2 Literacy Test Region: South Who: African Americans, illiterate whites How: Prevented them from voting; weakening political power
3 Poll Tax Region: South Who: Poor African Americans, poor whites How: Prevented them from voting; weakened political powerHad to pay tax in order to voteAbolished 1964 (24th Amendment)
4 Grandfather Clause Region: South Who: African Americans How: Prevented them from voting; weakened their political powerIf your Grandfather/father could vote prior to January 1st 1867 you could too
5 Jim Crow Laws Region: South Who: African Americans How: Segregated them into facilities separate from those of whites; forced them to endure second-class services from schools, hospitals, parks, transportation services, and so onPlessy v. Ferguson (1896) Separate but Equal
6 Racial Etiquette Region: All, Especially in South Who: African AmericansHow: Belittled and humiliated them on daily basis; made interaction with whites extremely dangerous; forced them to show deference to whites; made most forms of success dangerous
7 Debt Peonage Region: West, Southwest Who: Mexican Americans, African AmericansHow: Forced them to work against their will to pay a debt; made them little more than slaves; denied them the ability to live own lives
8 Chinese Exclusion Act Region: All Who: Chinese, Chinese Americans How: Prohibited Chinese immigration to the US; suspended naturalization for Chinese who were already present
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