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16-1 Chapter 16 Operating and Financial Leverage © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Fundamentals of Financial Management, 12/e Created by: Gregory A. Kuhlemeyer, Ph.D. Carroll College, Waukesha, WI

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16-2 After studying Chapter 16, you should be able to: u Define operating and financial leverage and identify causes of both. u Calculate a firm’s operating break-even (quantity) point and break-even (sales) point. u Define, calculate, and interpret a firm's degree of operating, financial, and total leverage. u Understand EBIT-EPS break-even, or indifference, analysis, and construct and interpret an EBIT-EPS chart. u Define, discuss, and quantify “total firm risk” and its two components, “business risk” and “financial risk.” u Understand what is involved in determining the appropriate amount of financial leverage for a firm.

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16-3 Operating and Financial Leverage u Operating Leverage u Financial Leverage u Total Leverage u Cash-Flow Ability to Service Debt u Other Methods of Analysis u Combination of Methods

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16-4 Operating Leverage u One potential “effect” caused by the presence of operating leverage is that a change in the volume of sales results in a “more than proportional” change in operating profit (or loss). Operating Leverage -- The use of fixed operating costs by the firm.

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16-5 Impact of Operating Leverage on Profits Firm F Firm V Firm 2F Sales$10$11 $19.5 Operating Costs Fixed 7 2 14 Variable 2 7 3 $1$ 2 $ 2.5 Operating Profit$ 1$ 2 $ 2.5 FC/total costs.78.22.82 FC/sales.70.18.72 (in thousands)

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16-6 Impact of Operating Leverage on Profits 50% increase in sales u Now, subject each firm to a 50% increase in sales for next year. “sensitive” u Which firm do you think will be more “sensitive” to the change in sales (i.e., show the largest percentage change in operating profit, EBIT)? Firm FFirm VFirm 2F [ ] Firm F; [ ] Firm V; [ ] Firm 2F.

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16-7 Impact of Operating Leverage on Profits Firm F Firm V Firm 2F Sales$15 $16.5 $29.25 Operating Costs Fixed 7 2 14 Variable 310.5 4.5 $5 $ 4 $10.75 Operating Profit$ 5 $ 4 $10.75 Percentage Change in EBIT400% 100% 330% Percentage Change in EBIT*400% 100% 330% (in thousands) * (EBIT t - EBIT t-1 ) / EBIT t-1

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16-8 Impact of Operating Leverage on Profits u Firm F is the most “sensitive” firm 400% increase in EBIT u Firm F is the most “sensitive” firm -- for it, a 50% increase in sales leads to a 400% increase in EBIT. u Our example reveals that it is a mistake to assume that the firm with the largest absolute or relative amount of fixed costs automatically shows the most dramatic effects of operating leverage. u Later, we will come up with an easy way to spot the firm that is most sensitive to the presence of operating leverage.

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16-9 Break-Even Analysis u When studying operating leverage, “profits” refers to operating profits before taxes (i.e., EBIT) and excludes debt interest and dividend payments. Break-Even Analysis profits Break-Even Analysis -- A technique for studying the relationship among fixed costs, variable costs, sales volume, and profits. Also called cost/volume/profit (C/V/P) analysis.

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16-10 Break-Even Chart QUANTITY PRODUCED AND SOLD 4,000 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 Total Revenues Profits Fixed Costs Variable Costs Losses REVENUES AND COSTS ($ thousands) 175 250 100 50 Total Costs

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16-11 Break-Even (Quantity) Point How to find the quantity break-even point: PQVQFC EBIT = P(Q) - V(Q) - FC QPVFC EBIT = Q(P - V) - FC P = Price per unitV = Variable costs per unit P = Price per unit V = Variable costs per unit FC = Fixed costs Q = Quantity (units) produced and sold FC = Fixed costs Q = Quantity (units) produced and sold Break-Even Point -- The sales volume required so that total revenues and total costs are equal; may be in units or in sales dollars.

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16-12 Break-Even (Quantity) Point Breakeven occurs when EBIT = 0 Q PVFC Q (P - V) - FC= EBIT Q BE PVFC Q BE (P - V) - FC = 0 Q BE PVFC Q BE (P - V) = FC Q BE FC PV Q BE = FC / (P - V) a.k.a. Unit Contribution Margin

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16-13 Break-Even (Sales) Point How to find the sales break-even point: S BE FCVC BE S BE = FC + (VC BE ) S BE FC Q BE V S BE = FC + (Q BE )(V) or S BE * FCVC S BE * = FC / [1 - (VC / S) ] * Refer to text for derivation of the formula

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16-14 Break-Even Point Example quantity and sales break-even points Basket Wonders (BW) wants to determine both the quantity and sales break-even points when: u Fixed costs $100,000 u Fixed costs are $100,000 $43.75each u Baskets are sold for $43.75 each $18.75 per basket u Variable costs are $18.75 per basket

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16-15 Break-Even Point (s) Breakeven occurs when: Q BE FC PV Q BE = FC / (P - V) Q BE $100,000 $43.75$18.75 Q BE = $100,000 / ($43.75 - $18.75) Q BE 4,000 Units Q BE = 4,000 Units S BE Q BE VFC S BE = (Q BE )(V) + FC S BE 4,000$18.75$100,000 S BE = (4,000 )($18.75) + $100,000 S BE $175,000 S BE = $175,000

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16-16 Break-Even Chart QUANTITY PRODUCED AND SOLD 4,000 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 Total Revenues Profits Fixed Costs Variable Costs Losses REVENUES AND COSTS ($ thousands) 175 250 100 50 Total Costs

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16-17 Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL) DOL DOL at Q units of output (or sales) Degree of Operating Leverage Degree of Operating Leverage -- The percentage change in a firm’s operating profit (EBIT) resulting from a 1 percent change in output (sales). = Percentage change in operating profit (EBIT) Percentage change in output (or sales)

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16-18 Computing the DOL DOL Q units Calculating the DOL for a single product or a single-product firm. = QPV Q (P - V) QPVFC Q (P - V) - FC = Q QQ BE Q - Q BE

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16-19 Computing the DOL DOL S dollars of sales Calculating the DOL for a multiproduct firm. = SVC S - VC SVCFC S - VC - FC = FC EBIT + FC EBIT

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16-20 Break-Even Point Example degree of operating leverage sales levels of 6,000 and 8,000 units Lisa Miller wants to determine the degree of operating leverage at sales levels of 6,000 and 8,000 units. As we did earlier, we will assume that: u Fixed costs $100,000 u Fixed costs are $100,000 $43.75each u Baskets are sold for $43.75 each $18.75 per basket u Variable costs are $18.75 per basket

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16-21 Computing BW’s DOL DOL 6,000 units Computation based on the previously calculated break-even point of 4,000 units = 6,000 6,000 4,000 6,000 - 4,000 = = 3 DOL 8,000 units 8,000 8,000 4,000 8,000 - 4,000 = 2

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16-22 Interpretation of the DOL A 1% increase in sales above the 8,000 unit level increases EBIT by 2% because of the existing operating leverage of the firm. = DOL 8,000 units 8,000 8,000 4,000 8,000 - 4,000 = 2

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16-23 Interpretation of the DOL 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 1 2 3 4 5 QUANTITY PRODUCED AND SOLD 0 -2 -3 -4 -5 DEGREE OF OPERATING LEVERAGE (DOL) Q BE

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16-24 Interpretation of the DOL u DOL is a quantitative measure of the “sensitivity” of a firm’s operating profit to a change in the firm’s sales. u The closer that a firm operates to its break-even point, the higher is the absolute value of its DOL. u When comparing firms, the firm with the highest DOL is the firm that will be most “sensitive” to a change in sales. Key Conclusions to be Drawn from the previous slide and our Discussion of DOL

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16-25 DOL and Business Risk one component only in the presence of sales and production cost variability u DOL is only one component of business risk and becomes “active” only in the presence of sales and production cost variability. magnifies u DOL magnifies the variability of operating profits and, hence, business risk. Business Risk -- The inherent uncertainty in the physical operations of the firm. Its impact is shown in the variability of the firm’s operating income (EBIT).

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16-26 Application of DOL for Our Three Firm Example Use the data in Slide 16-5 and the following formula for Firm F: DOL = [(EBIT + FC)/EBIT] = DOL $10,000 sales 1,000 + 7,000 1,000 = 8.0

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16-27 Application of DOL for Our Three Firm Example Use the data in Slide 16-5 and the following formula for Firm V: DOL = [(EBIT + FC)/EBIT] = DOL $11,000 sales 2,000 + 2,000 2,000 = 2.0

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16-28 Application of DOL for Our Three-Firm Example Use the data in Slide 16-5 and the following formula for Firm 2F: DOL = [(EBIT + FC)/EBIT] = DOL $19,500 sales 2,500 + 14,000 2,500 = 6.6

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16-29 Application of DOL for Our Three-Firm Example The ranked results indicate that the firm most sensitive to the presence of operating leverage is Firm F The ranked results indicate that the firm most sensitive to the presence of operating leverage is Firm F. Firm FDOL = 8.0 Firm VDOL = 6.6 Firm 2FDOL = 2.0 Firm F will expect a 400% increase in profit from a 50% increase in sales (see Slide 16-7 results).

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16-30 Financial Leverage u Financial leverage is acquired by choice. u Used as a means of increasing the return to common shareholders. Financial Leverage -- The use of fixed financing costs by the firm. The British expression is gearing.

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16-31 EBIT-EPS Break-Even, or Indifference, Analysis EPS EBIT Calculate EPS for a given level of EBIT at a given financing structure. EBIT-EPS Break-Even Analysis -- Analysis of the effect of financing alternatives on earnings per share. The break-even point is the EBIT level where EPS is the same for two (or more) alternatives. EBIT (EBIT - I) (1 - t) - Pref. Div. # of Common Shares EPS=

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16-32 EBIT-EPS Chart u Current common equity shares = 50,000 u $1 million in new financing of either: u All C.S. sold at $20/share (50,000 shares) u All debt with a coupon rate of 10% u All P.S. with a dividend rate of 9% u Expected EBIT = $500,000 u Income tax rate is 30% Basket Wonders has $2 million in LT financing (100% common stock equity).

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16-33 EBIT-EPS Calculation with New Equity Financing EBIT $500,000 $150,000 EBIT $500,000 $150,000* Interest 0 0 EBT $500,000 $150,000 Taxes (30% x EBT) 150,000 45,000 EAT $350,000 $105,000 Preferred Dividends 0 0 EACS $350,000 $105,000 # of Shares 100,000 100,000 EPS $3.50 $1.05 Common Stock Equity Alternative * A second analysis using $150,000 EBIT rather than the expected EBIT.

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16-34 EBIT-EPS Chart 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 EBIT ($ thousands) Earnings per Share ($) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Common

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16-35 EBIT-EPS Calculation with New Debt Financing EBIT $500,000 $150,000 EBIT $500,000 $150,000* Interest 100,000 100,000 EBT $400,000 $ 50,000 Taxes (30% x EBT) 120,000 15,000 EAT $280,000 $ 35,000 Preferred Dividends 0 0 EACS $280,000 $ 35,000 # of Shares 50,000 50,000 EPS $5.60 $0.70 Long-term Debt Alternative * A second analysis using $150,000 EBIT rather than the expected EBIT.

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16-36 EBIT-EPS Chart 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 EBIT ($ thousands) Earnings per Share ($) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Common Debt Indifference point debt between debt and common stock financing

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16-37 EBIT-EPS Calculation with New Preferred Financing EBIT $500,000 $150,000 EBIT $500,000 $150,000* Interest 0 0 EBT $500,000 $150,000 Taxes (30% x EBT) 150,000 45,000 EAT $350,000 $105,000 Preferred Dividends 90,000 90,000 EACS $260,000 $ 15,000 # of Shares 50,000 50,000 EPS $5.20 $0.30 Preferred Stock Alternative * A second analysis using $150,000 EBIT rather than the expected EBIT.

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16-38 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 EBIT-EPS Chart EBIT ($ thousands) Earnings per Share ($) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Common Debt Indifference point preferred between preferred stock common stock and common stock stock financing Preferred

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16-39 What About Risk? 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 EBIT ($ thousands) Earnings per Share ($) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Common Debt Lower risk Lower risk. Only a small probability that EPS will be less if the debt alternative is chosen. Probability of Occurrence (for the probability distribution)

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16-40 What About Risk? 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 EBIT ($ thousands) Earnings per Share ($) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Common Debt Higher risk Higher risk. A much larger probability that EPS will be less if the debt alternative is chosen. Probability of Occurrence (for the probability distribution)

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16-41 Degree of Financial Leverage (DFL) DFL DFL at EBIT of X dollars Degree of Financial Leverage Degree of Financial Leverage -- The percentage change in a firm’s earnings per share (EPS) resulting from a 1 percent change in operating profit. = Percentage change in earnings per share (EPS) Percentage change in operating profit (EBIT)

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16-42 Computing the DFL DFL DFL EBIT of $X Calculating the DFL = EBIT EBIT IPDt EBIT - I - [ PD / (1 - t) ] EBIT = Earnings before interest and taxes I = Interest PD = Preferred dividends t = Corporate tax rate

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16-43 What is the DFL for Each of the Financing Choices? DFL $500,000 Calculating the DFL for NEW equityalternative Calculating the DFL for NEW equity* alternative = $500,000 $500,000 000 $500,000 - 0 - [0 / (1 - 0)] * The calculation is based on the expected EBIT = 1.00

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16-44 What is the DFL for Each of the Financing Choices? DFL $500,000 Calculating the DFL for NEW debt alternative Calculating the DFL for NEW debt * alternative = $500,000 { $500,000 100,000 { $500,000 - 100,000 00 - [0 / (1 - 0)] } * The calculation is based on the expected EBIT = $500,000 $500,000 / $400,000 1.25 =

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16-45 What is the DFL for Each of the Financing Choices? DFL $500,000 Calculating the DFL for NEW preferred alternative Calculating the DFL for NEW preferred * alternative = $500,000 { $500,000 0 { $500,000 - 0 90,000.30 - [90,000 / (1 -.30)] } * The calculation is based on the expected EBIT = $500,000 $500,000 / $400,000 1.35 =

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16-46 Variability of EPS u Preferred stock u Preferred stock financing will lead to the greatest variability in earnings per share based on the DFL. u This is due to the tax deductibility of interest on debt financing. DFL Equity = 1.00 DFL Debt = 1.25 DFL Preferred = 1.35 greatest relative variability in EPS? Which financing method will have the greatest relative variability in EPS?

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16-47 Financial Risk u Debt increases the probability of cash insolvency over an all-equity-financed firm. For example, our example firm must have EBIT of at least $100,000 to cover the interest payment. u Debt also increased the variability in EPS as the DFL increased from 1.00 to 1.25. Financial Risk -- The added variability in earnings per share (EPS) -- plus the risk of possible insolvency -- that is induced by the use of financial leverage.

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16-48 Total Firm Risk u CV EPS total firm risk u CV EPS is a measure of relative total firm risk u CV EBIT business risk u CV EBIT is a measure of relative business risk CV EPS - CV EBIT financial risk u The difference, CV EPS - CV EBIT, is a measure of relative financial risk Total Firm Risk -- The variability in earnings per share (EPS). It is the sum of business plus financial risk. Total firm risk business risk financial risk Total firm risk = business risk + financial risk

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16-49 Degree of Total Leverage (DTL) DTL DTL at Q units (or S dollars) of output (or sales) Degree of Total Leverage Degree of Total Leverage -- The percentage change in a firm’s earnings per share (EPS) resulting from a 1 percent change in output (sales). = Percentage change in earnings per share (EPS) Percentage change in output (or sales)

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16-50 Computing the DTL DTL DTL S dollars of sales DTL Q units (or S dollars) DOL Q units (or S dollars) DFL EBIT of X dollars DTL Q units (or S dollars) = ( DOL Q units (or S dollars) ) x ( DFL EBIT of X dollars ) = EBIT EBIT + FC EBIT IPDt EBIT - I - [ PD / (1 - t) ] DTL DTL Q units QP - V Q (P - V) QP - VIPDt Q (P - V) - FC - I - [ PD / (1 - t) ] =

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16-51 DTL Example Degree of Total Leverage EBIT=$500,000. Lisa Miller wants to determine the Degree of Total Leverage at EBIT=$500,000. As we did earlier, we will assume that: u Fixed costs $100,000 u Fixed costs are $100,000 $43.75each u Baskets are sold for $43.75 each $18.75 per basket u Variable costs are $18.75 per basket

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16-52 Computing the DTL for All-Equity Financing DTL DTL S dollars of sales = $500,000 $500,000 + $100,000 $500,000 00.3 $500,000 - 0 - [ 0 / (1 -.3) ] DTL S dollars DOL S dollars DFL EBIT of $S DTL S dollars = (DOL S dollars ) x (DFL EBIT of $S ) DTL S dollars 1.2 1.0 1.20 DTL S dollars = (1.2 ) x ( 1.0* ) = 1.20 = 1.20 *Note: No financial leverage.

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16-53 Computing the DTL for Debt Financing DTL DTL S dollars of sales = $500,000 $500,000 + $100,000 $500,000 $100,000 { $500,000 - $100,000 0.3 - [ 0 / (1 -.3) ] } DTL S dollars DOL S dollars DFL EBIT of $S DTL S dollars = (DOL S dollars ) x (DFL EBIT of $S ) DTL S dollars 1.2 1.25 1.50 DTL S dollars = (1.2 ) x ( 1.25* ) = 1.50 = 1.50 *Note: Calculated on Slide 16-44.

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16-54 Risk versus Return Compare the expected EPS to the DTL for the common stock equity financing approach to the debt financing approach. FinancingE(EPS)DTL Financing E(EPS)DTL Equity$3.501.20 Equity$3.501.20 Debt$5.601.50 Debt$5.601.50 Greater expected return (higher EPS) comes at the expense of greater potential risk (higher DTL)!

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16-55 What is an Appropriate Amount of Financial Leverage? expected future cash flows. u Firms must first analyze their expected future cash flows. greater more stable the greater the debt capacity. u The greater and more stable the expected future cash flows, the greater the debt capacity. u Fixed charges include u Fixed charges include: debt principal and interest payments, lease payments, and preferred stock dividends. Debt Capacity -- The maximum amount of debt (and other fixed-charge financing) that a firm can adequately service.

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16-56 Coverage Ratios Interest Coverage EBIT Interest expenses Interest Coverage EBIT Interest expenses Indicates a firm’s ability to cover interest charges. Income Statement Ratios Coverage Ratios A ratio value equal to 1 indicates that earnings are just sufficient to cover interest charges.

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16-57 Coverage Ratios Debt-service Coverage EBIT Interest expenses Principal payments / (1-t) { Interest expenses + [Principal payments / (1-t) ] } Debt-service Coverage EBIT Interest expenses Principal payments / (1-t) { Interest expenses + [Principal payments / (1-t) ] } Indicates a firm’s ability to cover interest expenses and principal payments. Income Statement Ratios Coverage Ratios Allows us to examine the ability of the firm to meet all of its debt payments. Failure to make principal payments is also default.

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16-58 Coverage Example coverage ratios EBIT=$500,000. Make an examination of the coverage ratios for Basket Wonders when EBIT=$500,000. Compare the equity and the debt financing alternatives. Assume that Assume that: u Interest expenses$100,000 u Interest expenses remain at $100,000 u Principal payments of $100,000 u Principal payments of $100,000 are made yearly for 10 years

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16-59 Coverage Example Compare the interest coverage and debt burden ratios for equity and debt financing. Interest Debt-service Interest Debt-service FinancingCoverage Coverage Financing Coverage Coverage Equity Infinite Infinite Equity Infinite Infinite Debt 5.00 2.50 Debt 5.00 2.50 The firm actually has greater risk than the interest coverage ratio initially suggests.

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16-60 Coverage Example -250 0 250 500 750 1,000 1,250 EBIT ($ thousands) Firm B has a much smaller probability of failing to meet its obligations than Firm A. Firm B Firm A Debt-service burden = $200,000 PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE

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16-61 Summary of the Coverage Ratio Discussion u A single ratio value cannot be interpreted identically for all firms as some firms have greater debt capacity. u Annual financial lease payments should be added to both the numerator and denominator of the debt-service coverage ratio as financial leases are similar to debt. u A single ratio value cannot be interpreted identically for all firms as some firms have greater debt capacity. u Annual financial lease payments should be added to both the numerator and denominator of the debt-service coverage ratio as financial leases are similar to debt. u The debt-service coverage ratio accounts for required annual principal payments.

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16-62 Other Methods of Analysis u Often, firms are compared to peer institutions in the same industry. u Large deviations from norms must be justified. u For example, an industry’s median debt-to-net-worth ratio might be used as a benchmark for financial leverage comparisons. Capital Structure -- The mix (or proportion) of a firm’s permanent long-term financing represented by debt, preferred stock, and common stock equity.

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16-63 Other Methods of Analysis u Firms may gain insight into the financial markets’ evaluation of their firm by talking with: u Investment bankers u Institutional investors u Investment analysts u Lenders Surveying Investment Analysts and Lenders

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16-64 Other Methods of Analysis u Firms must consider the impact of any financing decision on the firm’s security rating(s). Security Ratings

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