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Chapter 16 Organizational Culture Nelson & Quick.

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1 Chapter 16 Organizational Culture Nelson & Quick

2 Organizational (Corporate) Culture Organizational (Corporate) culture - A pattern of basic assumptions that are considered valid and that are taught to new members as the way to perceive, think, and feel in the organization

3 Organizational Culture Levels Artifacts - Artifacts - Symbols of culture in the physical and social work environment Values Espoused: what members of an organization say they value Enacted: reflected in the way individuals actually behave Assumptions - Assumptions - Deeply held beliefs that guide behavior and tell members of an organization how to perceive and think about things Visible, often not decipherable Greater level of awareness Taken for granted Invisible Preconscious Reprinted with permission from Edgar H. Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View. Copyright © 1985 Jossey-Bass Inc,, Publishers, 350 Sansome Street, San Francisco, CA (800)

4 Personal enactment Ceremonies and rites (rites of passage, enhancement, renewal, integration, conflict reduction, degradation) Stories (about the boss, getting fired, company handling of relocating employees, whether lower-level employees can rise to the top, how the company deals with crises, how status considerations work when rules are broken) Ritual Symbols Artifacts - Artifacts - Symbols of culture in the physical and social work environment

5 Testable in the physical environment Testable only by social consensus Values Espoused: Espoused: what members of an organization say they value Enacted: Enacted: reflected in the way individuals actually behave

6 Relationship to environment Nature of reality, time, and space Nature of human nature Nature of human activity Nature of human relationships Assumptions - Assumptions - Deeply held beliefs that guide behavior and tell members of an organization how to perceive and think about things

7 Functions of Organizational Culture Culture provides a sense of identity to members and increases their commitment to the organization Culture is a sense-making device for organization members Culture reinforces the values in the organization Culture serves as a control mechanism for shaping behavior

8 Adaptive Perspective Fit Perspective Strong Culture Perspective Theories about the relationship between organizational culture and performance

9 An organizational culture with a consensus on the values that drive the company and with an intensity that is recognizable even to outsiders Strong Culture Perspective Reasons Strong cultures facilitate performance They are characterized by goal alignment They create a high level of motivation because of shared values by the members They provide control without the oppressive effects of bureaucracy

10 Argument that a culture is good only if it fits the industry’s or the firm’s strategy. Three characteristics of the organization may affect culture Competitive environment Customer requirements Societal expectations Fit Perspective

11 An organizational culture that encourages confidence and risk taking among employees, has leadership that produces change, and focuses on the changing needs of customers Adaptive Perspective AdaptiveNonadaptive Most managers care about themselves, their work group, or an associated product Most managers care about customers, stockholders, and employees Managers tend to behave somewhat insularly, politically, and bureaucratically Managers pay close attention to all their constituencies, esp. customers Core Values Common Behavior Reprinted with the permission of The Free Press, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. from Corporate Culture and Performance by John P. Kotter and James L Heskett. Copyright © 1992 by Kotter Associates, Inc. and James L. Heskett.

12 Five Most Important Elements in Managing Culture What leaders pay attention to How leaders react to crises How leaders behave How leaders allocate rewards How leaders hire and fire individuals

13 Organizational Socialization Organizational Socialization - the process by which newcomers are transformed from outsiders to participating, effective members of the organization

14 Stages of Socialization Realism Congruence Job demands Task Role Interpersonal Mastery 1. Anticipatory Socialization 2. Encounter 3. Change and Acquisition

15 Stages of Socialization Realism Congruence Job demands Task Role Interpersonal Mastery 1. Anticipatory Socialization 2. Encounter 3. Change and Acquisition Performance Satisfaction Mutual influence Low levels of distress Intent to remain Outcomes of Socialization From “An Ethical Weather Repart: Assessing the Organizaiton’s Ethical Climate” by John B. Cullen, et al. In Organizational Dynamics, Autumn Copyright © 1989 American Management Asociation International. Reprinted by permission of American Management Association International, New York, N.Y. All rights reserved. Org.

16 1. Anticipatory Socialization the first socialization stage--encompasses all of the learning that takes place prior to the newcomer’s first day on the job 2. Encounter the second socialization stage-- the newcomer learns the tasks associated with the job, clarifies roles, and establishes new relationships at work

17 3. Change & Acquisition the third socialization stage--the newcomer begins to master the demands of the job

18 Socialization as Cultural Communication Core values are transmitted to new Organization members through –the role models they interact with –the training they receive –the behavior they observe being rewarded and punished

19 Assessing Organizational Culture Organizational Culture Inventory focuses on behaviors that help employees fit into the organization & meet coworker expectations Kilman-Saxton Culture-Gap Survey focuses on the expectations of others in the organization Triangulation is the use of multiple methods to measure organizational culture

20 Situations That May Require Cultural Changes Merger or acquisition Employment of people from different countries Reasons That Change Is Difficult Assumptions are often unconscious Culture is deeply ingrained and behavioral norms and rewards are well learned

21 Hiring and socializing members who fit in with the new culture Removing members who reject the new culture Culture Cultural communication Changing behavior Examining justifications for changed behavior Interventions for Changing Organizational Culture Reprinted with permission from Vijay Sathe “How to Decipher & Change Corporate Culture,” Copyright © 1985 Jossey-Bass Inc, Publishers, 350 Sansome Street, San Francisco, CA (800)

22 Cultural Modifications in the Current Business Environment Support for a global view of business Reinforcement of ethical behavior Empowerment of employees to excel in product and service quality

23 Support for a global view of business Create a clear and simple mission statement Create systems that ensure effective information flow Create “matrix minds” among managers Develop global career paths Use cultural differences as major assets Implement worldwide management education and team development programs

24 Clear communication of the boundaries of ethical conduct Selection of employees who support the ethical culture Reward of ethical behavior Conspicuous punishment of members who engage in unethical behavior Reinforcement of ethical behavior

25 Empowerment unleashes employees’ creativity Empowerment requires eliminating traditional hierarchical notions of power –Involve employees in decision making –Remove obstacles to their performance –Communicate the value of product and service quality Empowerment of employees to excel in product and service quality


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