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Chapter 16 In the Shadow of Old Hickory: Personalities and Politics 1830–1842.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 In the Shadow of Old Hickory: Personalities and Politics 1830–1842."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 In the Shadow of Old Hickory: Personalities and Politics 1830–1842

2 Van Buren versus Calhoun John C. Calhoun Supports Southern causes Fears North’s industrialization Advocates state sovereignty Clashes with Jackson Peggy O’Neill Eaton O’Neill a “fallen woman” Marries Secretary of War John Eaton Washington wives snub Mrs. Eaton Jackson, Van Buren defend Mrs. Eaton

3 Van Buren versus Calhoun Van Buren versus Calhoun (cont.’d) Van Buren’s rise to power Graceful, witty; clever politician Proposes Jackson’s cabinet resign over Eaton mess Van Buren named Minister to England as reward Calhoun seals his doom Jackson discovers Calhoun criticized Florida invasion Calhoun forces states rights issue at dinner Jackson takes stand for nationalism Calhoun blocks Van Buren being Minister to England

4 The War with the Bank Second Bank of the United States Charter runs 1816–1836 Nicholas Biddle controls bank Bank acts as government’s fiscal agent Powers of the Bank Government deposits funds in BUS BUS holds power over economy BUS can regulate smaller banks BUS a private institution

5 The War with the Bank The War with the Bank (cont.’d) Enemies of the BUS President Jackson New York financial community Freewheeling Western bankers Hard-money men BUS becomes election issue Clay runs for president, 1832 Rechartering BUS key issue Jackson vetoes bill rechartering BUS Jackson wins election

6 The War with the Bank The War with the Bank (cont.’d) Financial chaos Jackson puts funds in “pet banks” Biddle calls in loans; reverses policy Congress distributes funds to states Jackson issues Specie Circular Economic collapse ensues Jackson personification of democratic upheaval of his day Retires before economy collapses He was not a great man Sets new standards of presidential leadership Sets new formula for winning elections

7 The Second American Party System The Democrat-Republicans Split under Jackson Some remained Democrats Opponents of Jackson formed new party The Whigs Opponents of Jackson Includes variety of social classes Includes variety of sectional interests “The party of hope” Daniel Webster Great orator Supports interest in New England Less than shining character Strong advocate of “union and liberty”

8 Second American Party System Second American Party System (cont.’d) 1836 presidential election Democrats run Van Buren Whigs run three sectional candidates Whigs hope to throw election into the House Van Buren wins easily Depression of 1838 Result of financial chaos in Jackson’s second term Van Buren tries to divorce government from banks Continues laissez-faire approach Van Buren’s popularity declines

9 “Tippecanoe and Tyler too” 1840 presidential election Democrats run Van Buren Whigs run Harrison Harrison runs on “Jacksonian” image Harrison wins on image, no issues Fate’s cruel joke Longest inaugural speech in history Inauguration on cold, windy day Harrison gets pneumonia Harrison dies one month into presidency

10 “Tippecanoe and Tyler too” “Tippecanoe and Tyler too” (cont.’d) President John Tyler Whigs try to control Tyler, but he exerts independence Tyler only a Whig because he dislikes Jackson Tyler thinks, acts like a Democrat Whigs expel Tyler from party British–American Friction Boundary dispute between Maine and New Brunswick Boundary dispute west of Lake Superior Unofficial U.S. assistance to Canadian rebels American involvement in illegal slave trade Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842) Compromise about boundary disputes U.S. gains Mesabi Range and its iron ore Settles outstanding issues except Oregon

11 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Map 16:1 – Presidential Election of 1836

12 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Map 16:2 – Presidential Election of 1840

13 Discussion Questions What were the factors that led to the rise of Van Buren, and the decline of Calhoun? What principles were in play that led to the struggle over the BUS in Jackson term? Who was in favor, who in opposition? What was the resolution? Compare and contrast the Whigs and the Democrats. How did they differ on social and economic issues? Examine the Election of In what ways was it similar to a modern election? What was most unusual about this election?


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