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Chapter 16 The Union Reconstructed The American People, 6 th ed.

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1 Chapter 16 The Union Reconstructed The American People, 6 th ed.

2 I.The Bittersweet Aftermath of War

3 The United States in 1865  At the end of the war, Lincoln’s official position was that the South had never left the Union  Lincoln’s opponents argued that by declaring war, the Confederacy had broken their Constitutional ties and reverted to a territory status  The North was stronger than ever, the South lay in ruins

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6 Hopes Among the Freedpeople  Blacks tested their new freedom gradually  Most freed slaves made education a priority  Many left their plantations in search of a family member who had been sold  The primary goal for these freedpeople was to secure jobs and land; they expected a new economic order and some compensation for their years in slavery

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8 The White South’s Fearful Response  The dominant emotion in the Southern post-war white community was fear of newly freed slaves; of rape and revenge  Almost all societal norms in the South had been reversed as a result of losing the war  Southern legislatures passed “Black Codes” the first year after the war to secure white dominance

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10 II.National Reconstruction Politics

11 The Thirteenth Amendment  Abolished slavery and ratification was the first requirement for Southern states to rejoin the Union  Renouncing succession, acknowledging Confederate debts, and electing new state officials and members of Congress were other requirements.

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13 The Fourteenth Amendment  Promised perpetual protection of the civil rights of black Americans by legally defining them as citizens  Granted suffrage to black males in the South  Denounced by President Johnson

14 Acts of Reconstruction  The southern states were divided into military districts for federal administration  Congress redefined the qualifications for readmission as a state: blacks must be included in selecting representation to create new state constitutions  The Tenure of Office Act restricted presidential appointment powers in light of Johnson’s aggressive racism and determination to foil any reconstruction process; he became the first president to be impeached

15 III.The Lives of Freedpeople

16 The Freedmen’s Bureau  Officially called the Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees and Abandoned Lands  Issued emergency food rations, clothes and shelter for the homeless victims of the war  Tasked with an extensive education program for the freed slaves  Served as an early employment agency for African Americans

17 Economic Freedom  The failure of Congress to provide 40 acres and a mule for the freedmen resulted in a new economic dependency on their former masters  Land ownership consolidated into huge holdings and concentrated on one cash crop, usually cotton  African American signed work contracts with white landowners to toil under the lash as if slavery still existed

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