Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 The Civil War ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 16 The Civil War (1861-1865) Section 2 Early Stages of the War
2 Section 2-Polling Question What do you think is the most important element for the North or South to gain advantage in the early years of the war?A. a large armyB. strong leadersC. quick, decisive victoriesD. adequate funding and financial supportABCD
3 Essential QuestionWhy did neither the Union nor the Confederacy gain a strong advantage during the early years of the war?
4 The Civil War Fought on sea and land The Union navy began a blockade of all Confederate portsThe Southerners hoped to break the blockade with a secret weaponAn abandoned Union warship, the MerrimackThe Confederates covered the wooden ship with iron and renamed it the VirginiaThe Virginia could withstand Union cannon fire
5 Summer of 1861July 21, about 30,000 inexperienced Union troops under General Irvin McDowell attackedThe Confederates had a smaller, but also inexperienced force under P.G.T. BeauregardFighting took place in northern Virginia5 miles from Manassas Junction near a small river called Bull RunHundreds of residents from Washington D.C. went to the battle site to watch and have a picnic
6 First Battle of Bull Run The Yankees drove the Confederates back… at firstThe Rebels rallied, inspired by reinforcements under General Thomas JacksonJackson was seen holding out heroically, “like a stone wall”Jackson got the nickname “Stonewall Jackson”The Confederates counterattacked and forced the Union lines to breakThe retreating Union troops ran into the picnickersCivilians fled back to Washington D.C. in panic
7 Results of 1st Bull Run The outcome shocked Northerners They began to understand the war could be long, difficult, and costlyPresident Lincoln appointed a new general, George B. McClellan, to head and organize the Union army of the EastCalled the Army of the PotomacLincoln called for more troopsLincoln signed two bills requesting a total of 1 million soldiers to serve for three yearsVictories in the West raised Northern spirits and also increased enlistment
8 The War in the WestThe main goal in the West for the Union was to control the Mississippi and its tributariesControlling the Mississippi would keep Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas from supplying the rest of the ConfederacyUnion gunboats and troops could also move into the heart of the SouthThe battles for the rivers began in February 1862 when the Union captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee RiverLed by naval commander Andrew Foote and army general Ulysses S. GrantFoote and Grant moved to take Fort Donelson and told the Confederates…“No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted”“Unconditional Surrender” Grant became the North’s new hero
9 War on the IroncladsMarch 8, The Merrimack (Virginia), attacked Union ships of the coast of VirginiaThe wooden Union ship’s shells bounced off its iron sidesThe Union had its own ironclad warship, the MonitorMarch 9th, the two ironclads met in battleNeither could sink the other
10 In the WestGeneral Grant and 40,000 troops headed south toward Corinth, MississippiThere was an important railroad junction thereThe Union army camped at a church named Shiloh (about 20 miles away)More Union troops came from Nashville to join GrantConfederate leaders attacked first, before the reinforcements arrived
11 The Battle of ShilohEarly morning of April 6th, Confederate forces led by Albert Sidney Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard launched a surprise attackThe Battle of Shiloh lasted two days,Narrow victory for the UnionThe losses were enormous- Together the two armies suffered 23,000 casualtiesThe Union gained control of Corinth on May 30thMemphis fell to the Union on June 6th
12 New Orleans FallsApril 25, New Orleans falls to the Union under David FarragutControlling New Orleans (Mouth of Mississippi) meant the Confederacy could no longer use the river to carry goods to seaThe Union now controlled most of the MississippiOnly the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi blocked Union control of the river and the success of the Union’s strategy
13 War in the EastAnother campaign was being fought in the East to capture Richmond (Capital of the Confederacy)The Confederacy was able to win victories because of General Robert E. Lee and Stonewall JacksonKnowledge of the terrain, speed of movement, and ability to inspire their troopsConfederate forces turned back General George B. McClellan at the Seven Days’ BattleThen defeated General John Pope at the Second Battle of Bull Run
14 War in the East Continued Then General Ambrose Burnside was defeated at FredericksburgMay 1763, Lee’s army defeated a Union army twice its sizeAll Confederate victories took place in the ConfederacyLee’s two attempts to invade the North failedSeptember Lee’s army was turned back at the Battle of AntietamA year later, the Confederate army would get defeated at Gettysburg
15 Invasion of the NorthWashington D.C. was too well guarded for Lee to attackJefferson Davis instead moved onto western Maryland- Union TerritoryDavis wanted to move into Pennsylvania and move the war to the Northern statesIn Maryland, Lee split his army in four parts and moved them in different directionsLee hoped to confuse McClellan about the size and destination of his armyA Confederate office lost his copy of the orders and Union soldiers found them
16 Battle of AntietamMcClellan did not attack immediately, and Lee reassembled his troopsSeptember 17, The two sides met in the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg, MarylandAbout 6,000 were killed and 17,000 woundedDeadliest single day of fightingImportant victory for the UnionLee retreated to Virginia
17 Reason for the Civil War Lincoln wanted to save the UnionAs the war went on, Lincoln changed the way he thought about slavery and its role in the warLincoln hated slavery, but didn’t move on it because of the border statesAt the start of the war, abolitionists (Including Frederick Douglass) urged Lincoln to make the war a fight to end slaverySome argued that 1. slavery was morally wrong and2. slavery was the root of the division between North and SouthTherefore the nation could never be fully restored if slavery continued
18 Make It A War To End Slavery? Frederick Douglas and others brought up foreign policySouthern leaders were trying to get Britain and France to recognize the Confederacy’s independencePublic opinion in Britain and France were antislaveryDouglas pointed out, by making it war for freedom, Britain and France would be less likely to support the SouthThis would help the Union
19 Lincoln DecidesLincoln knew the Constitution did not give him the power to end slaveryThe Constitution did allow him to take property from an enemy in wartimeBy law, enslaved people were propertySeptember 22, Lincoln announced he would issue the Emancipation ProclamationThis freed all enslaved people in rebel territory on January 1, 1863
20 Effects of the Proclamation The Proclamation did not actually free a single enslaved personIt was only for enslaved people in the ConfederacyThere, Lincoln had no power to enforce the policyIt had an important impact on AmericaBy issuing the Proclamation, the government declared slavery to be wrongIf the Union won the war, slavery would be banned forever
21 Decisions made by leaders Battles won by both sides Essential QuestionWhy did neither the Union nor the Confederacy gain a strong advantage during the early years of the war?Decisions made by leadersBattles won by both sides
23 The first major battle of the Civil War was at Shiloh.Antietam Creek.Bull Run (Manassas).Richmond.
24 Ulysses S. Grant David Farragut Robert E. Lee George B. McClellan Who said “No terms except and unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted”Ulysses S. GrantDavid FarragutRobert E. LeeGeorge B. McClellan
25 In the West, the Union goal was to control Texas.the Tennessee River.the Mississippi River.Missouri.
26 The single bloodiest day of the entire Civil War took place at Shiloh.Antietam.Bull Run (Manassas).Richmond.
27 Together the Union and Confederate armies suffered more than 23,000 casualties at the Battle of Bull Run.New Orleans.Richmond.the Battle of Shiloh.