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Political revolution changes fundamental basis of government

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1 Chapter 16: Political Revolutions in Europe and the Americas Political Revolution
Political revolution changes fundamental basis of government Apparent unity can shift rapidly Revolutions often based on a coalition Threshold of victory can bring crisis Struggle to gain power within coalition often more brutal than effort to end prior system

2 Political Revolution English, American and French Revolutions are all labeled “democratic” by analysts These revolutions share common traits Slogans included liberty, equality, fraternity, natural rights, pursuit of happiness, property, no taxation without representation Outcomes often different than stated goals

3 Human Rights in the Age of Enlightenment
Philosophical Rationales Thomas Hobbes Saw origins of government in brutal life without government Life in nature--solitary, nasty, brutish, and short Made a social contract to natural world To break contract was to return to state of nature

4 Human Rights in the Age of Enlightenment
Philosophical Rationales [cont.] John Locke, 2nd Treatise on Government Social contract the origin of government State of nature a benevolent place Right of revolution if gov’t violates human rights Majority rule of property holders the key concern Role of government is to protect property

5 Human Rights in the Age of Enlightenment
Study of Scientific Revolution a “new” field Characteristics of the Revolution Rise of a community instead of individuals Development of new methods Reliance on mathematics Empiricism Technology present in equipment use Freedom of inquiry

6 Human Rights in the Age of Enlightenment
Intellectual Revolutions in Science & Philosophy Copernicus revises the universe Placed sun at center of solar system for simplicity Feared impact from Church which accepted a geocentric view Published findings on his deathbed Tyco Brahe offered complex geocentric model Conflict between religious and mathematical astronomers

7 Human Rights in the Age of Enlightenment
Intellectual Revolutions in Science & Philosophy Galileo added observations and new technology to the debate and supported geocentric view Newton developed calculus

8 England’s Glorious Revolution, 1688
Unauthorized taxes by Charles I lead to civil war & Charles’ execution in 1649 Oliver Cromwell leads Puritans to victory and rules as Lord Protector to 1658 Civil War establishes principle that monarchy can be abolished

9 England’s Glorious Revolution, 1688
The Bill of Rights, 1689 Parliament rejects Stuarts for William & Mary in 1688 New monarchs sign Bill of Rights in 1689 No taxes raised or armies recruited without approval of Parliament No subject can be detained without due process King cannot suspend laws on his own Reality is government by male property owners

10 Philosophes & Enlightenment in the 18th Century
Philosophes want to use science & reason to solve problems in politics & economics Ideas are in American and French Revolutions Were influenced by travel and knowledge of other cultures Most were deists in religion

11 Philosophes & Enlightenment in the 18th Century
Believed in Progress and the perfectibility of mankind Encyclopedia of Diderot is famous product Voltaire--freedom of liberty, press, inquiry Enlightened Despotism Good government does not require self-government; rationale used by colonial powers

12 Philosophes & Enlightenment in the 18th Century
Rousseau skeptical about self-government Promotes idea of General Will which sounds close to tyranny in minds of critics Is unclear about how to achieve it Adam Smith Promoted free trade Envy of wealth necessitated protection of private property

13 Revolution in North America, 1776
Americans resent British control from 1760s onward British policy built of large army in North America and taxation to support it Grievances lead to Declaration of Independence, 1776 It asserts same concerns as English on eve of the Glorious Revolution

14 Revolution in North America, 1776
Constitution and Bill of Rights, 1789 Constitution creates federal government Bill of Rights goes beyond British model to add freedom of press, religion, assembly, and right to bear arms Approach tied to four American factors 1) Settlers were religious dissenters; 2) abundant land; 3) absence of privileged classes; 4) world had become more radical with new political ideas

15 Revolution in North America, 1776
The First Anti-Imperial Revolution Represented rejection of colonial rule But westward movement created American imperial ambition Still, American Revolution inspired many subsequent revolutions such as Nehru in India Not a complete political revolution; many groups left out but ideal of equality emerges

16 French Revolution & Napoleon, 1789-1812
American Revolution was unique--4 million people, edge of continent, no tradition of class or clerical privilege, built on tradition of British liberty French Revolution was internal revolt against entrenched elites & monarchy, in most populous & powerful European nation All Europe affected by French Revolution

17 French Revolution & Napoleon, 1789-1812
Origins of Revolution King’s need for revenue France was divided into three Estates Nobles and clergy were tax exempt Revolt of the Third Estate Want to turn Estates-General into legislature Sieyes, What is the Third Estate? Want delegates to meet as unicameral legs.

18 French Revolution & Napoleon, 1789-1812
The Revolt of the Poor Events occur against backdrop of food shortage Assault on Bastille, July 14, 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Great Fear in the countryside Women’s March on Versailles, Oct. 5-6, 1789 Constitution of 1791 Reflects ideals of philosophes Promulgated after wave of protests

19 French Revolution & Napoleon, 1789-1812
International War, the 2nd Revolution and the Terror, French actions threaten Europe Civil Constitution of the Clergy Europe attacks the Revolution, 1792 Poor attempt to kill Louis XVI, August 9, 1792 Legislature turns radical after September elections Reign of Terror Levee en masse (national military draft)

20 French Revolution & Napoleon, 1789-1812
International War, the 2nd Revolution, and the Terror, [cont.] Radical actions under Robespierre New Calendar Worship of the Supreme Being Success in war prompts reaction against extreme measures Directory established, 1795 Napoleon to power, 1799

21 French Revolution & Napoleon, 1789-1812
Napoleon in Power, Consolidates or extends revolutionary ideas Code Napoleon, 1804 “careers open to talent” Concordat with Pope Full citizenship for Protestants and Jews Actions reflect his own modest origins

22 French Revolution & Napoleon, 1789-1812
Ch. 16: POLITICAL French Revolution & Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars & the Spread of Revolution, Direct or indirect control of Europe by 1810 Flaws in his policies magnified by ambition Unsuccessful in war against Britain Defeated in invasion of Russia, 1812 Nationalism undermines his control of W. Europe Defeated and exiled, 1814 & 1815 Congress of Vienna creates balance of power, 1815

23 Haiti: Slave Revolution & Overthrow of Colonialism
Caribbean Slave revolts commonly suppressed Hispaniola, French sugar colony, saw 40,000 whites in control of 500,000 black slaves Slaves escape brutality physically by maroonage (flight) and psychologically through vodoun (voodoo) Network of resistance begins in 1750s

24 Haiti: Slave Revolution & Overthrow of Colonialism
The Slave Revolt Begins in 1791 perhaps with inspiration from American and French revolutions French revolution outlaws slavery, 1794 Toussaint L’Ouverture leads revolt to success Napoleonic attempt to restore French control fails despite use of 20,000 troops Final independence of Haiti declared in 1804

25 Abolition of Slavery and the Slave Trade
Fear of Haiti-style revolts leads British to abolish slavery, 1807 U. S. abolished international slave trade in 1808 but retains slavery until Civil War Slavery abolished in Puerto Rico, 1876, in Cuba, 1886, & in Brazil, 1888

26 The End of Colonialism in Latin America, 1810-30
Independence Movements Revolts led by creole elites, direct descendents of original Spanish settlers Helped Spain & Portugal put down Indian revolts Creole fear of indigenous population helped spur drive to independence Revolts led by creoles were for their control of countries & enjoyment of Enlightenment ideals

27 The End of Colonialism in Latin America, 1810-30
After Independence Bolivar & the Challenge of Unification Led independence movements after French invasion of Spain Active in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Columbia Hoped for a unified South America but got local caudillo rule

28 The End of Colonialism in Latin America, 1810-30
After Independence [cont.] Mexico Early Mexican movement opposed Creoles leaders By 1821 independence creoles were in charge Territory lost to U.S. and to breakaway nations Brazil Portuguese monarch fled Napoleon for Brazil Brazil made co-equal with Portugal Brazil became a monarchy

29 The End of Colonialism in Latin America, 1810-30
After Independence [cont.] Paraguay: The New Historiography Dictactor Francia strongly criticized by creoles and gained a bad reputation Revolution based on self-government & land distribution Efforts to defeat Paraguay as a source of inspiration for Argentines and others met with failure

30 The End of Colonialism in Latin America, 1810-30
Religious & Economic Issues

31 Political Revolutions: What Difference Do They Make?
Each Revolution has a clear outcome British created constitutional rights, failed to extend them to America, but abolished slavery Philosophes inspired subsequent revolutions Americans promoted freedom but not for all Lat. America: political but not econ. freedom French Revolution is the exception Idea of revolution but prefigures 20th century

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