3The United States in 1865At the end of the war, Lincoln’s official position was that the South had never left the UnionLincoln’s opponents argued that by declaring war, the Confederacy had broken their Constitutional ties and reverted to a territory statusThe North was stronger than ever, the South lay in ruins
6Hopes Among the Freedpeople Blacks tested their new freedom graduallyMost freed slaves made education a priorityMany left their plantations in search of a family member who had been soldThe primary goal for these freedpeople was to secure jobs and land; they expected a new economic order and some compensation for their years in slavery
8The White South’s Fearful Response The dominant emotion in the Southern post-war white community was fear of newly freed slaves; of rape and revengeAlmost all societal norms in the South had been reversed as a result of losing the warSouthern legislatures passed “Black Codes” the first year after the war to secure white dominance
11The Thirteenth Amendment Abolished slavery and ratification was the first requirement for Southern states to rejoin the UnionRenouncing succession, acknowledging Confederate debts, and electing new state officials and members of Congress were other requirements.
13The Fourteenth Amendment Promised perpetual protection of the civil rights of black Americans by legally defining them as citizensGranted suffrage to black males in the SouthDenounced by President Johnson
14Acts of Reconstruction The southern states were divided into military districts for federal administrationCongress redefined the qualifications for readmission as a state: blacks must be included in selecting representation to create new state constitutionsThe Tenure of Office Act restricted presidential appointment powers in light of Johnson’s aggressive racism and determination to foil any reconstruction process; he became the first president to be impeached
16The Freedmen’s BureauOfficially called the Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees and Abandoned LandsIssued emergency food rations, clothes and shelter for the homeless victims of the warTasked with an extensive education program for the freed slavesServed as an early employment agency for African Americans
17Economic FreedomThe failure of Congress to provide 40 acres and a mule for the freedmen resulted in a new economic dependency on their former mastersLand ownership consolidated into huge holdings and concentrated on one cash crop, usually cottonAfrican American signed work contracts with white landowners to toil under the lash as if slavery still existed