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Chapter 16 The Union Reconstructed

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1 Chapter 16 The Union Reconstructed
The American People, 6th ed.

2 The Bittersweet Aftermath of War

3 The United States in 1865 At the end of the war, Lincoln’s official position was that the South had never left the Union Lincoln’s opponents argued that by declaring war, the Confederacy had broken their Constitutional ties and reverted to a territory status The North was stronger than ever, the South lay in ruins



6 Hopes Among the Freedpeople
Blacks tested their new freedom gradually Most freed slaves made education a priority Many left their plantations in search of a family member who had been sold The primary goal for these freedpeople was to secure jobs and land; they expected a new economic order and some compensation for their years in slavery


8 The White South’s Fearful Response
The dominant emotion in the Southern post-war white community was fear of newly freed slaves; of rape and revenge Almost all societal norms in the South had been reversed as a result of losing the war Southern legislatures passed “Black Codes” the first year after the war to secure white dominance


10 National Reconstruction Politics

11 The Thirteenth Amendment
Abolished slavery and ratification was the first requirement for Southern states to rejoin the Union Renouncing succession, acknowledging Confederate debts, and electing new state officials and members of Congress were other requirements.


13 The Fourteenth Amendment
Promised perpetual protection of the civil rights of black Americans by legally defining them as citizens Granted suffrage to black males in the South Denounced by President Johnson

14 Acts of Reconstruction
The southern states were divided into military districts for federal administration Congress redefined the qualifications for readmission as a state: blacks must be included in selecting representation to create new state constitutions The Tenure of Office Act restricted presidential appointment powers in light of Johnson’s aggressive racism and determination to foil any reconstruction process; he became the first president to be impeached

15 The Lives of Freedpeople

16 The Freedmen’s Bureau Officially called the Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees and Abandoned Lands Issued emergency food rations, clothes and shelter for the homeless victims of the war Tasked with an extensive education program for the freed slaves Served as an early employment agency for African Americans

17 Economic Freedom The failure of Congress to provide 40 acres and a mule for the freedmen resulted in a new economic dependency on their former masters Land ownership consolidated into huge holdings and concentrated on one cash crop, usually cotton African American signed work contracts with white landowners to toil under the lash as if slavery still existed






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