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© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich 16 Related topics Software assumed a central role –it should contribute to the society’s well-being –should not be a growing threat Software engineers are at the center of this significant social development –should think about the big picture and be well versed in ethical issues. 1
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Computer crime Glaring example of professional ethics failure –variants of theft or vandalism Computer forensics –gathering evidence that is needed for criminal convictions –intersection between software engineering and criminal justice 2
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Computer Ethics Codes Some people think software needs a brand new form of ethics Responsibility of software engineers is a classical responsibility between one person to another –present in human society through the ages Natural law is a conceptual ethical framework –can serve as the foundation of the conduct 3
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Professional groups They developed more specific guidelines Example of medicine –Hippocratic oath Software engineering (ACM/IEEE) –Software engineering code of ethics and professional practice 4
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Software engineering code of ethics - excerpt 1. Software engineers shall act consistently with the public interest. 2. Software engineers shall act in a manner that is in the best interests of their client and employer consistent with the public interest. 3. Software engineers shall ensure that their products and related modifications meet the highest professional standards possible. 5
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Information Diversion and Misuse The novel capabilities of computers amplify numerous ethical issues Diversion and misuse of information –computers have a capability to collect information on an unprecedented scale –to process this huge amount of information through data mining algorithms. Information may end up in the wrong hands 6
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Confidentiality Privacy and confidentiality rights –rooted in natural law Hippocratic oath – “Whatever I see or hear in the lives of my patients, whether in connection with my professional practice or not, which ought not to be spoken of outside, I will keep secret, as considering all such things to be private.” 7
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Protecting confidentiality Individuals must have the right to consent how to use information about them –right to know the collected information, correct it, and even to withdraw it from the database, –customers can withdraw their name and phone number from the phone book Software engineers should be vigilant about this threat and monitor how their projects observe confidentiality. 8
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Threat to freedom Society that allows diversion of the information will find its freedom under serious attack –Big Brother (government) who knows more about you then yourself –private snooping agencies (activists) with some petty agenda focused on your every move and thought Unfortunately within technological reach 9
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Software management Business schools Operations management Business law Human resources management Accounting and finance Marketing and sales Economics, quantitative analysis Business policy and strategy 10
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Process management Quality and predictability of processes Standards –ISO 9000 –Capability Maturity Model (CMM) Organizations that certify compliance Customers frequently require certification 11
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Product management Scope of the product Readiness for the release Cost and profitability Collaborate with the sales department and monitor relations with the users. Quality management –reject low quality commits, baselines, versions 12
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Ergonomics (human factors) Optimal height of chairs … Cognitive issues –complexity –learning the systems 13
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Marketing personas Aggregate users into groups based on their goals and habits Personas get names, fake vitas 14
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Example personas Institutional Repository (IR) Centralized archive at a University Alternative mode of publishing Professor Charles Williams –humanities –posts teaching materials –concerned with technical difficulties of IR 15
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Personas (2) Rahul Singh –graduate student –spends most of his time in the lab –uses the IR to identify collaborators. Professor Anne Chao –has her own web site and a blog –active in the traditional scholarly publications 16
© 2012 by Vaclav Rajlich Personas (3) Julia Fisher –starting her graduate studies –active in various social events –her source of professional information and scholarly references is almost exclusively Internet –IR is a part of her strategy how to get relevant information and how to publish her early results. 17
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