the comb and the scalp determines the amount of hair to be cut. The clipper can be positioned horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. How is a trimmer used? Answer: A trimmer is a smaller version of clippers and is mainly used to remove excess or unwanted hair at the neckline and around the ears, as well as to create crisp outlines. Trimmers are mostly used on men’s haircuts and very short haircuts for women.

67 You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.
Congratulations! You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.

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