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Chapter 16 The Oceans, Coastal Processes, and Landforms Geosystems 6e An Introduction to Physical Geography Robert W. Christopherson Charles E. Thomsen.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 The Oceans, Coastal Processes, and Landforms Geosystems 6e An Introduction to Physical Geography Robert W. Christopherson Charles E. Thomsen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 The Oceans, Coastal Processes, and Landforms Geosystems 6e An Introduction to Physical Geography Robert W. Christopherson Charles E. Thomsen

2 The Oceans, Coastal Processes, and Landforms Global Oceans and Seas Coastal System Components Coastal System Actions Coastal System Outputs Wetlands, Salt Marshes, and Mangrove Swamps Human Impact on Coastal Environments

3 Global Oceans and Seas Chemical Composition of Seawater Salinity – the concentration of dissolved solids in seawater Brine – water that exceeds the average 35 parts per thousand salinity Brackish – water that is less than the aver 35 parts per thousand salinity

4 Salinity by Latitude Figure 16.3

5 Ocean’s Physical Structure Figure 16.4

6 Coastal System Components Inputs to the Coastal System Solar energy Atmospheric winds Climatic regimes Coastal geomorphology Human activities The Coastal Environment and Sea Level Littoral zone – the coastal or shore zone; includes land and water Shoreline – contact line between the sea and the land

7 Littoral Zone Figure 16.5

8 Coast – area of high tide to the first major landform change Sea level – the average surface elevation of the world’s oceans Coastal System Components

9 Coastal System Actions Tides – complex daily oscillations in sea level Produced by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon Waves – undulations of water caused by the friction between moving air and the ocean surface Tsunami – seismic sea waves

10 Coastal System Outputs Erosional Coastal Processes and Landforms Erosional coastlines – rugged, high relief, techtonically active Wave-cut terrace Depositional Coastal Processes and Landforms Beach – place along the coast where sediment is in motion, deposited by waves and currents Barrier islands – long, narrow depositional features that form offshore parallel to the coast

11 Erosional Features Figure 16.13

12 Figure Florida Barrier Islands

13 Littoral Drift Figure 16.15

14 Biological Processes: Coral Formations Coral – marine animal with small cylindrical, sack-shaped body Secrete calcium carbonate from their bodies creating an external skeleton Require clear, sediment-free water Coral reef – biologically derived sedimentary rock bleaching Coastal System Outputs

15 Coral Reef Distribution Figure 16.20

16 Wetlands, Salt Marshes, and Mangrove Swamps Wetlands – land covered by water for a significant period of time supporting hydrophytic vegetation Bogs Cypress swamps Bottomlands Potholes Tundra

17 Coastal Wetlands Salt marshes – midlatitudes estuaries Mangrove swamps - tropics

18 Coastal Salt Marsh Figure 16.22

19 Mangroves Figure 16.23

20 Coastal Planning Figure FS

21 End of Chapter 16 Geosystems 6e An Introduction to Physical Geography Robert W. Christopherson Charles E. Thomsen


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