2Ocean-ocean convergence Island Arc (IA) Ocean-continent convergence Continental ArcFigure Principal subduction zones associated with orogenic volcanism and plutonism. Triangles are on the overriding plate. PBS = Papuan-Bismarck-Solomon-New Hebrides arc. After Wilson (1989) Igneous Petrogenesis, Allen Unwin/Kluwer.
3Arcs are: Arcuate volcanic chains above subduction zones Distinctly different from mainly basaltic provinces thus farCompositions more diverseBasalt generally subordinateMore explosive: viscous, cool, magmas trap gasStrato-volcanoes most common volcanic landform
5Structure of an Island Arc Note mantle flow directions (induced drag), isolated wedge, and upwelling to back-arc basin spreading systemBenioff-Wadati seismic zone (x x x x)Volcanic Fronth is relatively constant depth is importantFigure Schematic cross section through a typical island arc after Gill (1981), Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag. HFU= heat flow unit (4.2 x 10-6 joules/cm2/sec)
6Volcanic Rocks of Island Arcs Complex tectonic situation and broad spectrum of rock typesHigh proportion of Basaltic - andesite and AndesiteMost Andesites occur in subduction zone settings
7Recall Major Magma Series Alkaline series (OIA ocean island alkaline)Sub-alkaline types:Tholeiitic series (MORB, OIT)Calc-Alkaline series (IA island arcs)C-A ~ restricted to magmas generated near subduction zones, but keep in mind other series occur there tooAll three series occur in SZ setting, yet something about SZ is different that CALC-ALKALINECalc-alkaline magma series is used as yet another synonym to orogenic suite by some workersSince other magma series can occur at subduction zones, I recommend that we use the term calc-alkaline strictly to denote a chemical magma series, not a tectonic association
8Major Magma Series visualized with Major Elements a. Alkali vs. silica allb. AFM for subalkalinec. FeO*/MgO vs. silicaDiagrams for 1,946 analyses from ~ 30 volcanic island arcs and continental arcsFigure Data compiled by Terry Plank (Plank and Langmuir, 1988) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 90,
9above a subduction zone are calc-alkaline. Not all volcanic arcsabove a subduction zone are calc-alkaline.Figure b. AFM diagram distinguishing tholeiitic and calc-alkaline series. Arrows represent differentiation trends within a series.
10Sub-series Calc-Alkaline K2O is an important discriminator Gill (1981) recognized three Andesite sub-seriesFigure The three andesite series of Gill (1981) Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag. Contours represent the concentration of 2500 analyses of andesites stored in the large data file RKOC76 (Carnegie Institute of Washington).The three andesite series of Gill (1981)A fourth very high K shoshonite series is rare
11Figure a. K2O-SiO2 diagram distinguishing high-K, medium-K and low-K series. Large squares = high-K, stars = med.-K, diamonds = low-K series from Table Smaller symbols are identified in the caption. Differentiation within a series (presumably dominated by fractional crystallization) is indicated by the arrow. Different primary magmas (to the left) are distinguished by vertical variations in K2O at low SiO2. After Gill, 1981, Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag.
12If partition on basis of K versus Tholeiitic/calc-alkaline, most common samples are: Low-K tholeiiticMed-K C-AHi-K mixedFigure Combined K2O - FeO*/MgO diagram in which the Low-K to High-K series are combined with the tholeiitic vs. calc-alkaline types, resulting in six andesite series, after Gill (1981) Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag. The points represent the analyses in the appendix of Gill (1981).
13Tholeiitic vs. Calc-alkaline differentiation for our three examples These Harkers represent > 1 volcano from each arc, but give the general idea nonethelessC-A shows continually increasing SiO2 and lacks dramatic Fe enrichment (note Guatemala and PNG in FeO*/MgO)TiO2 decr due to Fe-Ti oxideCaO/Al2O3 should increase with Plag FX, but decreases in all types -> Cpx responsible for CaOSiO2 doesn’t show up in Harker, but it increases progressively in CALC-ALKALINE (although ~ constant in Thol)Figure From Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
14Tholeiitic vs. Calc-alkaline differentiation seems to depend on K C-A shows continually increasing SiO2 and lacks dramatic Fe enrichmentHigh K
15Calc-alkaline differentiation WHY? Early (as opposed to late in Tholeiites) crystallization of an Fe-Ti oxide phase.Probably related to the high water content of calc-alkaline magmas in arcsIron is removed early so a middle fractionation high iron composition cannot occur as it does in Tholeiites
16Other Trends Spatial Temporal Antilles more alkaline N S Aleutians segmented with C-A prevalent in center and tholeiite prevalent at endsIDEA: source/collection points for high K clays (Illite) near trench?TemporalEarly Tholeiitic later C-A and often latest alkaline is commonMany exceptions to any trend!
17Trace Elements REEs HREE flat in all, so garnet, which sequesters the HREEs, not in equilibrium with the meltGarnet last to go in partial melting of Lherzolite. If melted, HREE would be high.also not from subducted basalt, which becomes eclogite with garnet at 110 km.Trace ElementsThe HREE are flat, implying that garnet, which strongly partitions (holds) the HREE, was not in equilibrium with the melt. Melts derived from eclogite are depleted in HREE (abundant garnet in residue). This causes the characteristic low HREEFigure 16-10
18MORB-normalized Spider diagrams IA: high LIL (LIL are hydrophilic), low HFSWhat is it about subduction zone setting that causes fluid-assisted enrichment?HFS=High Field-strengthIntraplate OIB has similar humpMost incompatibleFigure Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall. Data from Sun and McDonough (1989) In A. D. Saunders and M. J. Norry (eds.), Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., 42. ppFigure 16-11a. MORB-normalized spider diagrams for selected island arc basalts. Using the normalization and ordering scheme of Pearce (1983) with LIL on the left and HFS on the right and compatibility increasing outward from Ba-Th. Data from BVTP. Composite OIB from Fig 14-3 in yellow.
19IsotopesNew Britain, Marianas, Aleutians, and South Sandwich volcanics plot show sediment contamination of DMAntilles (Atlantic) and Banda and New Zealand (Pacific) can be explained by partial melting of a MORB-type source + the addition of the type of sediment that exist on the subducting plate (Pacific sediment has 87Sr/86Sr around 0.715and 143Nd/144Nd around )The increasing N-S Antilles Nd enrichment probably related to the increasing proximity of the southern end to the South American sediment source of the AmazonThe principal source of island arc magmas is very similar to MORB sourceAlthough the trace element data still require enriched componentsThe data for the other arcs extend along 2 enrichment trends, one for the Banda arc and the other for the Lesser Antilles extend beyond the OIB fieldAntilles (Atlantic) and Banda and New Zealand (Pacific) can be explained by partial melting of a MORB-type source + the addition of the type of sediment that exist on the subducting plate (Pacific sediment has 87Sr/86Sr around and 143Nd/144Nd around 0.715)The increasing N-S Antilles enrichment probably related to the increasing proximity of the southern end to the South American sediment source of the AmazonFigure Nd-Sr isotopic variation in some island arc volcanics. MORB and mantle array from Figures and After Wilson (1989), Arculus and Powell (1986), Gill (1981), and McCulloch et al. (1994). Atlantic sediment data from White et al. (1985).
20Pb in some arcs overlap with the MORB data; depleted mantle component is a major reservoir for subduction zone magmasMajority of data enriched in radiogenic lead (207Pb and 206Pb), trending toward the appropriate oceanic marine sedimentary reservoirPb in some arcs overlap with the MORB data, again suggesting that a depleted mantle component is a major source reservoir for subduction zone magmasMajority of data enriched in radiogenic lead (207Pb and 206Pb), trending toward the appropriate oceanic marine sedimentary reservoirSeveral arcs could = mixing of DM, PREMA, and sedimentary sourcesSunda data extends to EMIIAleutians follow nice mixing line between DM or PREMA and Atlantic sediments, perhaps extending beyond toward HIMU (Fig. 14-6)Pb data clearly indicate a sedimentary component in arc magmasBut When?? Ancient EM component or recent sedimentary additions to the mantle?Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes cannot distinguishFigure Variation in 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb for oceanic island arc volcanics. Included are the isotopic reservoirs and the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL) proposed in Chapter 14. The geochron represents the mutual evolution of 207Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb in a single-stage homogeneous reservoir. Data sources listed in Wilson (1989).
2110Be created by cosmic rays + oxygen and nitrogen in upper atmos. Earth by precipitation & readily clay-rich oceanic sedimentsHalf-life of only 1.5 Ma (long enough to be subducted, but quickly lost to mantle systems). After about 10 Ma 10Be is no longer detectable. 9Be is stable, natural.10Be/9Be averages about 5000 x in the uppermost oceanic sedimentsIn mantle-derived MORB and OIB magmas, & continental crust, 10Be is below detection limits (<1 x atom/g) and 10Be/9Be is <5 x 10-149Be is a stable natural isotope & used as a normalization factor
22Boron B is a stable element Very brief residence time deep in subduction zonesB in recent sediments is high ( ppm), but has a greater affinity for altered oceanic crust ( ppm)In MORB and OIB it rarely exceeds 2-3 ppmVery brief residence time deep in subduction zone source areas & cycles quickly through to shallow crustal and hydrospheric systemsB concentrations in recent sediments is high ( ppm), but has a greater affinity for altered oceanic crust ( ppm)In MORB and OIB it rarely exceeds 2-3 ppm
2310Be/Betotal vs. B/Betotal diagram (Betotal 9Be since 10Be is so rare). This is the smoking gun, the evidence for the fluids (mostly ion-rich water) squeezed out of the sediments.Figure Be/Be(total) vs. B/Be for six arcs. After Morris (1989) Carnegie Inst. of Washington Yearb., 88,Each arc studied formed linear arrays, each arc having a unique slopeAlso shown are other known reservoirs, including typical mantle (virtually no 10Be or B), hydrated and altered oceanic crust (high B, low 10Be), and young pelagic oceanic sediments (low B and 10Be/Be extending off the diagram up to 2000)The simplest explanation: each arc represents a mixing line between a mantle reservoir (near the origin) and a fluid (or melt) reservoir, that is specific for each arc and itself a mixture of slab crust and sedimentHypothetical fields for each arc are illustrated, but the exact location along the extrapolated line is unknown
24The potential source components IA magmas 1. The crustal portion of the subducted slab1a Altered oceanic crust (hydrated by circulating seawater, and metamorphosed in large part to greenschist facies)1b Subducted oceanic and forearc sediments1c Seawater trapped in pore spaces2. The mantle wedge between the slab and the arc crustFigure Cross section of a subduction zone showing isotherms (red-after Furukawa, 1993, J. Geophys. Res., 98, ) and mantle flow lines (yellow- after Tatsumi and Eggins, 1995, Subduction Zone Magmatism. Blackwell. Oxford).
25Not 1a the subducted basalt fide flat HREEs The trace element and isotopic data suggest that both 1b and 1c, the subducted sediments and water and 2, the mantle wedge contribute to arc magmatism. How, and to what extent?Dry peridotite solidus too high for melting of anhydrous mantle to occur anywhere in the thermal regime shownLIL/HFS ratios of arc magmas water plays a significant role in arc magmatismSince we know what the general composition of the constituents in Fig are, it is a matter of combining this information with the other information in the figure showing us the pressure-temperature conditions to which the constituents will be subjected as they move through the subduction zone, and considering the consequences
26Freezing Point Depression always occurs in a mixture
27An upside-down PT diagram Even small amounts of water (0.5%) and carbon dioxide (0.5%) strongly depress the temperatures of the solidus, moving it below the geotherm at all depths. This effect dominates in subduction environments, where arc magmas are generated. (Modified from B. M. Wilson (1989) Igneous petrogenesis: a global tectonic approach. Chapman and Hall, London.)An upside-down PT diagramEffects of the addition of small amounts of volatiles to mantle Iherzolite. A mantle adiabat with potential temperature of 1280 °C is shown for reference.
28Amphibole-bearing hydrated peridotite should melt at ~ 120 km Phlogopite-bearing hydrated peridotite should melt at ~ 200 km second arc behind first?Crust and Mantle WedgeFigure Some calculated P-T-t paths for peridotite in the mantle wedge as it follows a path similar to the flow lines in Figure Included are some P-T-t path range for the subducted crust in a mature arc, and the wet and dry solidi for peridotite from Figures 10-5 and The subducted crust dehydrates, and water is transferred to the wedge (arrow). After Peacock (1991), Tatsumi and Eggins (1995). Winter (2001). An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.Areas in which the dehydration curves are crossed by the P-T-t paths below the wet solidus for peridotite are blue and labeled D for dehydrationAreas in which the dehydration curves are crossed above the wet solidus are purple and labeled M for melting.Note that although the slab crust usually dehydrates, the wedge peridotite melts as amphibole dehydrates above the wet solidusA second melting may also occur as phlogopite dehydrates in the presence of two pyroxenes.
29The data from LIL Large Ion Lithophiles and HFS High Field Strength trace elements underscore the importance of slab-derived water and a MORB-like mantle wedge sourceThe flat HREE pattern argues against a garnet-bearing (eclogite) sourceThus modern opinion has swung toward a non-melting subducted lithosphere slab model for most cases of IA genesisMcCulloch (1993) suggests that young, warm subducted crust is more likely to melt before it dehydrates. Thus slab melting may be more common where the a subduction zone is close to a ridge, or during the Archean, when heat production was greater
30Island Arc Petrogenesis Model Mantle here is too shallow to have Garnet. Subducted slab turns to Eclogite with Garnet at 110 km.Phlogopite is stable in ultramafic rocks beyond the conditions at which amphibole breaks downP-T-t paths for the wedge reach the phlogopite-2-pyroxene dehydration reaction at about 200 km depthIf this occurs above the wet peridotite solidus, a second phase of melting will occur at B a position appropriate for the secondary volcanic chain that exists behind the primary chain in several island arcsThe P-T-t paths are nearly parallel to the solidus, and may be above it or below it. Thus dehydration may or may not be accompanied by melting, so that the development of a second arc will depend critically upon the thermal and flow regime of a particular arcMelting initiated by the breakdown of the potassium-rich mica will probably be more potassic, as is true in most secondary arc occurrences.The K-h relationship probably more complex, reflecting the decreasing quantity of H2O with depth and thus the degree of partial melting, as well as the depth of melting (which becomes more alkaline with depth), and perhaps the vertical length of the rising melt diapir column within the mantle wedgeFigure 16-11b. A proposed model for subduction zone magmatism with particular reference to island arcs. Dehydration of slab crust causes hydration of the mantle (violet), which undergoes partial melting as amphibole (A) and phlogopite (B) dehydrate. From Tatsumi (1989), J. Geophys. Res., 94, and Tatsumi and Eggins (1995). Subduction Zone Magmatism. Blackwell. Oxford.
31Chapter 17: Continental Arc Magmatism Figure NVZ, CVZ, and SVZ are the northern, central, and southern volcanic zones.
32Continental Volcanic Arcs Potential differences with respect to Island Arcs:Assimilation of thick silica-rich crust versus mantle-derived partial melts ® more pronounced effects of contaminationLow density of crust may slow magma ascent ® more potential for differentiationLow melting point of crust allows for partial melting and some crust-derived melts
33A subducting slab with shallow dip can pinch out the asthenosphere from the overlying mantle wedge Lithospheric Mantle too shallow to have garnetFigure Schematic diagram to illustrate how a shallow dip of the subducting slab can pinch out the asthenosphere from the overlying mantle wedge. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
34SVZ has a flat HREE which suggests a shallow garnet-free source NVZ and CVZ have a steep slope with depleted HREE which suggests a deep garnet rich source, (the garnets don’t melt) consistent with a steep slab dip angle and aesthenosphere source.Figure Chondrite-normalized REE diagram for selected Andean volcanics. NVZ (6 samples, average SiO2 = 60.7, K2O = 0.66, data from Thorpe et al. 1984; Geist, pers. comm.). CVZ (10 samples, ave. SiO2 = 54.8, K2O = 2.77, data from Deruelle, 1982; Davidson, pers. comm.; Thorpe et al., 1984). SVZ (49 samples, average SiO2 = 52.1, K2O = 1.07, data from Hickey et al. 1986; Deruelle, 1982; López-Escobar et al. 1981). Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
35LILs are very soluble in aqueous fluids LILs are very soluble in aqueous fluids. LIL enrichment of the mantle wedge via aqueous fluids from dehydration of the subducting slab and sediments. Similar to Island ArcsFigure MORB-normalized spider diagram (Pearce, 1983) for selected Andean volcanics. NVZ (6 samples, average SiO2 = 60.7, K2O = 0.66, data from Thorpe et al. 1984; Geist, pers. comm.). CVZ (10 samples, ave. SiO2 = 54.8, K2O = 2.77, data from Deruelle, 1982; Davidson, pers. comm.; Thorpe et al., 1984). SVZ (49 samples, average SiO2 = 52.1, K2O = 1.07, data from Hickey et al. 1986; Deruelle, 1982; López-Escobar et al. 1981). Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
36Assimilation The CVZ exhibits substantial crustal contamination Recall low 143Nd/144Nd and high 87Sr/86Sr is due to an isotopically enriched source such as continental crust contamination.The CVZ exhibits substantial crustal contaminationFigure Sr vs. Nd isotopic ratios for the three zones of the Andes. Data from James et al. (1976), Hawkesworth et al. (1979), James (1982), Harmon et al. (1984), Frey et al. (1984), Thorpe et al. (1984), Hickey et al. (1986), Hildreth and Moorbath (1988), Geist (pers. comm), Davidson (pers. comm.), Wörner et al. (1988), Walker et al. (1991), deSilva (1991), Kay et al. (1991), Davidson and deSilva (1992). Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
37Andean Pb enrichments are not much greater than OIBs, and could be derived almost solely from a subducted sedimentFigure Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb for Andean volcanics plotted over the OIB fields from Figures 14-7 and Data from James et al. (1976), Hawkesworth et al. (1979), James (1982), Harmon et al. (1984), Frey et al. (1984), Thorpe et al. (1984), Hickey et al. (1986), Hildreth and Moorbath (1988), Geist (pers. comm), Davidson (pers. comm.), Wörner et al. (1988), Walker et al. (1991), deSilva (1991), Kay et al. (1991), Davidson and deSilva (1992). Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
38Andean chemistry is similar to Island Arcs Andean chemistry is similar to Island Arcs. They also have as their main source the depleted mantle above the subducted slab.However, Andean volcanics are more evolved, as they must pass through continental lithosphere, which has a lower melting point than the rising magma.Figure Relative frequency of rock types in the Andes vs. SW Pacific Island arcs. Data from 397 Andean and 1484 SW Pacific analyses in Ewart (1982) In R. S. Thorpe (ed.), Andesites. Wiley. New York, pp Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
39Figure 17-11. Schematic cross sections of a volcanic arc showing an initial state followed bytrench migration toward the continent resulting in a destructive boundary and subduction erosion of the overlying crust.Alternatively, trench migration away from the continent results in extension and a constructive boundary. In this case the extension in (c) is accomplished by “roll-back” of the subducting plate. An alternative method involves a jump of the subduction zone away from the continent, leaving a segment of oceanic crust (original dashed) on the left of the new trench. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
40Figure 17-10. Map of the Juan de Fuca plate-Cascade Arc system Also shown are the approximate locations of the subduction zone as it migrated westward to its present location.
41Hundreds to thousands of individual intrusions The range of volcanics from basalts to rhyolites is matched by the plutonics:Gabbro -> diorite -> tonalite -> granodiorite -> graniteQQuartzolite9090Quartz-richGranitoid6060GraniteGrano-TonaliteAlkali Feldspar Granitediorite2020QuartzQuartzQuartzSyeniteMonzoniteMonzodiorite5SyeniteMonzoniteMonzodiorite1035A6590PFigure 17-15a. Major plutons of the North American Cordillera, a principal segment of a continuous Mesozoic-Tertiary belt from the Aleutians to Antarctica. After Anderson (1990, preface to The Nature and Origin of Cordilleran Magmatism. Geol. Soc. Amer. Memoir, 174. The Sr line in N. America is after Kistler (1990), Miller and Barton (1990) and Armstrong (1988). Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
42Figure 17-15b. Major plutons of the South American Cordillera, a principal segment of a continuous Mesozoic-Tertiary belt from the Aleutians to Antarctica. After USGS.
43Granitoid magmas rise to, and freeze at, similar shallow subvolcanic levels of the crust. Figure Schematic cross section of the Coastal batholith of Peru. The shallow flat-topped and steep-sided “bell-jar”-shaped plutons are stoped into place. Successive pulses may be nested at a single locality. The heavy line is the present erosion surface. From Myers (1975) Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 86,
44Notice that the great majority of Peruvian samples are calc-alcaline Consistent with fractional crystallization of plagioclase and pyroxene +/- magnetite, later giving away to hornblende and biotite , from initial gabbroic, tonalitic, or quartz diorite parental materialNotice that the great majority of Peruvian samples are calc-alcalineFigure Harker-type and AFM variation diagrams for the Coastal batholith of Peru. Data span several suites from W. S. Pitcher, M. P. Atherton, E. J. Cobbing, and R. D. Beckensale (eds.), Magmatism at a Plate Edge. The Peruvian Andes. Blackie. Glasgow.
45Coastal Peru batholiths have the same REE profiles as coastal Peru volcanics Figure Chondrite-normalized REE abundances for the Linga and Tiybaya super-units of the Coastal batholith of Peru and associated volcanics. From Atherton et al. (1979) In M. P. Atherton and J. Tarney (eds.), Origin of Granite Batholiths: Geochemical Evidence. Shiva. Kent. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
46Lima segment intruded into younger, thinner crust so radiogenic 87Sr low, reflecting the mantle derived parent. Arequipa intrudes and assimilated old thick crust so 87Sr high.Lima segment has high 206Pb reflecting minor assimilation of Pacific sedimentsFigure a. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ranges for three principal segments of the Coastal batholith of Peru (after Beckinsale et al., 1985) in W. S Pitcher, M. P. Atherton, E. J. Cobbing, and R. D. Beckensale (eds.), Magmatism at a Plate Edge. The Peruvian Andes. Blackie. Glasgow, pp b. 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb data for the plutons (after Mukasa and Tilton, 1984) in R. S. Harmon and B. A. Barreiro (eds.), Andean Magmatism: Chemical and Isotopic Constraints. Shiva. Nantwich, pp ORL = Ocean Regression Line for depleted mantle sources (similar to oceanic crust). Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
47Why are granitoids so abundant? Experiments show Tonalites(granitoids with low K-spar) can be formed by the partial fusion remelting of gabbroic magmas under hydrous conditions.Up-arched mantle results in partial melting and underplate gabbros.During later compression, heat added by more underplate magmas remelts the underplate gabbros to produce tonalites.Figure Schematic diagram illustrating (a) the formation of a gabbroic crustal underplate at an continental arc and (b) the remelting of the underplate to generate tonalitic plutons. After Cobbing and Pitcher (1983) in J. A. Roddick (ed.), Circum-Pacific Plutonic Terranes. Geol. Soc. Amer. Memoir, 159. pp
48Figure Schematic cross section of an active continental margin subduction zone, showing the dehydration of the subducting slab, hydration and melting of a heterogeneous mantle wedge (including enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle), crustal underplating of mantle-derived melts where MASH processes may occur, as well as crystallization of the underplates. Remelting of the underplate to produce tonalitic magmas and a possible zone of crustal anatexis is also shown. As magmas pass through the continental crust they may differentiate further and/or assimilate continental crust. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.