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Centre for Ecology & Hydrology - Lancaster 27 th – 29 th June 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Centre for Ecology & Hydrology - Lancaster 27 th – 29 th June 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Centre for Ecology & Hydrology - Lancaster 27 th – 29 th June 2012

2  Historical perspective of environmental radiological protection  Why this has changed - prime motivations  International initiatives in key international bodies  The UK perspective  Comparison with chemicals

3 ‘ Although the principal objective of radiation protection is the achievement and maintenance of appropriately safe conditions for activities involving human exposure, the level of safety required for the protection of all human individuals is thought likely to be adequate to protect other species, although not necessarily individual members of those species. The Commission therefore believes that if man is adequately protected then other living things are also likely to be sufficiently protected. ’ ICRP, 1977

4 “ The Commission believes that the standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk. Occasionally, individual members of non-human species might be harmed, but not to the extent of endangering whole species or creating imbalance between species. ICRP, 1991

5  Human radiological protection:  Focus on worker/most exposed individual  Environment more as a route for transfer to humans  Incomplete ecological information  What’s the protection goal?  Evidence needed for or against ICRP statement

6  Lack of demonstration that the environment is being protected  May not be valid for some environments (e.g. those with no humans)  Incompatible with management of other environmental chemical stressors  Requirement for assessment under some national legislation

7 ICRP UNSCEAR Member States EU recommendations evidence provision establishing standards

8  ICRP 1977 – statement appears  ICRP 1991 – recognise individuals may be impacted  ICRP 2007 – Recommendations include need to consider environment and introduces ‘RAP Framework’  UNSCEAR (1996, 2011)  Reports on Effects of Ionizing Radiation to Biota  USA, Canadian, EU-Projects (2000-2009)  Scientific basis developed  Development of frameworks  IAEA (2005)  Plan of Activities on Protection of the Environment  IAEA Safety Fundamentals (2006)  Principle 7:Protection of “People and the environment, present and in the future, must be protected against radiation risks”

9  Recommends the explicit consideration of Radiological Protection of the Environment ICRP recognised  Need for advice and guidance  Lack of consistency at an international level  More proactive approach needed  Complex nature of environmental protection  Need to develop a clearer framework – C5  Assess exposure – dose – effect relationships  Pragmatic approach  No “dose limits”


11 Planned, Existing and Emergency exposure situations Environmental radionuclide concentrations Reference Male & Female Dose limits, Constraints and Reference levels Reference Animals and Plants Derived Consideration Reference Levels Decision-making regarding public health and environmental protection for the same environmental exposure situation using representative individuals and representative organisms

12 RADIONUCLIDE SOURCE HABITS DATA REFERENCE PERSON IMPACT TOTAL ABSORBED DOSE PATHWAY OF EXPOSURE Application of a weighting factors for RBE & different tissues Compare predicted dose to known biological effects & dose limits

13 HABITS DATA REFERENCE ANIMAL OR PLANT IMPACT TOTAL ABSORBED DOSE PATHWAY OF EXPOSURE Application of a weighting factors for RBE & different tissues Compare predicted dose to known biological or ecological effects & guideline values RADIONUCLIDE SOURCE ECOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

14 For human protection, the reference individuals and Reference Person are idealised models developed for the specific purposes of relating exposure to dose, and dose to effect.  They do not represent any specific type of human being (the reference individuals are phantoms, and the Reference Person is a hermaphrodite), but nevertheless have to be discretely defined to serve their basic purpose. To be consistent with the original concept of Reference Man, a Reference Animal or Plant can be described as follows:  “A Reference Animal or Plant is a hypothetical entity, with the assumed basic biological characteristics of a particular type of animal or plant, as described to the generality of the taxonomic level of family, with defined anatomical, physiological, and life-history properties, that can be used for the purposes of relating exposure to dose, and dose to effects, for that type of living organism.”

15 Considers 12 RAPs (adult life stages) and 39 elements RAPs defined at taxonomic level of Family

16  ICRP, 2003. A Framework for Assessing the Impact of Ionising Radiation on Non-human Species. ICRP Publication 91. Ann. ICRP 33 (3).  ICRP, 2008. Environmental Protection - the Concept and Use of Reference Animals and Plants. ICRP Publication 108. Ann. ICRP 38 (4-6).  ICRP, 2009. Environmental Protection: Transfer Parameters for Reference Animals and Plants. ICRP Publication 114. Ann. ICRP 39 (6).

17  Task groups on  Relative Biological Effectiveness  More realistic dosimetry for non-human species  Integrating the ICRP System of Protection for humans and non-human species  Forthcoming reports  The ICRP's approach to protection of the environment under different exposure situations  The Practical Application of Reference Animals and Plants to Different Exposure Situations

18 United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation  Established in 1955  UN Scientific Committee reports to General Assembly  Assesses global levels and effects of ionizing radiation  Provides scientific basis for radiation protection  Governments and organisations rely on Committee's estimates as the scientific basis for evaluating radiation risk and establishing protective measures

19  As in its 1996 recommendations, UNSCEAR considers that chronic dose rates of  less than 100 μGy h ‑ 1 to the most highly exposed individuals would be unlikely to have significant effects on most terrestrial communities; and  that maximum dose rates of 400 μGy h ‑ 1 to any individual in aquatic populations of organisms would be unlikely to have any detrimental effect at the population level

20 CategoryDose rateEffectsEndpoint Plant 100 - 1000 μGy h -1 Reduced trunk growth of pine treesMorbidity 400 -700 μGy h -1 Reduced numbers of herbaceous plantsMorbidity Fish 100 -1000 μGy h -1 Reduction in testis mass and sperm production, lower fecundity, delayed spawning Reproductive 200 – 499 μGy h -1 Reduced spermatogonia and sperm in tissuesReproductive Mammals < 100 μGy h -1 No detrimental endpoints have been describedMorbidity, Mortality, Reproductive Generic ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic) About 80 μGy h -1 A new statistical approach (species sensitivity distribution, SSD) was applied to radiation effects data to estimate the hazardous dose rate (HDR 5 ), the dose rate at which 95% of the species in the ecosystem are protected Morbidity, Mortality, Reproductive Overall summary of (illustrative) chronic effects data for plants, fish and mammals

21  Biota Co-ordination Group  Revision of Basic Safety Standards  Approaches  Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety  Application  Technical cooperation on wildlife regulation RER 7005 Plan of Activities on Protection of the Environment 2005 IAEA Safety Fundamentals (2006)

22  Safety objective is: “The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation”

23  Principle 7 Protection of present and future generations  People and the environment, present and future, must be protected against radiation risks  Environment = Ecosystems and populations

24  Objectives  Prevention of radiological effects on flora and fauna  Man is an integral part of the environment  Ensure the sustainable use of natural resources now and in the future  Agriculture  Forestry  Fisheries  Tourism

25 Requirements  Consider Protection of the Environment  Registration and licensing  Setting discharge limits  Monitoring  Remediation  Protection of the environment is one factor during optimization in existing and emergency exposure situations  => Associated Safety Guides and Safety Report under development

26  Guidance for the implementation of radiation protection as recommended in the new BSS  Exposures to public  Exposures to environment  How to apply radiation protection principles to exposures of the environment  Justification, Limitation, Optimization  Exposure situations  Planned, existing, emergency  Discuss the application of Derived Consideration Reference Levels => Input from ICRP Task Group

27  How to perform a Radiological Environmental Impact Assessment (REIA)  Endpoints  Models and methods  Graded approach for the REIA  Which efforts are needed for  Small users  Hospitals  Nuclear installations  How to use already existing data for REIA  Data used for assessment of exposures to the public  Results from environmental and source monitoring => Minimize efforts needed for assessing impacts to biota

28  Guidance to derive limits for radionuclide discharges to the environment  Public exposure  Environmental exposure  Facilities and activities  Nuclear installations  Laboratories and hospitals  Small users  NORM =>Radiological impact to biota will be an integral part of the licensing process

29  Euratom Basic Safety Standards  on 29 September 2011 the European Commission adopted the Proposal for a Council Directive laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation [COM(2011)593].  Euratom projects  FASSET  ERICA  PROTECT  FP7 – STAR Network CURRENTLY STILL DISCUSSING

30  Europe: Habitats and Birds Directives  On the conservation of natural habitats and of wild flora and fauna  UK: Conservation (Natural Habitats) regulations 1994  Implements the Directive in the UK. The UK has interpreted the EC Birds & Habitats Directives as requiring assessments to determine that no authorised discharges of radioactivity will impact upon protected (Natura 2000) sites.

31 US DOE facilities are required to demonstrate annually that routine radioactive release from their sites are protective of non-human receptors DOE Order 5400.5: In addition to providing protection to members of the public, it is DOE’s objective to protect the environment from radioactive contamination to the extent practical. Assessed against dose rate limits for different organism groups established to avoid measurable impairment of reproductive capacity Objective: to protect the terrestrial and aquatic environment, including populations of animals and plants within and beyond the boundaries of DOE sites ……



34 Soil solids Soil water M-DOM M-X M-soil M output = [M] aq x runoff M input g ha -1 a -1 H+H+ M z+ M aq

35 Direct toxicity in soil and water: the assessment of toxicity thresholds for plants, invertebrates and microbial processes Higher organism health: comparison with Concentration in food eaten Ingested amount per unit liveweight of receptor species Concentration in organs of species compared to a risk quotient Human health: quantifying exposure to contaminants and assessing acceptable intake values

36  Sweden, UK, Canada & Finland – waste repositories  England & Wales >700 authorisations impacting on (protected) Natura 2000 sites  USDOE sites – assessment is an annual requirement  U industry – (e.g. Canada, Australia)  New build power plants (e.g. UK)  Decommissioning (e.g. Lithuania)

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