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Chapter 16 The Civil War ( )

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 The Civil War ( )"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 The Civil War (1861-1865)
Section 2 Early Stages of the War

2 Section 2-Polling Question
What do you think is the most important element for the North or South to gain advantage in the early years of the war? A. a large army B. strong leaders C. quick, decisive victories D. adequate funding and financial support A B C D

3 Essential Question Why did neither the Union nor the Confederacy gain a strong advantage during the early years of the war?

4 The Civil War Fought on sea and land
The Union navy began a blockade of all Confederate ports The Southerners hoped to break the blockade with a secret weapon An abandoned Union warship, the Merrimack The Confederates covered the wooden ship with iron and renamed it the Virginia The Virginia could withstand Union cannon fire

5 Summer of 1861 July 21, about 30,000 inexperienced Union troops under General Irvin McDowell attacked The Confederates had a smaller, but also inexperienced force under P.G.T. Beauregard Fighting took place in northern Virginia 5 miles from Manassas Junction near a small river called Bull Run Hundreds of residents from Washington D.C. went to the battle site to watch and have a picnic

6 First Battle of Bull Run
The Yankees drove the Confederates back… at first The Rebels rallied, inspired by reinforcements under General Thomas Jackson Jackson was seen holding out heroically, “like a stone wall” Jackson got the nickname “Stonewall Jackson” The Confederates counterattacked and forced the Union lines to break The retreating Union troops ran into the picnickers Civilians fled back to Washington D.C. in panic

7 Results of 1st Bull Run The outcome shocked Northerners
They began to understand the war could be long, difficult, and costly President Lincoln appointed a new general, George B. McClellan, to head and organize the Union army of the East Called the Army of the Potomac Lincoln called for more troops Lincoln signed two bills requesting a total of 1 million soldiers to serve for three years Victories in the West raised Northern spirits and also increased enlistment

8 The War in the West The main goal in the West for the Union was to control the Mississippi and its tributaries Controlling the Mississippi would keep Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas from supplying the rest of the Confederacy Union gunboats and troops could also move into the heart of the South The battles for the rivers began in February 1862 when the Union captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee River Led by naval commander Andrew Foote and army general Ulysses S. Grant Foote and Grant moved to take Fort Donelson and told the Confederates… “No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted” “Unconditional Surrender” Grant became the North’s new hero

9 War on the Ironclads March 8, The Merrimack (Virginia), attacked Union ships of the coast of Virginia The wooden Union ship’s shells bounced off its iron sides The Union had its own ironclad warship, the Monitor March 9th, the two ironclads met in battle Neither could sink the other

10 In the West General Grant and 40,000 troops headed south toward Corinth, Mississippi There was an important railroad junction there The Union army camped at a church named Shiloh (about 20 miles away) More Union troops came from Nashville to join Grant Confederate leaders attacked first, before the reinforcements arrived

11 The Battle of Shiloh Early morning of April 6th, Confederate forces led by Albert Sidney Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard launched a surprise attack The Battle of Shiloh lasted two days, Narrow victory for the Union The losses were enormous- Together the two armies suffered 23,000 casualties The Union gained control of Corinth on May 30th Memphis fell to the Union on June 6th

12 New Orleans Falls April 25, New Orleans falls to the Union under David Farragut Controlling New Orleans (Mouth of Mississippi) meant the Confederacy could no longer use the river to carry goods to sea The Union now controlled most of the Mississippi Only the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi blocked Union control of the river and the success of the Union’s strategy

13 War in the East Another campaign was being fought in the East to capture Richmond (Capital of the Confederacy) The Confederacy was able to win victories because of General Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson Knowledge of the terrain, speed of movement, and ability to inspire their troops Confederate forces turned back General George B. McClellan at the Seven Days’ Battle Then defeated General John Pope at the Second Battle of Bull Run

14 War in the East Continued
Then General Ambrose Burnside was defeated at Fredericksburg May 1763, Lee’s army defeated a Union army twice its size All Confederate victories took place in the Confederacy Lee’s two attempts to invade the North failed September Lee’s army was turned back at the Battle of Antietam A year later, the Confederate army would get defeated at Gettysburg

15 Invasion of the North Washington D.C. was too well guarded for Lee to attack Jefferson Davis instead moved onto western Maryland- Union Territory Davis wanted to move into Pennsylvania and move the war to the Northern states In Maryland, Lee split his army in four parts and moved them in different directions Lee hoped to confuse McClellan about the size and destination of his army A Confederate office lost his copy of the orders and Union soldiers found them

16 Battle of Antietam McClellan did not attack immediately, and Lee reassembled his troops September 17, The two sides met in the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg, Maryland About 6,000 were killed and 17,000 wounded Deadliest single day of fighting Important victory for the Union Lee retreated to Virginia

17 Reason for the Civil War
Lincoln wanted to save the Union As the war went on, Lincoln changed the way he thought about slavery and its role in the war Lincoln hated slavery, but didn’t move on it because of the border states At the start of the war, abolitionists (Including Frederick Douglass) urged Lincoln to make the war a fight to end slavery Some argued that 1. slavery was morally wrong and 2. slavery was the root of the division between North and South Therefore the nation could never be fully restored if slavery continued

18 Make It A War To End Slavery?
Frederick Douglas and others brought up foreign policy Southern leaders were trying to get Britain and France to recognize the Confederacy’s independence Public opinion in Britain and France were antislavery Douglas pointed out, by making it war for freedom, Britain and France would be less likely to support the South This would help the Union

19 Lincoln Decides Lincoln knew the Constitution did not give him the power to end slavery The Constitution did allow him to take property from an enemy in wartime By law, enslaved people were property September 22, Lincoln announced he would issue the Emancipation Proclamation This freed all enslaved people in rebel territory on January 1, 1863

20 Effects of the Proclamation
The Proclamation did not actually free a single enslaved person It was only for enslaved people in the Confederacy There, Lincoln had no power to enforce the policy It had an important impact on America By issuing the Proclamation, the government declared slavery to be wrong If the Union won the war, slavery would be banned forever

21 Decisions made by leaders Battles won by both sides
Essential Question Why did neither the Union nor the Confederacy gain a strong advantage during the early years of the war? Decisions made by leaders Battles won by both sides

22 Chapter 16 Section 2 Quiz

23 The first major battle of the Civil War was at
Shiloh. Antietam Creek. Bull Run (Manassas). Richmond.

24 Ulysses S. Grant David Farragut Robert E. Lee George B. McClellan
Who said “No terms except and unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted” Ulysses S. Grant David Farragut Robert E. Lee George B. McClellan

25 In the West, the Union goal was to control
Texas. the Tennessee River. the Mississippi River. Missouri.

26 The single bloodiest day of the entire Civil War took place at
Shiloh. Antietam. Bull Run (Manassas). Richmond.

27 Together the Union and Confederate armies suffered more than 23,000 casualties at
the Battle of Bull Run. New Orleans. Richmond. the Battle of Shiloh.

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