Presentation on theme: "IAS-16 Property, Plant & Equipment"— Presentation transcript:
1IAS-16 Property, Plant & Equipment Objective:The objective of IAS 16 is to prescribe the accounting treatment for property, plant, and equipment. The principal issues are:the timing of recognition of asset;the determination of their carrying amounts; andthe depreciation charges to be recognized.ScopeIAS-16 applied to all Property, Plant & Equipment until and unless any other standard requires or permits a different accounting treatment.
2IAS-16 Property, Plant & Equipment Definition:Property, Plant & Equipment are tangible items that:are held for use in the production or supply of goods or services;for rental to others;for administrative purposes; andare expected to be used during more than one period.Recognition:The cost of an item or Property, Plant & Equipment shall be recognized as an asset if, and only if:it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity; andThe cost of the item can be measured reliably.Measurement at RecognitionAn item of Property, Plant & Equipment that qualifies for recognition as an asset shall be measured at its cost.
3IAS-16 Property, Plant & Equipment Elements of Cost:Purchase price + (Import duties + Non refundable taxes) - (Trade Discounts + Rebates)Directly attributable costs.Initial estimate of the cost of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site in which it is located.Costs that are not Costs of Property, Plant & Equipment:Costs of opening new facility;Costs of introducing new product or service;Costs of conducting business in new location or with new class of customer;Administration and other general overhead costs;Costs incurred in using or redeploying an item;Amounts related to certain incidental operations.
4IAS-16 Property, Plant & Equipment Examples of Directly Attributable Costs:Cost of employee benefits.Cost of site preparation.Initial delivery and handling cost.Installation and assembly cost.Cost of testing after deducting the net proceeds from selling any items produced.Professional fees.
5Practical Example - 2ABC & Co., is installing a new plant at its production facility. It has incurred these costs:Cost of the plant Rs. 250,000.Initial delivery and handling cost Rs. 20,000.Cost of site preparation Rs. 60,000.Consultants used to advice on the acquisition Rs. 70,000.Interest charges paid to supplier for deferred credit Rs. 20,000.Estimated dismantling cost to be incurred after 7 years Rs. 30,000.Operating losses before commercial production Rs. 40,000.Find out the costs to be capitalized as per IAS-16?
6Practical Example Solution Cost to be capitalized include:Cost of the plant Rs. 250,000.Initial delivery and handling cost Rs. 20,000.Cost of site preparation Rs. 60,000.Consultants used to advice on the acquisition Rs. 70,000.Estimated dismantling cost to be incurred after 7 years Rs. 30,000.Total Cost = (250, , , , ,000) = 430,000.Interest charges can be capitalized as per allowed alternative treatment of IAS-23 Borrowing Cost.
7Measurement after recognition Cost ModelRevaluation ModelRevaluationDepreciate costover useful lifeDepreciate revaluedamount over useful life
8Revaluation model Revalue regularly. Revalue all assets of the same class.Revaluation increases credited to:Profit or loss to the extent they reverse previous revaluation decrease of that asset.Otherwise, equity (revaluation surplus).Revaluation decreases debited to:Equity to the extent of any revaluation surplus in equity related to that asset.Otherwise, profit or loss.
9Practical Example - 3ABC & Co., has an item of plant with an initial cost of Rs. 100,000. At the date of revaluation accumulated depreciation amounted to Rs. 55,000. The fair value of asset, by reference to transactions in similar assets, is assessed to be Rs. 65,000.Find out the entries to be passed?
10Practical Example Solution Method – I:Accumulated depreciation Dr 55,000Asset Cost Cr 55,000Asset Cost Dr 20,000Revaluation reserve Cr 20,000The net result is that the asset has a carrying amount of Rs. 65,000 (100,000 – 55, ,000).
11Practical Example Solution Method – II:Carrying amount (100,000 – 55,000) = 45,000Fair value (revalued amount) 65,000Surplus ,000% of surplus (20,000/ 45,000) %Entries to be Made:Asset (100,000 x 44.44%) Dr 44,440Accumulated Depreciation (55,000 x 44.44%) Cr 24,442Surplus on Revaluation Cr 20,000
12DepreciationSystematic allocation of cost to profit or loss over useful life.Depreciable amount determined after deducting residual value.Reviewed at least at each balance sheet date:Residual value.Useful life.Depreciation method.Changes are changes in estimate, so adjust current and future periods only.
13Impairment Assess at each balance sheet date indicators of impairment. If indication, assess recoverable amount (higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use).If recoverable amount < carrying amount → impairment loss.Recognise impairment loss as expense immediately.Unless carried at revalued amount (revaluation decrease).Use “new” carrying amount to calculate future depreciation.Refer to IAS 36 for impairment loss calculation.
14Derecognition - Derecognition: On disposal, or When no future benefits expected from use or disposal.- Difference between carrying amount and net disposal proceeds recognised as gain/loss in profit or loss.- Gains not classified as revenue.- Apply IAS 18 Revenue in determining date of disposal.- Consideration receivable measured at fair value.
15Subsequent costsDo not recognize day-to-day servicing costs of the asset in the carrying amount (Recurring costs).Recognize in the carrying amount of PPE the cost of replacing part of such an item when the cost is incurred if the recognition criteria met.Recognize in the carrying amount of PPE cost of major inspection if the recognition criteria met. Any remaining carrying amount of previous inspection is de-recognized.Derecognise replaced parts (physical or otherwise) if identified separately.
16Practical Example - 1ABC & Co., has acquired a heavy road transporter at a cost of Rs. 100,000 (with no breakdown of component parts). The estimated useful life is 10 years. At the end of the sixth year, the power train requires replacement, as further maintenance is uneconomical due to the off-road time required. The remainder of the vehicle is perfectly road worthy and is expected to last for the next four years. The cost of the new power train is Rs. 45,000.Can the cost of new power train can be recognized as the asset, and if so, what treatment should be used?
17Practical Example Solution The new power train will produce economic benefits to the ABC & Co.; andCost of the power train can be measured reliably. Hence, the item should be recognized as the asset.The cost Rs. 45,000 of new power train will be added to the carrying amount.The original invoice of the transporter did not specify the cost of the power train. Therefore, the cost of replacement Rs. 45,000 will be used as indicative price and discount to year 1, i.e., (45,000/ 1.05^6) = 33,500.It is assumed that discount rate used is 5%.- Revised Cost = (100, , ,000) = 111,500
18Asset Exchange Transactions Acquired asset will be measured at fair value if:Exchange has commercial substance.Fair value of the asset acquired can be measured reliably.Acquired asset will be measured at carrying amount of the asset given up if:Exchange lacks commercial substance.Fair value of the asset acquired can not be measured reliably.
19IFRIC 1 Changes in Existing Decommissioning, Restoration and Similar Liabilities Changes due to a change in:- Estimated timing of payments.- Estimated amount of payments.- Discount rate- Added to / deducted from cost of underlying asset and depreciated prospectively over remaining useful life.- Applies regardless of accounting policy (cost or revaluation model) but implementation varies.What’s new versus the draft?IFRIC’s original proposal was similar except that the changes to the asset cost were “split” into a portion that relates to the part of the asset that already has been depreciated and another portion that relates to the asset’s future usage potential. The former would have had to be expensed, while the latter would have been added to / deducted from the asset’s current carrying amount.Simple example: If the change in the decommissioning liability occurred after 25% of the asset’s useful life, 25% of the asset has been depreciated and accordingly 25% of the amount of the change would have had to be expensed (split into depreciation and interest) under the original draft interpretation.As a reaction to comment letters received, the IFRIC decided to treat the whole change in the decommissioning liability as a change in estimate and account for it prospectively in the same way as for example a change in estimated useful life.IFRIC 1 also addresses the increase of a decommissioning liability caused by the unwinding of the discount due to the passage of time. The periodic unwinding of the discount must be recognised in profit or loss as a finance cost as it occurs (IFRIC 1.8). It also clarifies that these costs are not qualifying cost for capitalisation under IAS 23 Borrowing Costs.
20IFRIC 1 Changes in Existing Decommissioning, Restoration and Similar Liabilities Cost model:- Changes in liability added/deducted from asset cost in current period.- No negative carrying amount possible; any excess recognised immediately in profit or loss.- Increase in carrying amount triggers consideration of impairment. Calculation of recoverable amount might be necessary.The amount deducted from the cost of the asset cannot exceed its carrying amount, as an asset cannot have a negative carrying amount. Any excess therefore is recognised immediately in profit or loss.There is no direct relation between a change in the decommissioning liability and the asset’s recoverable amount under IAS 36 Impairment of Assets. The cash outflow required to “settle” the decommissioning liability is not considered in the calculation of the asset’s recoverable amount, as this cash outflow is recognised separately from the asset as a decommissioning liability. However, some factors affecting the measurement of the decommissioning liability also might affect the asset’s recoverable amount. For example, if the estimated amounts for some of the cost involved in the decommissioning of the asset (e.g. labour, materials) have increased, this also might affect the ongoing cost of operating the asset over its remaining useful life and in consequence its recoverable amount.In contrast, if the increase of the liability is caused by a decrease of the discount rate, the recoverable amount of the asset is likely to increase as well, because there is a smaller effect from discounting the future cash flows in the calculation of the value in use.
21previous revaluation deficit) (except credit balance IFRIC 1 Changes in Existing Decommissioning, Restoration and Similar LiabilitiesRevaluation model:Change in liability does not affect valuation of asset (impact on valuation reserve)Change in liability: indication that asset might have to be revaluedRevaluation surplus(except reversal ofprevious revaluation deficit)Decrease in liabilityProfit or loss(except credit balanceremaining inrevaluation surplus)Increase in liabilityNOTE that valuations may include an estimate of decommissioning costs. Read the valuation carefully and “gross up” for any embedded liability.A decrease in the liability is deducted from the cost of the asset (Dr liability, Cr Asset). As the carrying amount (fair value before consideration of the decommissioning costs) remains the same, the revaluation surplus must increase. Of course, the same “floor” applies to the depreciated cost as under the cost model, i.e. the depreciated cost of the asset cannot become negative. Any change in the liability in excess of the depreciated cost of the asset therefore also is recognised in profit or loss.An increase in the liability is added to the cost of the asset. As the carrying amount (fair value before consideration of the decommissioning cost) remains the same, the previously recognised revaluation surplus is reduced; any increase in the liability in excess of the previously recognised revaluation surplus is recognised in profit or loss. This is because the carrying amount of the asset already reflects the fair value before decommissioning costs, which does not change when the decommissioning costs change. The increase in the liability is added to the cost of the asset. As the carrying value of the asset does not change, the previously recognised revaluation surplus is eliminated and the excess of the increase in the liability is recognised as an expense.Although the measurement of the asset excludes the decommissioning cost, a change in the liability may change the market’s perception of the value of the asset for financial reporting purposes and an entity should consider whether a revaluation may be required. The underlying rationale is basically the same as for the impairment consideration triggered under the cost model.
22Presentation & Disclosure - Measurement basis- Depreciation methods- Useful lives or depreciation rates- Gross carrying amount and accumulated depreciation at beginning and end of period- Reconciliation at beginning and end of period showing:- Comparative information required
23Presentation & Disclosure - Existence and amounts of restrictions on title to assets.- PPE pledged as securities for liabilities.- Amount of expenditures on account for PPE in the course of construction.- Commitments for acquisition of PPE.- Compensation from third parties.
24Presentation & Disclosure - Disclosure requirements for revalued assets:Date of revaluation.Whether independent valuer was used.Methods and significant assumptions applied in estimating fair values.Extent to which fair values were determined directly or estimated.Carrying amount of each class of revalued PPE as under the cost model.Revaluation surplus, including movement and any restrictions of distribution of balance to shareholders.