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Story Board: BRAGECRIM

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Presentation on theme: "Story Board: BRAGECRIM"— Presentation transcript:

1 Story Board: BRAGECRIM
Storyboard – Lifecycle of a remanufacturing oriented grinding machine Phase 0 – Reference model Improvement Phase 1 - Remanufacturing oriented product development 3 4 12 Strategic Plan Opportunities and Idea Analysis Strategic Planning Strategic Plan Project Planning Detailed Design Process Analysis (Simulation) Phase 2 - 1st usage phase 5 17 Informational Design Lifecycle/ stakeholders definition 9 11 1st Usage Phase Product Monitoring and PSS maintenance Ecodesign Maturity Model Application 1 Detailed Design Parts and Prototype testing (Simulation) Detailed Design Make or buy decisions Phase 3 - Remanufacturing phase 7 Conceptual Design New Reference Model with Ecodesign Practices 2 Informational Design Requirements and specification 8 6 Remanufacturing chain Detailed Design Create BOM and items 18 Detailed Design Process and disassembly planning 10 Hyperlinks kontrolliert. Phase 4 - 2nd usage phase : phase Detailed Design Environmental Impact Assessment : main activity 14 Detailed Design Service design 19 16 13 Production Preparation and Product launch : support activity 2nd Usage Phase Product Monitoring and PSS maintenance : main stream 15 Detailed Design End-of-Life Planning n : sequence of presentation Story Board: BRAGECRIM

2 Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning
GrEAT continually controls its enterprise strategy through analysis of its own and its competitors strengths and through analysis of potential market fields and segments. GrEAT has initialized a strategic analysis for the business field of sustainable products and production and has examined the surrounding field and the companies internal processes. Strategic Planning Stakeholders Market information Material product lifecycle Analysis Inputs Situation Analysis Scenario technique Strategic Management planning process Tools Outputs Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning

3 Main Activity 1: Ecodesign Maturity Model Application
GrEAT set up a strategy to sustainability with focus on new products. In order to improve the company´s reference model with the incorporation of ecodesign practices, it is applies the Ecodesign Maturity Model, which assess the current maturity level, define the next level to be achieved and describe the most suitable improvement projects to be implemented. Ecodesign Maturity Model Application Company´s strategy; Inputs Ecodesign Maturity Model (WP07); Diagnosis of GrEAT´s current maturity level on Ecodesign Tools Identification of environmental hotspots P2 Outputs Main Activity 1: Ecodesign Maturity Model Application

4 Main Activity 2: New reference model with ecodesign practices
Considering the current Ecodesign Maturity Level obtained by the application of EcoM2 (Ecodesign Maturity Model) and the company´s strategic drivers and goals, GrEAT established a roadmap for ecodesign implementation. Integrating the most suitable ecodesign practices into the current product development process, GrEAT developed a new reference model for product development to be used in the development of the new grinding machine. New reference model with ecodesign practices Current maturity level Environmental hotspots Inputs New Reference model for product development (WP 5) Ecodesign Maturity Model Roadmap for Ecodesign implementation New reference model with ecodesign and remanufacturing practices Tools Outputs Main Activity 2: New reference model with ecodesign practices

5 Main Activity 3: Strategic Plan Opportunities and Idea Analysis
Now GrEAT employs the new reference model for product development. The decision is to develop a remanufacturable grinding machine, following its strategy to sustainability. The first activity explores and analyzes the opportunities and ideas related to the remanufacturing market and technology, before the development of specific machine begins. Strategic Plan Opportunities and Idea Analysis Strategic plan Information from the market Remanufacturing related technology information Inputs Scenarios technique Technology Roadmap Project Chart Market scenarios of remanufacturable products for Brazil Technology Roadmap Tools Project Chart Outputs Main Activity 3: Strategic Plan Opportunities and Idea Analysis

6 Main Activity 4: Strategic Plan Project Planning
Supported by the opportunity and idea analysis, GrEAT decides to develop a more sustainable grinding machine and the end-of-life strategy is remanufacturing. Based on the new reference model the development project is defined. Strategic Plan Project Planning Project chart New reference model Under Construction Schedule Inputs Budget Risks analysis Cost management Time management Tools Customized reference model Resources Risks assessment Outputs Main Activity 4: Strategic Plan Project Planning

7 Lifecycle/ stakeholders definition
5 The information of the strategic plan is reused and additional information is defined in this activity. GrEAT define the product lifecycle to define stakeholders involved during the whole product lifecycle, from the development to the end-of-life (remanufacturing) of the grinding machine. From those stakeholders requirements are to be deployed. Informational Design Lifecycle/ stakeholders definition Project chart Strategic plan Inputs Lifecycle thinking Tools P5 Outputs Main Activity 5: Informational Design Lifecycle/ stakeholders definition

8 Main Activity 6:Informational Design Requirements and specification
Based on the TRM and specific market and technology analysis some new requirements are defined. Additionally the stakeholders previously defined are interviewed and the VOC (voice of customer) is structured. It is time to analyze the requirements (VOC), which are then deployed and translated into the product main specifications. Special attention is given for the requirements related to the remanufacturing process. Informational Design Requirements and specification Project chart Stakeholders Product Lifecycle Stakeholder Analysis Inputs Market Survey Market Surveys Tools P5 Outputs Main Activity 6:Informational Design Requirements and specification

9 Main Activity 6:Informational Design Requirements and specification
Based on the TRM and specific market and technology analysis some new requirements are defined. Additionally the stakeholders previously defined are interviewed and the VOC (voice of customer) is structured. It is time to analyze the requirements (VOC), which are then deployed and translated into the product main specifications. Special attention is given for the requirements related to the remanufacturing process. Informational Design Requirements and specification Project chart Stakeholders Product Lifecycle Inputs Requirement Analysis We do not developed the QFD - the came from market (avalilability of spare parts, costs for repair, for maintenance, for reman) and technologyrequirements Tools P5 Outputs Main Activity 6:Informational Design Requirements and specification

10 Main Activity 7:Conceptual Design
GRIIM is truly excited with the project, great results are expected. Since the company is referenced as a grind machine producer, they already have the knowledge and experience to define the machine concept with a high detail level. Remanufacturing guidelines and ecodesign operational practices are carefully considered in order to define the better concept. Conceptual Design Requirements Specifications of the grinding machine Conceptual Design Grinding Machine Specifications Inputs OEM Survey Morphological Matrix Functional analysis Morphological matrix Ecodesign Operational practices Tools Function Structure Requirements List P6 Outputs Main Activity 7:Conceptual Design

11 Main Activity 8: Detailed Design Create BOM and items
GrEAT engineers and designers start to create and detail all the systems, subsystems and components (SSC) of the new grinding machine, according to the concept defined in the previous activity. Issues such as modularity, easy of disassembly and materials definition are considered. Detailed Design Create BOM and items Grinding machine concept Inputs CAD/CAE Materials list CAD models of systems, subsystems and components of the grinding machine Bill of Materials (BOM) Tools S2 P7 Item is a generalization of systems, subsystems and components (SSC) . Outputs Main Activity 8: Detailed Design Create BOM and items

12 Main Activity 9: Detailed Design Parts and Prototype testing
Prototype testing or simulation intends to detect and correct eventual failures. But before GRIMM expends money due to build a real prototype they use some analytical tools, simulates the behavior of some items and reuse knowledge registered in the E-FMEA database. Advanced simulation tools are used. Physical prototypes are build only for some critical components, like the spindle. Detailed Design - Parts and Prototype testing This is a support activity that runs parallel to others activities (see overview) CAD models BOM Under Construction Physical Prototype Virtual Prototype Inputs CAE Prototype DOE (design of experiments) E-FMEA List of required modifications E-FMEA Tools S3 P9 Outputs Main Activity 9: Detailed Design Parts and Prototype testing

13 Main Activity 10: Detailed DesignProcess and disassembly planning
The items to be produced by GrEAT are analyzed and the process engineers are responsible to define the process plan for each of them. If a new factory is needed, it is also designed and planned in this activity. For improving the remanufacturing capability of the grinding machine principles of DFd are used to help them defining disassembly plans. Detailed Design Process and disassembly planning CAD models of systems, subsystems and components (SSC) of the grinding machine SSC to be produced Inputs CAPP Simulation tool DFMA DFDisassembly Under Construction Process Plans Disassembly Plans Tools P8 Outputs Main Activity 10: Detailed DesignProcess and disassembly planning

14 Main Activity 11: Detailed Design Make or buy decisions
Since the beginning of the development GrEAT has risk / strategic partners and co-developers. But now based on the rough process plan we can calculate a target cost and try to find out suppliers for the non core items. Detailed Design Make or buy decisions This is a support activity that runs parallel to others activities (see overview) BOM CAD models of systems, subsystems and components (SSC) of the grinding machine Under Construction Inputs Suppliers analysis Supplier definition for each item Tools P8 Outputs Main Activity 11: Detailed Design Make or buy decisions

15 Main Activity 12: Detailed Design Process Analysis
The process analysis and simulation must be performed in this activity. Detail Design – Process Analysis This is a support activity that runs parallel to others activities (see overview) Process plan CAD models Under Construction Process simulation Inputs Validated process Virtual simulation Production process Tools S3 P9 Outputs Main Activity 12: Detailed Design Process Analysis

16 Main Activity 13: Detailed Design Service Design
GrEAT realize, during the Strategic Analysis, that customers perceive monitoring and maintenance of their machines by the provider as a significant competitive advantage. In this sense, this activity aims to design the service that will be offered to the clients during the use phase of the grinding machine, which will be responsible for increase the perceived value of the proposition. Detailed Design - Service design Grinding machine specifications Wear components End of life plan Inputs Web Based Supervisory System for GrEAT Service design reference model Monitoring Plan Maintenance Plan Tools S3 P9 Outputs Main Activity 13: Detailed Design Service Design

17 Main Activity 14: Detailed Design Environmental impact assessment
GrEAT will present the environmental gains of the remanufactured grinding machine to their clients using EPD (Environmental Product Declaration) based on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in order to determine the environmental benefits comparing to the alternatives of not remanufacturing the machine. Detailed Design - Environmental impact assessment This is a support activity that runs parallel to others activities (see overview) CAD models and BOM End-of-life plan Service design Process plan Primary and secondary data Comparative LCA 1: Remanufacturing Inputs LCA EDIP (1997) GaBi Software 2: Recycling Environmental Impacts Tools P9 3: Final Disposal Outputs Main Activity 14: Detailed Design Environmental impact assessment

18 Main Activity 15: EoL Planning
In order to properly offer to their clients the remanufacturing of the grinding machine, GrEAT develops the end of life planning, considering the legal and regional issues. EoL Planning BOM Reman. Guidelines CAD Models Rules Inputs Methodical Thinking Tools Outputs Main Activity 15: EoL Planning

19 Main Activity 15-1: Remanufacturing Plan
Description of the Remanufacturing Planning activities developed, demonstrating the context of the GrEAT company Remanufacturing Planning Remanufacturing factory layout Key Remanufacturing Processes Remanufacturing technology and equipment Supply Chain Analysis Rules Remanufacturing Processes Inputs Layout Simulation Tools Technology Scenarios Remanufacturing Plans Outputs Main Activity 15-1: Remanufacturing Plan

20 Main Activity 16:Production Preparation and Product launch
The design of the new grinding machine and the manufacturing processes are already finished. GrEAT starts to prepare the production, mobilizing all the involved supply chain. The product launch strategy and documentation are established, as well as all commercialization channels (sales force, equipment monitoring and maintenance service, etc.). Production Preparation and Product launch Supply chain actors Remanufacturing factory layout Supply chain representation Factory Layout Inputs Supply chain planning Supply chain actors Factory planning Tools P11 Supply chain actors - Hierarchy Supply chain models Outputs Main Activity 16:Production Preparation and Product launch

21 Product Monitoring and PSS maintenance
17 During the use of the grinding machine, GrEAT will be able to monitor the product remotely on the client´s facility. By doing that, GrEAT will identify the moment when it is necessary to make maintenance, repair or other services on the product. The end-of-life can be determined in advance and reverse logistic is put in movement. 1st Usage Phase Product Monitoring and PSS maintenance Components being monitored Graphics of performance Under Construction Web monitoring Inputs GrEAT Web platform Online support Performance graphics for each monitored parameter Tools S4 P12 Outputs Main Activity 17: 1st Usage Phase Product Monitoring and PSS maintenance

22 Main Activity 18: Remanufacturing Chain
GrEAT will have to develop a Remanufacturing Line, which includes disassembly, inspection, cleaning, reassembly and test to allow the remanufacturing process. Remanufacturing chain Remanufacturing process planning Planning of the others processes required (e.g. reverse logistic) Remanufacturing Supply Chain Inputs Process simulation tool Disassembly simulation tool Remanufacturing Process Tools Remanufacturing factory layout S5 P13 Outputs Main Activity 18: Remanufacturing Chain

23 Product Monitoring and PSS maintenance
19 After the remanufacturing process, the remanufactured grinding machine has a “as new” quality and warranty. It can be commercialized again maintaining the same functions and performance for the customer. 2nd Usage Phase Product Monitoring and PSS maintenance Definition of parameters to be monitored in PSS maintenance Under Construction Accompaniment of product performance Inputs Monitoring of product specific parameters Graphs of performance and wear (to monitor the product though the web) Tools S6 P14 Outputs Main Activity 19: 2nd Usage Phase Product Monitoring and PSS maintenance

24 4. Layouts for activities of Story Board

25 Strategic Planning: Target formulation
Responsible: Seliger (Randy) To set up a strategic management plan GrEAT’s enterprise objectives of the Stakeholders have to be identified. This process is called target formulation and it helps identifying GrEAT’s enterprise strategic characteristics, which are displayed below. Strategic Planning: Target formulation Technological Leadership Product/Service Diversity Geographical Coverage Market Segments Served Distribution Channels Branding Marketing Efforts Size of Organizations Vertical Integration Strategic Characteristics Product/Service Quality Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Target formulation, Sub Activity: Strategic Characteristics

26 Strategic Planning: Analysis
GrEAT continually controls its enterprise strategy through analysis of its own objectives, which are constantly influenced by the power of compete of GrEAT. Again, with the help of Situation Analysis GREAT was able to identify particular Industry Objectives. Strategic Planning: Analysis Satisfaction with product/services received Degree of flexibility Level of automation Sensitivity to customer demands Degree of cooperation between organizations Degree of organizational communication Degree of production leveling Emphasis on elimination of production waste Industry Objectives Difficulty level to accommodate changes Degree of product marketing required ICT/ dependency Need for skilled employees Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Analysis, Sub Activity: Industry Objectives

27 Strategic Planning: Analysis
GrEAT’s first steps were to identify the existing Manufacturing Strategies which are used in normal business environments. By the use of Situation Analysis one of the final results of WP3 was the identification of the different manufacturing strategies. Strategic Planning: Analysis Craft Production Mass Production Lean Production Agile Production Mass Customization Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Analysis, Sub Activity: Production systems

28 Strategic Planning: Analysis
Market Players have to be identified and analyzed. This can help GrEAT to classify the different possibilities of Production Systems better. It plays an important role for the Manufacturing Market, as well as for the Remanufacturing Market. Strategic Planning: Analysis OEM Subcontractor Independent Company Virtual Enterprise Market Players Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Analysis, Sub Activity: Market players

29 Strategic Planning: Analysis
Using the input of the identified strategy characteristics and the manufacturing strategies GrEAT has been able, through analysis of its own and its competitors strengths and through analysis of potential market fields, to analyze their Cooperation and Competition Potentials. In addition, GrEAT was using environmental scenarios, developed in WP1, to picture the analyzed Cooperation and Competition Potentials correctly. Strategic Planning: Analysis Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Analysis, Sub Activity: Prod. systems & strat. Characteristics in graph

30 Strategic Planning: Analysis
The value curve for market players in craft production for market scenario 2 is showing different competition and collaboration potentials for GrEAT. Strategic Planning: Analysis Value curve for market players in craft production for market scenario - 2 Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Analysis, Sub Activity: Value curve for market players in craft prod. for market scen. 2

31 Strategic Planning: Analysis
GrEAT is about to select a fitting manufacturing strategy depending on the Stakeholder Mapping(WP3), which is the evaluation of the market players and the strategic characteristics. The different illustrations of the graphs are then transferred in a table to show the strengthens and weaknesses of the different manufacturing systems according to market players. Strategic Planning: Analysis Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Analysis, Sub Activity: value curve market scen. 2 & evaluation prod. Systems/market players

32 Strategic Planning: Analysis
With the help of scenario technique GrEAT was able to select their Cooperation and Competition Strategy according to Market Development. The different environmental scenarios, which were already developed in WP1, are very important to GrEAT to determine the right strategy. Strategic Planning: Analysis Market Scenario - 1 Value Curve for Market Players Scenarios Market Scenario - 2 Value Curve for Market Players Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Analysis, Sub Activity: environmental scenarios 1 & 2

33 Strategic Planning: Strategy development
After identifying the Manufacturing Strategies and the Industry Objectives of GrEAT, one of the following steps is evaluating those objectives. The following Enterprise Objective Evaluation and Comparison is part of GrEAT’s strategy development to find out which is the best fitting manufacturing strategy for their particular Industry Objectives. Strategic Planning: Strategy development Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Strategy development, Sub Activity: evaluation of prod. Systems & industry objectives

34 Strategic Planning: Strategy development
To find the best fitting strategy for GrEAT Stakeholder and strategic characteristics had to be analyzed and evaluated. This classification also belongs to GrEAT’s strategy development. Strategic Planning: Strategy development Warum erklärt man nicht vorher die Market players und die Strategic characteristics? Market Players fehlt total. Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Strategy development, Sub Activity: evaluation of market players & strategic characteristics

35 Strategic Planning: Strategy development
The next step for GrEAT in strategic planning is the identification of Key Market Factor Projections, which have been already detected in the environmental scenarios in WP1. Through objective mapping of Key Market Factor Projections and Industry Objectives a new step in strategy development has been completed successfully. Strategic Planning: Strategy development First evaluation Market-Scenario 1(arrow), Second evaluation Market-Scenario 2(arrow) Market Scenario - 1 Market Scenario - 2 Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Strategy development, Sub Activity: evaluation of market scenarios and key factors

36 Strategic Planning: Strategy development
Another step for GrEAT’s strategy development is Enterprise Objective Evaluation and Comparison. The Evaluation of the industry objectives and strategic characteristics helps meeting the different concerns of the Industry Environment and the Stakeholders demands. Strategic Planning: Strategy development Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Strategy development, Sub Activity: evaluation of industry objectives and strategic characteristics

37 Strategic Planning: Strategy choice
Following Enterprise specific objective analysis is one of the last steps for strategy development for GrEAT. The evaluation of the enterprise objectives and the industry objectives helps to find the best strategy between competition and collaboration. Strategic Planning: Strategy choice Industry Objectives Enterprise Objectives less important important Value curve for market players in craft production for market scenario - 2 Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Strategy choice, Sub Activity: enterprise objectives rating

38 Strategic Planning: Strategy choice
GrEAT is using the given inputs of the evaluation of the industry objectives and the enterprise objectives to generate an implementation plan as the output. The output shows then the different strategy choice of GrEAT in each case and which is best to achieve for a Competition Collaboration Strategy. Strategic Planning: Strategy choice Differenciate Collaborate Compete Dominate Importance Proximity Market Players: OEM and Independent Company Main Activity 0: Strategic Planning: Strategy choice, Sub Activity: Competition Collaboration Strategy

39 1 According to the methodology proposed by the Ecodesign Maturity Model (application method), it was performed a diagnosis of GrEAT ´s current situation in the application of Ecodesign practices. It was performed interviews with employees from the product development process, from different areas and functions, and a documentation analysis of the process. Each ecodesign practice was evaluated according to the capability level of application. Diagnosis of GrEAT´s current maturity level on Ecodesign Interviews with 25 GrEAT employees Capability: 1 – do not apply 2 –ad-hoc 3 – control 4 – measure 5 - improve Assessment of Ecodesign practices capability application at GrEAT Current Maturity Level on Ecodesign Radar GrEAT´s maturity level: 2 Main Activity 1: Ecodesign Maturity Model Application, Sub Activity: Diagnosis of GrEAT´s current maturity level on Ecodesign

40 Identification of environmental hotspots
1 Since the maturity level of GrEAT is relatively low and there are no information about the environmental performance of the grinding machines, EcoM2 Guidelines was used in order to identify the environmental hotspots that could be focused in order to improve the environmental performance of their products. It can be concluded that the major impacts are related to use and end-of-life phases, with high opportunities in extending the lifespan of product and materials and minimizing material consumption. In this sense, remanufacturing was elected as the most suitable strategy for GrEAT. Identification of environmental hotspots Remanufacturing EcoM2 Guidelines Environmental hotspots Main Activity 1: Ecodesign Maturity Model Application, Sub Activity: Identification of environmental hotspots

41 GrEAT – Roadmap for improving the ecodesign maturity level
2 Considering the current maturity level on Ecodesign, GrEAT defines a roadmap for improving its maturity on ecodesign. In 2011, the company will establish the application of Level 2 practices and integrate ecodesign into PDP (level 3), focusing on remanufacturing aspects. GrEAT Roadmap GrEAT – Roadmap for improving the ecodesign maturity level Main Activity 2: New reference model with ecodesign practices, Sub Activity: GrEAT Roadmap

42 Main Activity 2: Sub Activity: New GrEAT PDP
EcoM2 provided GrEAT with the best practices and tools of Ecodesign to be incorporated into their product development process, with a focus on remanufacturing and considering its current maturity level. The new PDP will be used to develop a greener and remanufacturable grinding machine as a pilot project. The lessons learned will then be incorporated. New GrEAT PDP GrEAT – Product Development Process Ecodesign Practices and Tools focused on REMANUFACTURING New Product Development Process (PDP) with Ecodesign practices Main Activity 2: Sub Activity: New GrEAT PDP

43 Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Strategic Technology Planning
To develop the best strategic technology plan GrEAT is forced to do research about the current state of technology. First of all stands the recognition of technology, which is really important for following evaluations. After evaluating all recognized technologies GrEAT can work out the best Technology strategy. Strategic Technology Planning Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Strategic Technology Planning

44 Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Market Scenarios
Market scenarios for remanufacturing of production equipment in Brazil in 2020 and deriving recommended actions for the remanufacturing industry will be provided. Future developments, trends and disruptive occurrences will be identified and GrEAT will be enabled to prepare for remanufacturing of production equipment. Market scenarios Scenarios technique Market scenarios of remanufacturable products for Brazil Brazilian characteristics Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Market Scenarios

45 Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Technology Scenario Generation
Several steps have to be taken to complete Technology scenarios, which is essential for a functioning Technology strategy for GrEAT. Most of the processes which have to be completed fall under recognition and evaluation. Technology Scenario Generation Key systems and components Remanufacturing processes Key Processes Process Technologies Consistency-Analysis Technology-Scenarios Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Technology Scenario Generation

46 Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Technolgies for key processes
Main important technologies for key process have to be identified for Remanufacturing. After identifying main processes of Remanufacturing they need to be put in order correctly. A last step is matching key processes to the right production level of GrEAT. Technologies for key processes Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Technolgies for key processes

47 Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Key Technologies
GrEAT has to identify important key technologies for Remanufacturing. Already analyzed strategic characteristics need to be classified to determine key processes for Remanufacturing. Key Technologies Angle grinding Water cutting Thermal cutting Seperating by drawing Melting Unscrewing Thermal treatment Chemical treatment Post-Cleaning Quality control Surface and material enhancement Main-Cleaning Disassembling Strategic Characteristics Updating Flushing Electrolytically cleaning Plasma cleaning Ultrasonic cleaning Dry ice blasting Laser cleaning Laser measurement Visual reference model X-ray Visual inspection Chemical inspection Acoustic testing Thermal vizualization Hardness testing Dry ice blasting Grinding Ultrasonic cleaning Chemical cleaning Laser cleaning Wire brushing Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Key Technologies

48 Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Consistency Analysis
After identifying key technologies and their key processes, they need to be analyzed in a Consistency Analysis by GrEAT. A Consistency Matrix helps matching key processes together. Identified key processes of technologies which are very similar are likely to appear together and get a higher rating. Consistency Analysis Consistency Analysis is used to rate every possible pair of Technologies on how likely they are to appear together The Technologies that suit each other well are clustered together and become the base for the Technology-Scenarios Consistency is rated from [1-5] by experts during a workshop 1: total inconsistency 5: total consistency Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Consistency Analysis

49 3 With the help of Consistency Analysis and Technology scenarios important projections of key technology influence factors can be realized. Analyzing possibilities for these Projections are an important part of technology scenarios. Key Factors and their projections are written down in a table and also realized in images depending on their importance. Technology Scenario Key Technology Influence Factor Projection Disassembly depth Low Disassembling Angle grinding, unscrewing Main-cleaning Wire brushing, grinding Post-cleaning Flushing Quality control Thermal visualization, rotation measuring device, acoustic testing Updating CNC update - resource management, part reconfiguration Surface and material enhancement Grinding and polishing Design and technology improvement Wheel redressing Part joining Plugging together, clinching Diese Folie sollte vor die Technology scenarios, da sie die Projektionen der Schlüsselfaktoren darstellen. Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Technology scenario, key factor projections

50 Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Technology scenario comparison
In the end, GrEAT has to realize technology scenarios with the detected information basis, which consists out of the key technology, the projections of the key processes and the Consistency Analysis. (Developed technology scenarios are analyzed for their consistancy with the previosly developed remanufacturing field scenarios. Technology Scenarios Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Technology scenario comparison

51 Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Technology Roadmap
A technology roadmap for sustainable value creation with remanufacturing oriented production equipment in Brazil is worked out. In the roadmap, timelines were estimated for future technologies, and their likelihoods of occurring were established. Through the creation of technology paths, possible solutions to achieve sustainable development and potential conflicts for realization remanufacturing oriented production equipment are presented. Technology Roadmap Main Activity 3: Sub Activity: Technology Roadmap

52 Product Revenue and Technology Lifecycle
5 For Remanufacturing it is very important to focus on the product revenue and the technology lifecycle. Each product has its own product lifecycle and its specific Reuse Potential, which has to be identified before. At the end of each product lifecycle the Reuse Potential have to be compared with technological challenges to initiate a Cycle Economy through Remanufacturing. Product Revenue and Technology Lifecycle Economic Potentials Introduction into a Cycle Economy through Remanufactruing Technological Challenges Main Activity 5: Sub Activity: Product Revenue and technology Lifecycle

53 Main Activity 5: Sub Activity: Stakeholders
First of all, Stakeholders have to be identified. All people who are affected by GrEAT are detected as Stakeholders. Then, each classified Stakeholder will be analyzed again to identify their needs and business interests. All this can be used for a better stakeholder relationship management(SRM) by GrEAT. Stakeholders Virtual Enterprise Service Providers Disassembly Remanufacturing Repair Recycling Logistics OEM’s Machine Tools Components Suppliers Raw Materials Standard Parts Custom parts Electrical Parts PLC Distributors Used Machines New Machines Remanufactured Machines Spares Retailers Main Activity 5: Sub Activity: Stakeholders

54 Main Activity 6: Sub Activity: Market Requirements
A survey of grinding machine manufacturers was conducted to: measure the importance of remanufacturing in the grinding machine market find out how many OEM’s are actively involved in remanufacturing find out which components of a grinding machine are economically viable for remanufacturing Market Requirements List of grinding machine manufacturers in Germany More than 60 companies invited to participate in an online survey Consolidation of survey results Main Activity 6: Sub Activity: Market Requirements

55 Main Activity 6: Sub Activity: Technical Requirements Analysis
A requirement list for cylindrical grinding machines was created. This requirement list presents the technical requirements which need to be available in every cylindrical grinding machine design. The requirement list is defined considering all the major components and assemblies of a cylindrical grinding machine. Furthermore it states whether individual item in the list is a demand or a wish of the customer Technical Requirement Analysis Grinding Machine Machine Base & Work Table Control Systems & Drives Work Head Tailstock Housing S Main Activity 6: Sub Activity: Technical Requirements Analysis

56 Main Activity 7: Sub Activity: Function Structure
A functional structure for cylindrical grinding machines was created. At first, big subitems of grinding machines have to be identified. Then, through OEM surveys and Grinding machine specifications it is possible to set up a Requirement list. Ultimately, everything put together helps creating a functional structure for cylindrical grinding machines. Function Structure S Main Activity 7: Sub Activity: Function Structure

57 Main Activity 7: Sub Activity: Morphological Matrix
It was decided to adopt the method of combining solutions also known as the “Morphological Matrix” as the preferred method of solution finding due to the relative ease with which a concept can be generated and also since this method provides a clear picture of the possible solutions available. Here, the sub-functions, usually limited to the main functions, and appropriate solutions (solution principles) are entered in the rows of the scheme. Morphological Matrix Evaluation Matrix Function Structure Main Activity 7: Sub Activity: Morphological Matrix

58 Main Activity 8: Sub Activity: Sytems overview
Detailed Design: Grinding Machine main subsystems Main subsystems Main Activity 8: Sub Activity: Sytems overview

59 Main Activity 8: Sub Activity: Wheel
Detailed Design: Grinding Machine main subsystems – Wheel Head Main subsystems Main Activity 8: Sub Activity: Wheel

60 Main Activity 8: Sub Activity: Powertrain
Detailed Design: Grinding Machine main subsystems – Powertrain System Main subsystems Main Activity 8: Sub Activity: Powertrain

61 Main Activity 8: Sub Activity: Spindel
Detailed Design: Grinding Machine main subsystems – Spindel System Main subsystems Main Activity 8: Sub Activity: Spindel

62 Main Activity 13: Sub Activity: The System
The system developed allows GrEAT, through the introduction of the standard MTConnect and a proper architecture, to collect data from the grinding machine and use this data to monitor, visualize and analyze a great number of variable of both machine and production. These information can be monitored in real time or/and be stored in a database . The System Main Activity 13: Sub Activity: The System

63 Main Activity 13: Sub Activity: The Agent
The initial screen provides basic information of each machine monitored, such as the machine status, the part counting, and information about the parts that are being made. Through this screen other screens can be chosen to provide detailed information. With this system GrEAT can monitor all the machines sold that are operating. The Agent It can be chosen the screens: Production Process Machine Main Activity 13: Sub Activity: The Agent

64 Main Activity 13: Sub Activity: Production Interface
The Production Screen provides information about the producted items, such as the part counting and a chart showing the good and bad parts percentage. This screen is very useful to monitor the cost and the quality of grinding operation. The Agent Production Interface Main Activity 13: Sub Activity: Production Interface

65 Main Activity 7: Sub Activity: Process Interface
13 The Process Screen gives information about the process, plotting a chart with the dimensional variation and exhibiting data about the cycles and times. Having access to relevant information directly related with production performance was realized as a significant competitive advantage for GrEAT. The Agent Process Interface Main Activity 7: Sub Activity: Process Interface

66 Main Activity 7: Sub Activity: Machine Interface
13 The Machine Screen provides information about the grinding machine, such as the a progressive power bar, a graphic with the loads in each axis and the program identification. Having access to machine operation data can be used by GrEAT to monitor and supervise the machine, acting immediately in any problem the machine can have. The Agent Machine Interface Main Activity 7: Sub Activity: Machine Interface

67 Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Scenario 1: Remanufacturing

68 Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Key Assumptions
Scenario 1: Remanufacturing For the scenario 1, it was considered that the remanufactured product (at the second use) is responsible for 50% of all environmental aspects and impacts of the raw materials extraction, energy generation and for the production of components processes. The process of remanufacturing itself is allocated to the first product, not for the remanufactured product analyzed here, according Wenzel et al. (1997, page 70). The data source were based on primary data for the remanufacturing and secondary data based on GaBi (2007) for the other processes. References: GABI Software and data base (including Manufacturing Extension and Energy Extension) for Life Cycle Engineering, PE INTERNATIONAL GmbH and LBP University of Stuttgart, January 2007. WENZEL, H.; HAUSCHILD, M.; ALTING, L. Environmental Assessment of Products. Boston/Dordrecht/London: Kluwer Academic Publisehrs. v Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Key Assumptions

69 Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Scenario 2: Recycling

70 Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Scenario 2: Recycling, Key Assumptions
For the scenario 2, it was assumed the recycling process contributes to 17% of the steel scrap used to produce the spindle component. Also, the same percentage was established for the recovery of cast iron scrap used to the base foundation production. The process of recycling is allocated to the first product, not for the recycled product analyzed here, according Wenzel et al. (1997, page 70). The data source were based on primary data for the recycling and secondary data based on GaBi (2007), UGAYA (2001) for the other processes. References: GABI Software and data base (including Manufacturing Extension and Energy Extension) for Life Cycle Engineering, PE INTERNATIONAL GmbH and LBP University of Stuttgart, January 2007. UGAYA, C. M. L. Análise de Ciclo de vida: estudo de caso para materiais e componentes automotivos no Brasil. Tese (Doutorado). UNICAMP: Campinas, SP WENZEL, H.; HAUSCHILD, M.; ALTING, L. Environmental Assessment of Products. Boston/Dordrecht/London: Kluwer Academic Publisehrs. v Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Scenario 2: Recycling, Key Assumptions

71 Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Scenario 3: Final Disposal

72 Scenario 3: Final Disposal
14 Key Assumptions Scenario 3: Final Disposal For the scenario 3, all impacts of the life cycle of the components are addressed to them. The weight of spindle and base foundation components, according with the primary data are kg and kg, respectively. But, before the industrial process of machining and processing to produce these components, the input of steel (for spindle component) and cast iron (for base foundation component), from raw materials extraction, represents kg for the steel and 3.524,28 kg for the cast iron. Therefore, the losses during the industrial processes sum 5,01 kg of steel and kg of cast iron. At production of components processes, the mainly resource used is the power for the operations of machining and processing the steel and cast iron parts. The total of energy consumed in the process is GJ. This value was obtained for power analysis of each operation, as facing, milling, induction hardening etc. This is used for scenario 2 and 3. References: GABI Software and data base (including Manufacturing Extension and Energy Extension) for Life Cycle Engineering, PE INTERNATIONAL GmbH and LBP University of Stuttgart, January 2007. UGAYA, C. M. L. Análise de Ciclo de vida: estudo de caso para materiais e componentes automotivos no Brasil. Tese (Doutorado). UNICAMP: Campinas, SP WENZEL, H.; HAUSCHILD, M.; ALTING, L. Environmental Assessment of Products. Boston/Dordrecht/London: Kluwer Academic Publisehrs. v Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Scenario 3: Final Disposal, Key Assumptions

73 Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Goal of LCA
The goal of this study is to compare the environmental performance of the life cycle of grinding machine components according three end of life scenarios: remanufacturing, recycling and final disposal; and to indicate which one is environmentally preferable. Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Goal of LCA

74 Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Scope definition 1
Scope Definition – Product System and scenarios for the comparison Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Scope definition 1

75 Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Scope definition 2
This study was focused on two components of the grinding machine: base foundation and spindle. The base foundation is a component made of cast iron, responsible for the machine support and vibration damping. The spindle is a cylindrical part made of steel and is involved on the tool support and rotation. These components were selected to demonstrate the environmental better potential for remanufacturing the grinding machine, compared to other end of life scenario (recycling and final disposal). As the distribution and use phases are the same for the scenarios, the environmental aspects and impacts of these stages were not assessed in this study. It was only considered the transport activity of the waste to the final disposal. Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Scope definition 2

76 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Resource Consumption
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Resource Consumption Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 1

77 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Global Warming Potential
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Global Warming Potential Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 2

78 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Acidification Potential
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Acidification Potential Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 3

79 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Nutrient Enrichment Potential
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Nutrient Enrichment Potential Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 4

80 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Ozone Depletion Potential
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Ozone Depletion Potential Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 5

81 Life Cycle Impact Assessment - Photochemical Oxidant Potential
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment - Photochemical Oxidant Potential Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 6

82 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Ecotoxicity Soil Chronic Potential
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Ecotoxicity Soil Chronic Potential Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 7

83 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Ecotoxicity Water Chronic Potential
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Ecotoxicity Water Chronic Potential Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 8

84 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Ecotoxicity Water Acute Potential
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Ecotoxicity Water Acute Potential Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 9

85 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Human Toxicity Air Potential
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Human Toxicity Air Potential Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 10

86 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Human Toxicity Soil Potential
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Human Toxicity Soil Potential Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 11

87 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Human Toxicity Water Potential
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Human Toxicity Water Potential Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 12

88 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Normalized Impact Potentials
14 Life Cycle Impact Assessment – Normalized Impact Potentials Comparative LCA Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Life Cycle Impact Assessment 13

89 Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Interpretation 14
The conclusion of this LCA is that the remanufactured components of the grinding machine: base foundation and spindle present better environmental performances for all environmental impacts assessed in comparisons of recycling and final disposal. Some limitations due to the data source and to the focus on only two components of the grinding machine. Main Activity 14: Sub Activity: Comparative LCA, Interpretation 14

90 Main Activity 15: Sub Activity: Remanufacturing Plan
GrEAT set up a Remanufacturing Plan to line up different Remanufacturing Processes. All Remanufacturing Processes put together result in a Remanufacturing road. Remanufacturing Plan Preliminary Testing Disassembly Secondary Testing Cleaning Repair Reassembly Re-Commissioning Image Source: TDM USA, Studer Main Activity 15: Sub Activity: Remanufacturing Plan

91 Main Activity 16: Sub Activity: Decision Tree
To achieve the best End of Life strategy different steps have to be taken by GrEAT. Each part of a grinding machine will be classified into their current condition. Everytime, machine components will be divided into good and bad condition. Value density is extraordinary and some machine components can be split up in good, average and bad. Ultimately, all machine components will be categorized in the four different processes Reuse, Repair, Recondition and Replace. Decision Tree Main Activity 16: Sub Activity: Decision Tree

92 Main Activity 16: Sub Activity: EoL BOM
In order to properly offer to their clients the remanufacturing of the grinding machine, GrEAT develops the end of life planning, which is realized in 3 different Remanufacturing Processes. The final result of End of Life Planning is the EoL Bill of Materials which categorizes machine components to their Remanufacturing Process. This helps GrEAT to keep an overview about Remanufacturing of grinding machines. EoL BOM EoL Bill of Materials Rating results and Pre-classification of components Main Activity 16: Sub Activity: EoL BOM

93 Main Activity 16: Sub Activity: Supply Chain Actors
Stakeholders already have been classified by GrEAT. For each Stakeholder processes for the supply chain are identified to categorize them best. Supply Chain Actors Main Activity 16: Sub Activity: Supply Chain Actors

94 Main Activity 16: Sub Activity: Supply Chain – OEM Driven
Cost-effective supply chain where OEM’s handle collection of used products, disassembly, testing, sorting and remanufacturing Reduces supply chain complexity as OEM’s can use the existing “forward logistics” infrastructure to integrate “reverse logistics” Retailers can collect used machines, disassemble, test and sort cores OEM’s use the existing logistics network with their retailer to transport cores and remanufactured machines Higher willingness among customers to return products when OEM’s are doing the remanufacturing OEM’s have to provide incentives to retailers to do warehousing, disassembly, sorting and testing Lower transportation cost Supply Chain – OEM Driven Raw Materials Supplier Group Standard Parts Electrical Components PLC New Machines Retailers Customers Landfill Recycle/Disposal Recycling OEM Remanufactured Machines New Machines Used Machines Recycled Material EOL Products Main Activity 16: Sub Activity: Supply Chain – OEM Driven

95 16 OEM’s don’t do remanufacturing, instead its done by third party remanufacturers Cannibalization of the OEM market by the remanufactured products Decrease in brand value of the OEM products Reduced warehousing and inventory cost for the OEM’s Reduction in transportation cost for OEM’s OEM’s insulated from fluctuations in demand and supply of remanufactured products OEM’s need to ensure efficient knowledge transfer to the third party remanufacturers to retain brand value Virtual enterprise can play a significant role in networking the supply chain actors Supply Chain – Third Party Remanufacturing Machine Tools OEM Raw Materials Supplier Group Standard Parts Electrical Components PLC New Machines Retailers Customers Landfill Recycle/Disposal Recycling Disassembly Service Providers Warehousing Logistics Repair Remanufacturers Remanufactured Machines Virtual Enterprise New Machines Used Machines Recycled Material EOL Products Main Activity 16: Sub Activity: Supply Chain – Third Party Remanufacturing

96 Main Activity 18: Sub Activity: Remanufacturing Factory Layout
A Remanufacturing Factory Layout has been created out of the identified Remanufacturing Processes and the Supply Chain Models. An optimized Remanufacturing Factory Layout helps saving time and money and makes the Remanufacturing Process more efficient. Remanufacturing Factory Layout WS 1 Protective window WS 2 Protective casing Machine frame WS 3 Table Slideway WS 4 Guiding element WS 5 Spindle WS 6 Drive system WS 7 Pumps WS 8 Sensors WS 9 Electrical devices Main Activity 18: Sub Activity: Remanufacturing Factory Layout


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